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Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials

PRESENTED BY : Dr. Rajesh Purohit

Associate professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
MANIT, Bhopal (M.P.), India


Tools and techniques
Approaches in Nanotechnology
Top-down/Bottom-up Approach
Types of Nan0-materials

The word nano is derived from greek word nanos
which means extremely small or dwarf.
Nanometer is a unit of length in the matric system,

one nanometer is equal to one billionth of a meter i.e.

10-9 m.
1 nm = 10-9 meter

Manufactured products are made from atoms.

The properties of those products depend on

how those atoms are arranged.
If we rearrange the atoms in coal we can make
diamond. If we rearrange the atoms in sand
(and add a few other trace elements) we can
make computer chips. If we rearrange the atoms
in dirt, water and air we can make Vegetables
and fruits.

Introduction (Contd.)
Todays manufacturing methods are very crude
at the molecular level. Casting, grinding,
milling and even lithography move atoms at
macroscopic scale.

In the future, Nanotechnology will let us snap

together the fundamental building blocks of
nature easily, inexpensively and in most of the
ways permitted by the laws of physics.

What is Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the engineering of tiny
machinesthe projected ability to make things
from the bottom up, using techniques and tools
being developed today to place every atom and
molecule in a desired place.
Shortly after this envisioned molecular machinery
is created, it will result in a manufacturing
revolution, probably causing severe disruption. It
also has serious economic, social, environmental,
and military implications.

Nanotechnology comprises technological developments on

the nanometer scale or atomic level, usually 0.1 to 100 nm.

(One nanometer equals one thousandth of a micrometer)

The term nanotechnology is often used interchangeably with

molecular nanotechnology (MNT), a hypothetical, advanced

form of nanotechnology believed to be achievable at some
point in the future. Molecular nanotechnology includes the
concept of Mechanosynthesis.


term Nano science is used to describe the

interdisciplinary field of science devoted to the advancement
of nanotechnology.

A key understanding of nanotechnology is that it offers

not just better products, but a vastly improved means of


A computer can make copies of data filesessentially as

many copies as you want at little or no cost. It may be only

a matter of time until the manufacture of products
becomes as cheap as the copying of files. Thats the real
meaning of nanotechnology, and why it is sometimes seen
as the next industrial revolution.

The power of nanotechnology can be encapsulated in an

apparently simple device called a Nanofactory that may

sit on your countertop or desktop. Packed with miniature
chemical processors, computing, and robotics, it will
produce a wide-range of items quickly, cleanly and
inexpensively, building products directly from blueprints.

Nanotechnology finds wide spread applications
in almost all areas of technology and society i.e.
Fiber optic systems
Aerospace industry
Advanced materials technology
Biology and medicine
Computer industry
Precision manufacturing

Two Important concepts in Nanotechnology

Positional assembly
Massive parallelism

The need for positional assembly implies an interest in

molecular robotics, e.g., robotic devices that are molecular
both in their size and precision. These molecular scale
positional devices are likely to resemble very small versions of
their everyday macroscopic counterparts. Positional assembly
is frequently used in normal macroscopic manufacturing
today, and provides tremendous advantages. The idea of
manipulating and positioning individual atoms and
molecules is still new and will takes some time in getting
used to.

Massive parallelism
One robotic arm assembling molecular parts is going to take a

long time to assemble any larger part? Therefore we need lots

of robotic arms: this is what we mean by massive parallelism.
While earlier proposals achieved massive parallelism through
self replication, latest concept is that future molecular
manufacturing systems will use some form of convergent
In this process vast numbers of small parts are assembled by
vast numbers of small robotic arms into larger parts, those
larger parts are assembled by larger robotic arms into still
larger parts, and so forth.
If the size of the parts doubles at each iteration, we can go
from one nanometer parts (a few atoms in size) to one meter
parts (almost as big as a person) in only 30 steps.

Potential of Nanotechnology
Nearly free consumer products
PC's billions of times faster then today
Safe and affordable space travel
Virtual end to illness, aging, death
No more pollution and automatic cleanup of
existing pollution
End of famine and starvation
Superior education for every child on Earth
Reintroduction of many extinct plants and

The first concept was presented in 1959 by the famous

professor of physics Dr. Richard P. Feynman, in an

American Physical Society meeting at California Institute
of Technology (Caltech), USA on December 29, 1959. He
said in his lecture There is plenty of room at the bottom.
Feynman considered the possibility of direct manipulation

of individual atoms as a more powerful form of synthetic

chemistry than those used at that time. However the talk
went unnoticed and it didn't inspire the conceptual
beginnings of the field.


History (Contd.)
The Japanese scientist called Norio Taniguchi of the

Tokyo University was the first to use the term Nanotechnology" in a conference in 1974, to describe the
semiconductor processes such as thin film deposition and
Ion beam milling, exhibiting characteristic control at the
order of a nanometer.
However, the term was not used again till 1981 when Eric

Drexler, who was unaware of Taniguchi's prior use of the

term, published his first paper on nanotechnology in 1981
in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

vision of nanotechnology is often called

Molecular Nanotechnology" (MNT) or Molecular

History (Contd.)
Invention of scanning tunneling microscope took place in

1981 and discovery of fullerene (C60) in 1985, which lead to

the emergence of nanotechnology.
The early 2000s, saw the beginnings of the commercial

applications of nanotechnology although these were

limited to bulk application of nanomaterials.
Silver nano-platform for using silver nanoparticle as an anti

bacterial agent, nanoparticle based transparent sunscreens

and carbon nanotubes for stain resistant textiles were

Characterization Techniques
There are several characterization techniques used in Nanotechnology:
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Atomic force microscope (AFM)
Scanning tunneling microscope (STM)

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD)
Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)
Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)
Thermo Mechanical Analysis (TMA)
Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectrometer (FTIR)

Lithography in MEMS context is typically the transform of

a pattern into a photosensitive material by selective

exposure to a radiation source such as light.
Lithography is top down approach to fabricate nanoscale

Technique of nanolithography such as:






nanolithography, electron beam lithography.


Approaches in nanotechnology
There are two approaches used in nanotechnology to
design nanoscale pattern:
Nano technology

Top-down Approach

Bottom up Approach


Top down method

Bulk material



Nano manufacturing Top-down approaches:

Lithography optical, ultraviolet, electron beam, SPM

Nano machining
Fragmentation - mechanical milling, spark erosion
Sintering of nano-precursors
Thermal treatment of metals, ceramics, composites
Nano scale robotics
Bio-evolutionary approaches

Bottom-up Approach
Self assembly from


Nano-manufacturing typical Bottom up

Controlled Nucleation and growth- aerosol, colloidal

dispersion, deposition on surface.

Self assembling- natural process in living system and
biomimetics, chemistry/chemical manufacturing.
Templating-Al and CNT, by substrate and local reactors.
Engineered molecules and molecular assemblies designed
molecules as devices or for self assembling.
Bio-methods- selectivity, self assembling, synthetic
Bottom up modular nano systems.
Controlled replicating nanostructures.

of Nanotechnology


Nanotechnology in Fabrics
The properties of familiar materials are being changed by

manufacturers who are adding nano-sized components to

conventional materials to improve performance.
For example some clothing manufacturers are making
water and stain repellent clothing using nano sized
whiskers in the fabric that cause water to bead up on the
In manufacturing bullet proof jackets.
Making spill and dirt resistant antimicrobial, antibacterial


Nanotechnology in Mobile
Morph, a nanotechnology concept device developed by

Nokia Research Center (NRC) and the University of

Cambridge (UK).
The morph will be super hydrophobic, making it extremely
dirt repellent.
It will be able to charge itself from available sources using
photovoltaic nanowire grass covering its surface.
Nano skill electronics also allow stretching. Nokia envisage
that a nano scale mesh of fibers will allow our mobile
devices to be bent, stretched and folded into any number
of conceivable shapes.

Nanotechnology in Electronics
The transistors are made of nanowires

glass or thin film of flexible plastic.

that are assembled on

The researchers used nanowires as small as 20 nanometers to

create a display containing organic light emitting diodes, or

OLEDS. These displays are flexible as well as thinner than
current flat panel displays.

The OLEDS are devices that rival the brightness of conventional

pixels in flat-panel television sets, computer monitors and

displays in consumer electronics.


have recently developed see-through flexible

electronic displays by fabricating fully transparent, high-speed
nanowire transistors. This fully transparent transistor, could help
turn ideas such as e-paper, displays on sunglasses and maps on
car windshields into a reality.

Nanotechnology in Computers
The silicon transistors in your computer may be
replaced by transistors based on carbon
Nanorods is upcoming technology in the display
techniques due to less consumption of electricity
and less heat emission.
Size of microprocessors are reduced to grater
Hewett packard is developing a memory devices
that uses nanowires coated with titanium dioxide.

Nanotechnology in Computers (Contd.)

Nanolithography is now used for fabrication of the

computer chips.
Magnetic nanowires made of an alloy of iron and nickel are

being used to create dense devices.

Chips produced by intel before i series processors

between 65 nm 45 nm.
Later with the help of nanotechnology 22 nm chips were

made which itself is a milestone.


Drug Delivery
Today, most harmful side effects of treatments such as chemotherapy

are a result of drug delivery methods that don't pinpoint their intended
target cells accurately.
Researchers at Harvard and MIT have been able to attach special RNA

strands, measuring about 10 nm in diameter, to nanoparticles and fill

the nanoparticles with a chemotherapy drug. These RNA strands are
attracted to cancer cells. When the nanoparticle encounters a cancer
cell it adheres to it and releases the drug into the cancer cell.
This directed method of drug delivery has great potential for treating

cancer patients while producing less side harmful affects than those

produced by conventional chemotherapy.


Other uses
Cutting tools made of nanocrystalline materials such as

tungsten carbide, tantalum carbide and titanium carbide,

are more wear and erosion-resistant and last longer than
their conventional counterparts.
Silver nanocrystals have been embedded in bandages to kill
bacteria and prevent infection.
Nanoparticulate based synthetic bone formed by
manipulating calcium and phosphate at the molecular level.
Aerogels, the lightest known solid due to good insulating
properties is used in space suits and are proposed to use in
space craft.


Nanomaterials : Having at least one dimensions
less than 100 nm.
Therefore, a variety of films that actually can have a

centimeter and even larger scale of width and length

can be defined as nanoscale materials as long as their
height (thickness) is on the nanometer scale.


Nanostructured Materials
Generally, the nanostructured materials can be

categorized as materials whose inner critical structural

features are in the range of nanometers.
This can include the size of pore for porous materials,
the size of unit cell for those with crystal - like
symmetry, and the size of repeating unit (or
component) for hybrid or composite materials.


Applications of nano materials

To improve mechanical properties.
In biomedical field for drug delivery, cancer

treatment etc.
In automobile light weight auto parts.


It refers to materials whose all three dimensions are in

the range of the nanometer scale.

All particles, regardless of shape, can be referred to as
nanoparticles as long as all three of their dimensions
are in the range of the nanometer scale.
This can include small dust particles, aerosols,
colloidal objects, quantum dots, small metal and
semiconductor particles, and so on.


Nano-Particles (Contd.)
Sunscreens are utilizing nanoparticles that are extremely

effective at absorbing light, especially in the ultra-violet

(UV) range. Due to the particle size, they spread more
easily, cover better, and cost effective. They are transparent,
unlike traditional screens, which are white.
Tungsten-carbide-cobalt composite powder (grain size less

than 15nm) was made by Nanodyne that is used to make a

sintered alloy as hard as diamond, which is in turn used to
make cutting tools, drill bits, armor plate, and jet engine
parts. It has a high potential in industries that makes parts
or components whose properties must include hardness
and durability.

Nano-Particles (Contd.)
Nano particles also find application in packaging to reduce

UV exposure and subsequent spoilage.

Argonide has created rocket propellants that burn at

double the rate. They also produce copper nano-particles

that are incorporated into automotive lubricant to reduce
engine wear.
Angstro Medica has produced a nano-particulate-based

synthetic bone. This novel synthetic bone can be used in

areas where natural bone is damaged or removed, such as
in the treatment of fractures and soft tissue injuries.

There are two factors that differentiate the properties

of nano-materials from the bulk materials are:

Nano-materials have larger surface area compared to
the bulk material, resulting in high chemical
reactivity, enhanced electrical properties and high
mechanical strength due to very low crystal defects.
At nanoscale, quantum effects dominate the behavior
of matter affecting electrical, magnetic, optical and
other properties of materials.


Carbon nano tube

Carbon nanotubes are allotropes of carbon with a

cylindrical nanostructure.

They have length to diameter ratio up to 1.32 x 108: 1.

Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family.

Their name is derived from long, hollow structure with the

wall formed by one atom thick sheets of carbon, called

Even though nanotubes are extremely light and tiny, they

have been known to be hundred times as strong as steel.

This unique strength is due to the covalent bonds that form
within the carbon atoms in a single tube. Nanotubes are
entirely composed of sp2 bonds, which are even stronger
than the sp3 bonds found in diamond.

Properties of CNT
Highest strength to weight ratio, helps in creating light

weight spacecraft.
Electrical resistance changes significantly when other
molecules attach themselves to the carbon atoms,
helps in developing sensors that can detect chemical
Easily penetrate membrane such as cell walls, helps in
cancer treatment.


CNT applications
Easton bell sports, using CNT in making bicycle

Zyvex technologies, using CNT for manufacturing of
light weight boats.
Replacing transistors from the silicon chips as they are
small and emits less heat.
In electric cables and wires
In solar cells
In fabrics


Bullet Proof Jacket using CNTs

Bullet proof vests are designed to absorb the energy of the bullet,

and disperse the force of the bullet throughout the vest.

However, in a regular bulletproof vest the force of the bullet can
still cause damage to the wearer by knocking them off their feet,
bruising the skin, or causing severe injuries to internal organs. A
bulletproof vest made from CNTs superior a regular one would
be able to deflect most of the energy, as well as the bullet, upon
Carbon nanotubes are extremely strong- making them ideal for
bulletproof technology. In a bullet-proof vest, millions of carbon
nanotubes make up carbon nanofibres, which are woven
together to create an extremely lightweight material . The carbon
nanofibres are extremely good at absorbing energy.


Nanorods (quantum dots)

Nanorods are one morphology of nanoscale objects

having dimensions from 1 to 100 nm.

They can be synthesized from metals or
semiconducting materials.
A combination of ligands acts as shape control agents
and bond to different facets of the nanorod with
different strength. This allow a different faces of
nanorod to grow at different rates, producing an
elongated objects.


Uses of nanorods
In display technologies because, the reflectivity of the

rods can be changed by changing their orientation

with an applied electric fields.

In micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS).

In cancer therapeutics.


Nanocrystals absorb then re-emit the light in a different color

- the size of the nanocrystal determines the color as shown in

Nanocrystals of various metals have been shown to be 100 to

300 percent harder than the same materials in bulk form.

Because wear resistance often is dictated by the hardness of a
metal, parts made from nanocrystal might last significantly
longer than conventional parts.
Metal nanocrystals might be incorporated into car bumpers,

making the parts stronger, or bearings that last longer.

Nanocrystals are an ideal light harvester in photovoltaic

devices. They absorb sunlight more strongly than dye

molecules or bulk semiconductor material; therefore high
optical densities can be achieved while maintaining the
requirement of thin films.
Fluorescent nanocrystals have several advantages over

organic dye molecules as fluorescent markers in biology.

They are incredibly bright and do not photo degrade.
Nanocrystals also form the basis of a high-throughput

fluorescence assay for drug discovery.


Nano clay are used in packaging, like beer bottles, as a

barrier, allowing for thinner material, with a

subsequently lighter weight, and greater shelf-life.
Reduced weight means transportation costs decline.

Nano clays help to hold the pressure and carbonation

inside the bottle, increasing shelf life.

Nanocor is one company producing nano clays and

nanocomposites, for a variety of uses, including flame

retardants, barrier film (as in juice containers), and bottle

Nanocomposite Coatings
Wilson Double Core tennis balls have a Nanocomposite

coating that keeps it bouncing twice as long as an old-style

ball. Made by In Mat LLC, this Nanocomposite is a mix of
Butyl Rubber, intermingled with Nano clay particles, giving
the ball substantially longer shelf life.
Tires are the next logical extension of this technology: it

would make them lighter (better mileage) and last longer

(better cost performance).

Nanoledge makes carbon nanotubes for commercial uses, i.e. in

tennis racket, made by Babolat. The yoke of the racket bends less
during ball impact, improving the player's performance. Once
companies like Nanoledge can scale-up their production from
grams, to pounds, to tons, and can do so while controlling the type
of nanotube they produce, the world becomes their oyster.
Everywhere strength and weight are a factor - such as in the

aerospace, automobile, and airplane industries - they will make a

major impact.
Applied Nanotech recently demonstrated a 35 cm monochrome

display based on electron emission from carbon nanotubes.

China's largest coal company (Shenhua Group) has licensed

technology from Hydrocarbon Technologies that will enable

it to liquefy coal and turn it into gas.
The process uses a gel-based nanoscale catalyst, which

improves the efficiency and reduces the cost. If the

technology success and can economically transform coal
into diesel fuel and gasoline, coal-rich countries such as the
U.S., China and Germany could depend far less on imported
oil. At the same time, acid-rain pollution would be reduced
because the liquefaction strips coal of harmful sulfur.

Nanocatalysts (Contd.)
One of the characteristic properties of all nanoparticles has

been used in the manufacture of automotive catalytic


The surface area of the particles increases dramatically as the

particle size decreases and the weight remains the same. A

variety of chemical reactions take place on the surface of the
catalyst, and the larger the surface area, the more active the

Nanoscale catalysts thus open the way for numerous process

innovations to make many chemical processes more efficient

and resource-saving in other words more competitive.

Argonide Nanomaterials, an Orlando based manufacturer of

nanoparticles and nano filtration products, has developed a filter

that is capable of filtering the smallest of particles.
The performance is due to its nano size alumina fiber, which

attracts and retains sub-micron and nanosize particles. This

disposable filter retains more then 99.9999% of viruses at water
flow rates several hundred times greater than virus-rated ultra
porous membranes.
It is useful for sterilization of biological, pharmaceutical and

medical serums, protein separation, collector/concentrator for

biological warfare detectors, and several other applications.


are highly branched, star-shaped

spherical polymeric macromolecules, formed through
a nanoscale hierarchical self-assembly process.

They are man made, nanoscale compounds with

unique properties that make them useful for health

and pharmaceutical industry.
Dendrimers are used in conventional applications

such as coatings and inks.


Applications of dendrimers
Dendrimers can act as nanoscale carrier molecules and

as such could be used in drug delivery.


clean-up could be assisted by

dendrimers as they can trap metal ions, which could
then be filtered out of water with ultra-filtration


Nano Composite Materials

Phase -2

Phase-1 (Matrix)





Nanocomposite: At least one phase should be in nanometer range(1 100nm.)


Metal matrix nano composites

This type of materials contains metal as a matrix phase

and nano materials in the form of fillers.

Ceramic matrix nano composites

This type of materials contains ceramic as a matrix

phase and nano materials in the form of fillers.


Polymer matrix nano composites

Polymer matrix

Addition of nano filler

Increase stiffness

Increase strength


Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed

a coating process to make sponge-like silica latch onto

toxic metals in water i.e. SAMMS nanocomposite (SelfAssembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports).

Toyota started using nanocomposites in a bumper that

makes it 60% lighter and twice as resistant to denting

and scratching in 2001. It is likely be used on other GM
and Toyota models soon, and in other areas of their
vehicles, as well as the other auto manufactures,
lowering weight, increasing mileage, and creating
longer-lasting automobiles.

Nano-Composites for automobiles

We at MANIT have developed various auto parts like

Cams, Gears, Connecting rods, Pistons etc. using

Aluminum matrix Nano Composites. We have used
Nano SiC, Nano Al2O3 as reinforcement.

are also developing Polymer matrix nano

composites for various automotive applications like
Oil tank, wheel rim, steering wheel, side mirror etc.


Self Replication Systems

A crucial objective of nanotechnology is to make

products inexpensively.

If we are to use positional assembly of molecular parts

to efficiently build large structures (kilograms or more)

then we will have to use some form of massive

One robotic arm would take forever to build a

kilogram-sized object one molecular part at a time, so

we'll need huge numbers of robotic arms working

Drawbacks of Nanotechnology
Nanoparticle can get into the body through the skin, lungs,

and digestive system, thus creating free radicals that can

cause cell damage.
Once nanoparticles are in the blood stream, they will be
able to cross the blood brain barrier.
The most dangerous nano application use for military
purposes is the nano-bomb that contain engineered self
multiplying deadly viruses that can continue to wipe out a
community, country or even civilization.
Nanobots because of their replicating behavior can be a big

Nanotechnology is a vastly growing area and has high

potential for research and development work.

The nanotechnology is leading to a technical revolution in

the new millennium. All sectors of the economy and society

will be profoundly influenced and altered by

Important developments in the area of Nanomaterials viz.

Nanocomposites, nano-crystals, nanoparticles, nanofibers,

nano-clays, nanotubes, nano-filter etc. have been presented.

The self-replication objective of nanotechnology has been

analyzed. Self-replication is an effective route to truly lower

the cost of manufacturing.

A. G. Mamalis, Recent advances in nanotechnology, Journal of Materials
Processing Technology, Vol. 181, 2007.
V. Viswanathan, T. Laha, K. Balani, A. Agarwal and S. Seal, Challenges
and advances in nanocomposite processing techniques, Materials Science
and Engineering: R: Reports, Volume 54, Issues 5-6, 2006.
Steffi Friedrichs and Jurgen Schulte, Environmental, health and safety
aspects of nanotechnologyimplications for the R&D in (small)

companies, Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, Volume 8,

Issues 1-2, 2007.
Ivano Beltrami, Cdric Joseph, Reymond Clavel, Jean-Philippe Bacher and
Stefano Bottinelli, Micro- and nanoelectric-discharge machining, Journal
of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 149, Issues 1-3, 10 June 2004.
Hocken, Robert J., Miller, Jimmie A., Nanotechnology and its impact on
manufacturing, Japan - USA Symposium on Flexible Automation Part 1,
1992 July, New York, NY: ASME; 1992, Precision Engineering, Volume 15,
Issue 3, 1993.
Ralph C. Merkle, NASA and self Replicating Systems, Foresight Update,
No. 9, June 1990.

Nanotechnology Initiative at MANIT Bhopal:

Recently we have organized a short term training program

on Nanomanufacturing and Nanotechnology from

21th to 25th December 2015 which was very successful.
The Nano Science and Engineering Centre is being
developed at MANIT Bhopal and PhD admissions are open
in this centre.
We have developed Nano Composite Lab. in Mechanical
Engg. Dept. where we have facility for development of both
Polymer and Metal matrix Nano composites and testing of
their mechanical properties.
An M. Tech. Programme in Nanotechnology is already
running in the Physics Dept.