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NTF :)

Theory- organized system of accepted knowledge


that is composed of concepts, propositions,
definitions, and assumptions intended to explain a
set of fact, event or phenomena.
*components of theory
Concept- idea
Propositions- relationship of different concepts
Definition-various descriptions
Assumption- relationship or connection of factual
concepts or phenomena
Nursing theory- group of interrelated concepts that
are developed from various studies of disciplines
and related experiences
Meleis- who defined nursing theory as an articulated
and communicated
*components of a theory by barnum(1994)
Context- resembles environment to which nursing
act takes place
Content- subject of the theory
Process- method by which nurse acts in using
nursing theory
*metaparadigm of nursing
Person- the recipient of nursing cares
Environment- external and internal aspects
Health- holistic level of wellness
Nursing- nurse rendering care
Metaparadigm- meta, greek which means with and
paradigmis pattern
It embodies the knowledge base, theory,
philosophy, research, practice, and educational
experience
Highest level of knowledge
*different types of theories (dickoff and james,
1968)
Descriptive (factor isolating) - to know the
properties and workings of a discipline, primary
level of theory development ,they identify and
describe major concepts of phenomena
Explanatory(factor relating)- to examine how
properties relate and thus affect the discipline, aim
to provide information on how and why concepts
are related.
Predictive(situation relating) calculate the
relationships between properties and how they
occur
Prescriptive(situation producing) to identify under
which conditions relations occur
*characteristics of theory

- correlate concepts, logical in nature, generally


broad in nature
*philosophy in nursing
Next to knowledge level after paradigm
*concepts- building blocks of theories
Abstract concepts- indirectly observed or
intangible(love, cafe, freedom)
Concrete concepts-directly observed or
tangible(nurse, mother, pain)
Conceptual definition- how a certain theory or
relevant literature perceives it to be
Operational definition- word based on the
method of how it was measured or how the
person come up with that perception
*conceptual framework- structure of concepts
or theories which are pulled together as a map
for the study
*theoretical framework- structure of concepts
which exist or tested in the literature a
readymade map for the study
*science- study of the natural world
*knowledge- information skills, expertise,
acquired by a person through various life
experiences , abstract or workable
understanding of a subject or idea
- perception, achieving understanding of
sensory data
-association , combining two or more
concepts/ideas to form a new concept
-learning, acquiring experience, skills,
information and values
-reasoning , mental process of seeking
conclusions through reason
-communication, transferring data from sender
to receiver using different mediums or tools of
communication
^sources
Traditional knowledge- nursing practice passed
down through generation to generation
Authoritative knowledge- idea by a person of
authority which is perceived as true because of
his or her expertise
Scientific knowledge- which came from a
scientific method through research
*phenomenon- empirial data that can be
observed
*conceptual models- derived from persons own
point of view.
*paradigms- conceptual model / model
*Induction- a type of reasoning that uses
specific details to form a general concusion
*deduction- type of reasoning wherein general
conclusions are made based from specific
concepts
*nursing developmental theory
Education- primarily used to developed and
guide nursing eduation in universities and
institutions

Research- was inspired from different


theoritical assumptions or conceptual
frameworks in the past
Clinical practice- nurses ability is enriched
through the help of different nursing theories.
*4 ways of knowing (carper)
-empirical, scientific discipline of nursing
(training or learning about facts) (scientific
method, experimental investigation, evidence
based practice, conceptual
knowledge,research)
-ethical,moral directions of nursing (what is
good or bad) (morality, beneficence, whistle
blowing, advocate, abortion)
-personal,method by which nurses approach
their patients (realizing, meeting and defining
real true self) (consciousness, self awareness,
perception, identity, reflection)
-Esthetics/aesthetics, deals with emphatic
aspect of nursing(felings, attitudes, points of
view)
(understanding, compassion, creativity,
emphaty,kindness)
*nursing theories
grand theories- broadest in scope
- neumans system model theory, orems self
care , roy adaptation model
-all inclusive conceptual structures , abstract,
including diff. Perspective view, person, health,
& environment
middle range- narrower and detailed focus
compared to grand t. least abstract level of
theoreticel knowledge
-specific to nursing practice and specify the
area of practice ,age range of the patient,
nursing action , intervention or proposed
outcome
- hildegard peplau, psychodynamic in nursing
-joyce travelbee, human to human relationship
model
- Madeleine leininger, transcultural theory in
nursing
-margaret newman, model of health
micro range theories- most concrete and
narrow in scope
- most concrete and most specific that can be
observed in nursing practice
*non nursing theories
change theory-kurt lewin is considerd to be the
father of social psychology
Lewins theory states behaivor as a dynamic
balance of forces working in opposing
directions

Unfreezing- let goto an old pattern , necessary


to overcome the strains
Developmental theory- psychosocial by Erick
Erickson
Psychosexual- Sigmund freud
Cognitive- jean piaget
Moral-lawrence kolhberg
Clarity- is the theory clearly stated?
-how clear is the theory?
-is it understood?
Simplicity- how simple is the theory?
Generality- how brad is the theory?
Empirical precision- is the theory testable?
How accessible is the theory?
Deliverable consequences- how important is
the theory?
Does the theory have a significant contribution
to nursing knowledge?
*moral development
Obedience/punish
ment

infancy

Self interest

Pre school

Conformity & inter


personal accord
Authority & social
order

School age

Social contact

teens

Universal
principles

adulthood

*stages
freezing- standard operation procedure
Infancy

Erick
erickson
Trust vs

School age

Sigmun
d freud
Oral

No
difference
between
doing d
right thing
& avoiding
punishment
Interest
shifts to
rewards
rather than
punishment
Good/bad
boy/girl
Orientation
toward
fixed rules
Mutual
benefit,
reciprocity,
morally
right &
legally right
are not
always the
same
Morality is
based on
principles
that
transcend
mutual
benefit

Jean piaget
sensorimot

Lewin
kolhberg

birth 01y.o.
Toddler
hood
1-3y.o.
Presch
ool 3-6
y.o.
School
age 6-

mistrust
Autono
my vs
same &
doubt
Initiativ
e vs
guilt
Industry
vs

or

12 y.o.

anal

Sensorimot
or

preconvent
Adoles
ional
cents
12-18

phallic

Preoperatio
nal(precon
ceptual)
Concentrat
e

Preconvent
ional

latency

Convention
al

inferiorit
y
Identity
vs role
diffusio
n(confu
sion)

operations
genital

Formal
operations

postconve
ntional