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Subject Code : BT0039 Assignment No: 01

Subject Name: Mathematics


Marks: 60
Credits: 4 BKID: B0675

Q.1 If U = {1,2,3,4,……} , P={2,4,6,…..} and Q = {1,3,5,…..} Verify De Morgan’s laws.

Ans. Given that:

U = {1, 2, 3, …………}
A = {2, 4, 6, …………}
B = {1, 3, 5, …………}

Now
c
A = {1, 3, 5, …………}
c
B = {2, 4, 6, …………}

c c
A U B = {1, 3, 5, …………} U {2, 4, 6, …………} = {1, 2, 3, …………}= A U B = U

A∩B=ф

c
(A ∩ B) = U
c c c
Therefore, (A ∩ B) = A U B
Now

AUB=U

c c
(A U B) = U = ф
c c
A ∩ B = {1, 3, 5, …………}∩ {2, 4, 6, …………}= ф

c c c
Therefore, (A U B) = A ∩ B
Hence De Morgan’s laws verified.

Q.2 Show that p∧(~p∨~q) is neither a tautology nor a contradiction.

Ans.
P q ~P ~q ~Pv~q P ^ (~ P v ~ q)
T T F F F F
T F F T T T
F T T F T F
F F T T T F

This truth table shows that p ∧(~p∨~q) is neither a tautology nor a contradiction.
Q.3 Prove that a non-empty subset H of a group G is a subgroup of 〈G,∗ 〉 if and only if for any pair
of elements a, b∈H ⇒ a∗b-1∈H.

Ans. Proof:
Let <H,*> be a subgroup of <G,*>

To prove that ∀ a, b ∈ H, a * b-1 ∈ H

∀ a, b ∈ H, hence b-1∈ H (according to inverse law <H, *>)

a * b-1 ∈ H (according to closure law <H,*> then

∀ a, b ∈ H, a * b-1 ∈ H
Q.4 Prove that in any group G the number of points of odd degree is even.

Ans. Proof:
Let V1, V2, V3, …… VK denotes the points of odd degree and W1, W2, W3, ……..Wm denotes
the points of even degree in G.
By theorem
∑ deg Vi= 2q
i
Here
k m
∑ deg Vi + ∑ deg Wi = 2q
i=1 i=1
Which is even.
Further m
∑ deg Wi is even.
i=1
Hence k
∑ deg Vi is also even
i=1
But deg Vi si odd for each i.
Hence k must be even.
i.e. In any graph G the number of points of odd degree is even.

Q.5 Calculate the median for the following distribution


Marks 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70
frequency 6 10 40 20 10
Ans.

Marks Frequency Commutative Frequency (C.F.)


20 - 30 6 6
30 - 40 10 16
40 - 50 40 56
50 - 60 20 76
60 - 70 10 86
Since N = 86

So N/2 = 86/2 = 43, Therefore median class is 40 – 50.

L = 40, f = 40, h = 10, c = 10

Therefore, Median = L + (h/f) * (N/2 – c)


= 40 + (10/40) * (43-10)
= 40 + (10/40) * 33
= 40+33/4 = (160+33)/4=193/4 = 48.25

Q.6 A box contains 7 red, 6 white, and 5 blue balls. How many selections of 3 balls can be made so
that
(a) All the three are red (b) none is red (c) one is of each colors.

Ans. 1. The probability of 3 red color = 7C3


18C3
= 7*6*5
18*17*16
= 15
816
2. The probability of none is red = 1 – 35
816
= 781
816
3. The probability of different color = 7C1 * 6C1 * 5C1
18C3
=7*6*5
18 * 17 * 16
= 35
816
Subject Code : BT0039 Assignment No: 02
Subject Name: Mathematics
Marks: 60
Credits: 4 BKID: B0675

Q.1 One card is drawn from a well-shuffled pack of playing cards. Find the probability that the card
drawn is
(a) Is a heart (b) is a king (c) belongs to red suit
(d) Is a king or a queen (e) is a king or a heart.

Ans. A pack of playing cards has 52 cards. There are four suits, namely: Spade, Club, Heart and
Diamond (Dice). In each suit, there are 13 denominations – Ace (1), 2, ……. 10, Jack, Queen and King.
A card selected at random may be any one of the 52 cards. Therefore, there are 52 equally likely,
mutually exclusive and exhaustive outcomes:-
Let events A, B, C, D and E are:-
A. Selected card is a Heart.
B. Selected card is a King.
C. Selected card belongs to red Suits.
D. Selected card is King or Queen.
E. Selected card is King of Heart.

A. There are thirteen Hearts in a pack. Therefore, 13 outcomes are favorable to event A.
Therefore P(A) = 13/52 = ¼
B. There are four Kings in a pack. Therefore, 4 outcomes are favorable to event B.
Therefore P(B) = 4/52 = 1/13
C. There are thirteen Hearts and thirteen Diamonds in a pack. Therefore, 26 outcomes are favorable
to event C.
Therefore P(C) = 26/52 = ½
D. There are four Kings and 4 Queens in a pack. Therefore, 8 outcomes are favorable to event D.
Therefore P(D) = 8/52 = 2/13

E. There are four Kings and thirteen Hearts in a pack. Among this one card is Heart – King. Therefore,
(4+13-1)=16 outcomes are favorable to event E.
Therefore P(E) = 16/52 = 4/13
Q2. (a) Find x given that
 5π   4π  2  5π  2  7π 
x sin 2   ⋅ sec 2   = cos   ⋅ cot  
 3   3   4   4 

Ans. sin 5π/3 = sin300o = sin (360o-60o) = - sin60o = - √3/2


Sec4π/3= sec240o = sec (180o+60o) = - sec60o = -2
cos 5π/4 = cos225o = cos(180o+45o) = - cos45o = - 1/√2
cosec4π/3= cosec240o = cosec (180o+60o) = - cosec60o = -2/√3
cot 7π/4 = cos315o = cos(360o-45o) = - cot45o = - 1
tan 5π/3 = tan300o = tan (360o-60o) = - tan60o = - √3

Then the given equation is


x (- √3/2)2.*(-2)2 = (- 1/√2)2*(-2/√3)2*(-1)2*(-√3)2
x* ¾ * 4 = ½ * 4/3 * 3
3x = 2
x = 2/3
sin 135 + cos 480
(b) Show that =3−2 2
sin 135 − cos 480

Ans. sin135o = sin (180o -45o) = sin45o = 1/√2


Cos480o = Cos (6*90o- 60o) = - cos60o = - ½

From the given equation:-


L.H.S =
[1/√2 + (-½)]/[1/√2 - (-½)] = [1/√2 -½]/[1/√2 + ½] = [(2- √2)/2√2]/[(2+√2)]/2√2
= (2- √2)/ (2+ √2)
Factorizing this equation we get:
[(2- √2)/ (2+ √2)] * (2- √2)/(2- √2) = (4+2-2 √2)/4-2 = (6-2√2)/2 = 2(3- √2)/2 = 3- √2 = R.H.S.

sin θ
Q.3 Evaluate θlt→0 = 1 where θ is measured in radians
θ

Ans. considering a circle whose centre is o and radius is r. marking the point A and B on the circle
such that <AOB = Ө radians less than π/2. Joining OA, OB and AB. At A drawing a tangent to the circle
to cut OB produced at C. Drawing BN ┴ OA.
Now,
Area of ∆OAB = ½ OA*BN
= ½ OA* OB sin Ө since sin Ө = BN/OB
= ½ r*r sin Ө
= ½ r2 sin Ө
Area of the sector OAB = ½ r2 Ө
Area of the ∆OAC = ½ OA * AC
= ½ OA * OA tan Ө since tan Ө= AC/OA
= ½ r * r tan Ө
= ½ r2 tan Ө
Now, Area of ∆OAB < area of sector OAB < area of ∆OAC
i.e. ½ r2 sin Ө< ½ r2 Ө < ½ r2 tan Ө
i.e. sin Ө < Ө < tan Ө (dividing by ½ r2)
Now dividing throughout by sin Ө
1 < Ө/ sin Ө < 1/ cos Ө
Taking reciprocals, 1> sinӨ/ Ө > cos Ө/ Ө
Since sinӨ/ Ө lies between 1 and cosӨ, sinӨ/ Ө also tends to 1 as Ө -> 0.

sin θ
So, θlt =1
→0 θ

Q.4 (i) Find the derivative of e5x from the definition

Ans. Let x∈R, we have


F(x+h) – f(x) = e5(x+h) – e5x
H h
= e5x * e5h – e5x
h
= e5x(e5h – 1)
h
= e5x(1 + 5h + 25 h2 + ……………)
2!
h
So that,
Lim f(x+h) – f(x) = lim e5x(5h + 25 h2 + ……………)
h 0 h 0 2!
h
= lim e5xh(5 + 25 h + ……………)
h 0 2!
h
5x
= 5e
(ii) Differentiate the following with respect to x
(a) (cos −1 x )
2
(b) sin 2 ( x 2 + x +1)

Ans.

∫cos
n
Q.5 Derive the reduction formula for x dx
Ans. Let In =

∫ cos
where n is a positive integer.
In = ∫ (cos x) dx * cosxdx
n −1

Integrating by parts we get,


= ( cos n −1 x )(sinx) - ∫ (n − 1)(cos x)(− sin x )(sin x) dx
n−2

= ( cos n −1 x )(sinx) – (n-1) ∫ (cos x)(1 − cos x) dx


n−2

n−2
2

= ( cos n −1 x )(sinx) + (n-1) ∫ cos xdx − ( n − 1) ∫ cos xdx


n

= ( cos n −1 x )(sinx) + (n-1) In-1 – (n-1) In


Rearranging the terms, we get
(cos n −1 x )(sin x) n − 1
In = + In-2
n n
1 π α 
If tan(θ + iφ ) = ei , show that φ = log tan  + 
α
Q.6
2 4 2
α
Ans. tan(θ + iφ ) = ei = cos α + isin α
tan(θ + iφ )= cos α - isin α

Now tan2θ = tan[(θ + iφ)+ (θ - iφ)]


= tan(θ + iφ) + tan(θ - iφ)
1 - tan(θ + iφ)tan(θ - iφ)
= (cos α + isin α) + (cos α - isin α)
1 – (cos α + isin α) (cos α - isin α)
= 2cos α
1 – (cos2 α + sin2 α)
= 2 cos α
1–1
= 2 cos α
0
= ∞
tan 2θ = ∞ = tan π/2
2θ = nπ + π/2
θ = nπ/2 + π/4
= π/2( n+ ½)

Also tan2iφ = tan[(θ + iφ) - (θ - iφ)]


= tan(θ + iφ) - tan(θ - iφ)
1 + tan(θ + iφ)tan(θ - iφ)
= (cos α + isin α) - (cos α - isin α)
1 + (cos α + isin α) (cos α - isin α)
= 2isin α
1 + (cos2 α + sin2 α)
= 2 isin α
1+1
= 2 isin α
2
tan2iφ = isin α
itanh2φ = isin α
tanh2φ = sin α
sinh2φ = sin α
cosh2φ
2φ φ
(e - e-2 )/2 = sinα
φ φ
(e2 + e-2 )/2 1
φ φ
(e2 - e-2 ) = sinα
φ φ
(e2 + e-2 ) 1
Now using componendo and dividendo rule
φ φ φ φ
(e2 - e-2 )+ (e2 + e-2 ) = 1+sinα
φ φ φ φ
(e2 + e-2 ) - (e2 - e-2 ) 1- sinα

2e = 1 + 2sinα/2 cosα/2
φ
2e-2 1- 2 sinα/2 cosα/2
φ
e2 = (sin2 α/2 + cos2 α/2) + 2sinα/2 cosα/2
φ
e-2 (sin2 α/2 + cos2 α/2) - 2 sinα/2 cosα/2
φ
e4 = (cosα/2 + sinα/2)2
(cosα/2 + sinα/2)2
φ
e2 = cosα/2 + sinα/2
cosα/2 + sinα/2
= cosα/2(1+ tan α/2)
cosα/2(1- tan α/2)
= 1+ tan α/2
1- tan α/2
= tan π/4 + tan α/2
1 – tan π/4 tan α/2

e = tan(π/4 + α/2)
2φ = log tan(π/4 + α/2)
φ = ½[log tan(π/4 + α/2)]