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Sorsogon State College

Engineering-Architecture Department
Sorsogon City

BES 1 (Environmental Engineering)

Name: Roman D. Herrera

Grade:

Section: GE-2A

Date: March 10, 2016

SMOKE EMISSION TEST AND DIAGNOSTIC CENTER

OVERVIEW

This activity will introduce the students on the following:


a.) The purpose and the characteristic of a good emission and diagnostic test
b.) The difference of emission testing and diagnostic for diesel and gasoline engines; and
c.) Recent developments in emission testing equipment
QUESTIONS:
A. Why smoke emission test is mandatory in the Philippines?
By conducting automotive emissions testing, we can help ensure that your vehicles stay within
the appropriate legal limits for emissions of air pollutants such as:

Carbon monoxide (CO)


Total hydrocarbon (THC)
Non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC)
Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (the nitrogen oxides, NOx)
Particulate matter (PM) and particulate number (PN) emissions
Diesel smoke

We are also able to verify the declared fuel consumption and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emission
values and, upon request, assist you with endurance testing (e.g. to determine deterioration factors). We
also offer emissions tests for vehicles using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Compressed Natural
Gas (CNG).
We provide a range of automotive emissions consulting services too, offering expertise and
experience in a variety of emissions control technologies. These include catalysts and systems governing
evaporative control, fuel and exhaust-gas recirculation.
Contact SGS now to find out how our emission testing services can help you comply with the
appropriate international regulations.
B. List down five (5) ways to reduce engine emission.
1. Reduce idle time: When you leave your car idling, your vehicle is emitting carbon dioxide for no
reason. Yes, it is true that idling while sitting at a stop light or in traffic is something we cannot
necessarily avoid, however you can eliminate idling in other situations. Anytime you are planning to
be waiting in your vehicle for at least 10 seconds, it is more gas-efficient and less harmful to the
environment to shut your vehicle off and restart it once you are ready to drive.

2. Carpool or ride share at least one day a week: If you are able to carpool or ride share to work at
least one day a week, it is recommended you do so. In cases where that seems all but impossible,
look for public transportation options or other forms of biofriendly transportation. Taking your vehicle
off the road for only one day a week can make a difference. Then just imagine the impact which
could be had by all vehicle owners opting to park their rides for at least one day a week.
3. Use a proven liquid fuel catalyst: For those of you who do not own an electric or hybrid vehicle,
Green Plus liquid fuel catalyst is a simple, yet proven way to reduce harmful vehicle emissions,
improve engine power and increase fuel economy. It works at a molecular level to make your vehicle
drive cleaner and greener.
4. Drive smarter, not harder and faster: When you are driving, you need to remember to ease up on
both the gas pedal and brake. Do not be so quick to rapidly accelerate from a stopped position or
come to a screeching halt at a light. Drive a little bit slower than you normal might and a little smarter
too. If you are able to accelerate gradually and minimize braking, you can dramatically reduce the
emissions your engine puts out. You will also put a lot less wear and tear on your vehicles engine
and brakes.
5. Conduct routine maintenance: A vehicle is not going to operate at its most optimal level forever,
but there are actions you can take to help your vehicle run at its best. Routine maintenance is one of
the most important of these actions. Get your vehicles oil changed, tires rotated, fluids capped off,
and be sure to get regular tune-ups. Taking this one step alone can make your vehicle run more fuelefficiently and can reduce its emissions. Routine maintenance can also save a lot of money, as if you
keep your vehicle well-maintained, it will break down less and require fewer repairs. You and your
loved ones will also be much safer.

C. What are the different equipment being used in the analysis of gasoline emission in dieseland gasoline- fuelled engine.

GASOLINE- Gas Analyzer

DIESEL- Opacimeter

D. Determine the standard concentration (passing concentration) for hydrocarbon and carbon
monoxide air pollutants.

Maximum allowable emissions for any heavy-duty gasoline powered vehicle


subject to a pre-conditioned two speed idle test procedure administered by the
commissioner of motor vehicles or his designee shall be as identified per vehicle
model year.

Vehicle Model Year

CO (VOL. %)

HC (ppm)

1980 and earlier

3.0

600

1981 through 1987

1.6

450

1988 and later

1.6

300

E. What is clean turbo Discuss briefly and concisely.


Clean turbo also known as turbo charge direct injection or TDI installed in 2009 to 2015 model had
emission defeat device, which activated emission controls only during emission testing. The emission
controls were suppressed otherwise, allowing the TDI engines to exceed legal limits on emission.

F. Describe the process of smoke emission testing of the following:


1. GASOLINE-FUELLED ENGINE
Specific Test Procedures for GASOLINE powered vehicles:
Step 1 - Vehicle Preparation
o Check that there are no obvious safety hazards (abnormal engine noise, overheating,
leaking fluids, etc.). Inspectors may reject a vehicle that is unsafe to test.
o Place the transmission in Neutral or Park, with the parking brake on and/or wheel
chocks in place.
o Turn off all accessories (including air conditioning).
o Ensure the vehicle is at normal operating temperature.
o Position the vehicle to ensure there are no drafts that can disturb the exhaust plume.
o Ensure there is nothing in the shop environment, such as equipment or tool boxes,
which prevents the inspector from clearly observing the exhaust plume. In general,
this will require clearing the line-of-sight as much as 15 feet from the tailpipe(s).
Step 2 - Test Preparation and Vehicle Familiarization
o
o

Use any means necessary to enable observation of the vehicles exhaust plume,
including but not limited to, adjusting the seat and mirror positions.
Perform the first of three BAR Snap Tests:
Gasoline If using the BAR-97 EIS, the first snap shall be performed at the beginning
of the inspection when the EIS screen enables you to stabilize the RPM. If using the
OIS, perform the first snap when prompted.
Ensure the vehicles engine RPM falls between 2,000 and 3,000 while performing the first BAR
Snap Test. If it does not, you can do one of the following:
Press-and-release the accelerator pedal more quickly or more slowly as needed to
stay within the designated RPM range; or
Quickly press the pedal only part way to the floor before releasing it.
Do not check for smoke during the first BAR Snap Test. Any visible smoke observed during the
first BAR Snap Test shall not result in a failure.

Step 3 - Perform the Idle Test


o
o

Have the engine running at idle and go to the vehicles tailpipe.


Perform the Idle Test:
Gasoline If using the BAR-97 EIS, the idle test shall be performed immediately after
performing the ASM/TSI test, if these tests are performed. If using the OIS, perform
the idle test when prompted.

Observe the tailpipe(s) exhaust plume of the vehicle for 10 seconds.

Step 4 - Perform the Crankcase (PCV) Test


o

After performing the Idle Test (Step 3), continue to leave the vehicles engine running at idle and
go to the vehicle engine compartment. Open the hood to the engine compartment and determine
whether any smoke is coming from the crankcase (PCV) system.

Observe the vehicles crankcase system for 10 seconds.


-----SCM 2013 c

Step 5 - Complete the BAR Snap Test


o
o
o
o
o

Continue to leave the vehicles engine running at idle.


Perform the final two BAR Snap Tests just before starting the under-hood visual inspection.
Perform the second BAR Snap Test while watching for visible smoke.
Return the engine to idle, and wait for at least 3 seconds to allow the engine to stabilize.
Perform the third (and final) BAR Snap Test while watching for visible smoke.

Step 6 - PASS/FAIL Determination


o

o
o
o

PASS the vehicle for the Visible Smoke Test portion of the Smog Check inspection if the vehicle
does not emit smoke during the Idle Test, Crankcase Test, and both of the final two BAR Snap
Tests.
FAIL the vehicle if:
There is any visible smoke observed during the Idle Test;
OR there is any visible smoke coming from the crankcase (PCV) system;
OR there is:
Gasoline - any visible smoke observed between the tailpipe and 10 feet from the tailpipe(s) on
either of the final two BAR Snap Tests.
Smoke from any area other than the vehicles tailpipe(s) or crankcase (PCV) system, regardless
of the cause, does not constitute a failure of the Visible Smoke Test.
No vehicle shall be failed for condensation or steam.

Step 7 Enter the Test Results into the EIS or OIS


o
o
o

Results must be entered in the visual inspections Other Emission Related Controls category on
the EIS or at the Enter Result of the Exhaust System Smoke Check and
Enter Result of the Crankcase System Smoke Check OIS prompts.
For vehicles that pass all portions of the Visible Smoke Test, enter P (Pass).

Step 8 - Documentation Provided to the Consumer


If the vehicle fails the Visible Smoke Test, the inspector shall:
o

o
o

Document the failure on both the customers and stations copy of the Vehicle Inspection Report
(VIR) in the Other Emission Related Components section. Make a clear notation on the VIR,
such as Failed Visible Smoke Test. Document what portion of the Visible Smoke Test the vehicle
failed, such as Crankcase Smoke, Idle Smoke, and/or BAR Snap Smoke.
Document the failure on the customers invoice with Failed Visible Smoke Test.
Document what portion of the Visible Smoke Test the vehicle failed, such as Crankcase Smoke,
Idle Smoke, or BAR Snap Smoke.

2. DIESEL- FUELLED ENGINE


Specific Test Procedures for DIESEL powered vehicles:
Step 1 - Vehicle Preparation
o
o
o
o

Check that there are no obvious safety hazards (abnormal engine noise, overheating, leaking
fluids, etc.). Inspectors may reject a vehicle that is unsafe to test.
Place the transmission in Neutral or Park, with the parking brake on and/or wheel chocks in
place.
Turn off all accessories (including air conditioning).
Ensure the vehicle is at normal operating temperature.

o
o

Position the vehicle to ensure there are no drafts that can disturb the exhaust plume.
Ensure there is nothing in the shop environment, such as equipment or tool boxes, which
prevents the inspector from clearly observing the exhaust plume. In general, this will require
clearing the line-of-sight as much as 15 feet from the tailpipe(s).

Step 2 - Test Preparation and Vehicle Familiarization


o
o

Use any means necessary to enable observation of the vehicles exhaust plume, including but not
limited to, adjusting the seat and mirror positions.
Do not check for smoke during the first BAR Snap Test. Any visible smoke observed during the
first BAR Snap Test shall not result in a failure.

Step 3 - Perform the Idle Test


o
o
o

Have the engine running at idle and go to the vehicles tailpipe.


Perform the Idle Test:
Diesel the idle test shall be performed at the appropriate OIS prompt.
Observe the tailpipe(s) exhaust plume of the vehicle for 10 seconds.

Step 4 - Perform the Crankcase (PCV) Test


o

After performing the Idle Test (Step 3), continue to leave the vehicles engine running at idle and
go to the vehicle engine compartment. Open the hood to the engine compartment and determine
whether any smoke is coming from the crankcase (PCV) system.
Observe the vehicles crankcase system for 10 seconds.
Note: do not perform this test on vehicles originally equipped with an open crankcase.

Step 5 - Complete the BAR Snap Test


o
o

o
o
o
o
o

Perform the first of three BAR Snap Tests:


Ensure the vehicles engine RPM falls between 2,000 and 3,000 while performing the first BAR
Snap Test. If it does not, you can do one of the following:
Press-and-release the accelerator pedal more quickly or more slowly as needed to
stay within the designated RPM range; or
Quickly press the pedal only part way to the floor before releasing it.
Continue to leave the vehicles engine running at idle.
Perform the final two BAR Snap Tests.
Perform the second BAR Snap Test while watching for visible smoke.
Return the engine to idle, and wait for at least 3 seconds to allow the engine to stabilize.
Perform the third (and final) BAR Snap Test while watching for visible smoke.
-------SCM 2013 f

Step 6 - PASS/FAIL Determination


o

PASS the vehicle for the Visible Smoke Test portion of the Smog Check inspection if the vehicle
does not emit smoke during the Idle Test, Crankcase Test, and both of the final two BAR Snap
Tests.
o FAIL the vehicle if:
There is any visible smoke observed during the Idle Test;
OR there is any visible smoke coming from the crankcase (PCV) system;
OR there is:

Diesel - a visible smoke plume observed 5 to 15 feet from the tailpipe(s) that lingers for more
than 3 seconds on either of the final two BAR Snap Tests.
Smoke from any area other than the vehicles tailpipe(s) or crankcase (PCV) system, regardless
of the cause, does not constitute a failure of the Visible Smoke Test.
No vehicle shall be failed for condensation or steam.

o
o

Step 7 Enter the Test Results into the OIS

o
o
o

Results must be entered at the Enter Result of the Exhaust System Smoke Check and Enter
Result of the Crankcase System Smoke Check OIS prompts.
For vehicles that pass a portion of the Visible Smoke Test, enter P (Pass) at the appropriate
prompt.
For vehicles that fail a portion of the Visible Smoke Test, enter F (Defective) at the appropriate
prompt.

Step 8 - Documentation Provided to the Consumer


If the vehicle fails the Visible Smoke Test, the inspector shall:
o Document the failure on both the customers and stations copy of the Vehicle Inspection Report
(VIR) in the Other Emission Related Components section. Make a clear notation on the VIR,
such as Failed Visible Smoke Test. Document what portion of the Visible Smoke Test the
vehicle failed, such as Crankcase Smoke, Idle Smoke, and/or BAR Snap Smoke.
o

Document the failure on the customers invoice with Failed Visible Smoke Test. Document what
portion of the Visible Smoke Test the vehicle failed, such as Crankcase Smoke, Idle Smoke,
or BAR Snap Smoke

G. Observe and discuss the actual process of smoke emission and diagnostic test.
Vehicle test procedures - Stage 1
When you arrive at the test centre drive to the lane indicated on your appointment letter and wait
with your engine running until you are called forward by the examiner.
Once you are parked
Whilst you are waiting to be called forward for the MOT test, use this time to check the following:
your car should be presented with the engine at normal operating temperature, this will require the engine
to be kept running while waiting for the test to commence outside the test hall
familiarise yourself with the vehicle controls, all light switches, boot, bonnet, fuel cap operation and
so on make sure that any headlamp levelling device is set in the correct position for a vehicle without a
load (usually a small wheel control on the dash which is numbered and in most cases the correct position
will be at 0)please have the vehicle registration certificate, appointment card and previous MOT certificate
(if applicable) readily available for examination
On entering the inspection hall the vehicle details will be checked and recorded onto the computer.
The first test conducted will be the smoke test, if it is a diesel car, or the exhaust emission test, if it is a
spark ignition (petrol) engined car
Smoke test
The engine will be accelerated up to governed speed and the density of the smoke measured.After
the third acceleration the average reading is recorded. If the reading is below 2.5m-1 for nonturbocharged engines or 3.0m-1 for turbocharged engines the vehicle will pass.However if the average is
higher, a further acceleration is carried out and the average of the last three readings are used, this will
continue until a maximum of six accelerations have been carried out.
If the average of the fourth, fifth and sixth acceleration is higher than the appropriate level the
vehicle will not pass the test.
In addition to the smoke meter readings, any of the following will result in the vehicle being refused
a certificate: exhaust emits excessive smoke or vapour of any colour, to an extent likely to obscure vision
emissions cannot be measured because a tail pipe is damaged or an accessory is fitted which prevents
the insertion of the smoke meter probe insufficient oil in the engine or low oil pressure which could cause
engine damage if engine is accelerated obvious signs of an engine defect such as an unusual noise or
emission of smoke obvious signs that the governors have been tampered with or are not operating
It is important that vehicles are properly maintained (including changing of timing belts) in
accordance with the manufacturers' recommendation and presented for test at normal working
temperature.
The required limits are as follows
Vehicles first used prior to 1 August 1975 are exempt from a metered emission test. Vehicles first
used on or after 1 August 1975 and before 1 August 1986:

carbon monoxide (CO) 4.5 per cent at idle


hydrocarbons (HC) 1,200ppm (parts per million)
Vehicles first used on or after 1 August 1986 and before 1 August 1992:
carbon monoxide (CO) 3.5 per cent at idle
hydrocarbons (HC) 1,200ppm
Vehicles first used on or after 1 August 1992 are tested to the manufacturers specific limits (there
are a few exceptions to this rule depending on the fuel and vehicle type). While specific limits are too
numerous to list the following is for guidance only:
hydrocarbons (HC) 200ppm
carbon monoxide (CO) 0.5 per cent at idle
carbon monoxide (CO) 0.3 per cent at fast idle
lambda: 0.97 - 1.03 Lambda (value of 1 for the optimum air/fuel ratio setting)
It is important to remember the above figures can only be used as guidance, as vehicle specific
limits may be lower or higher.