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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Page 1

GENERAL------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2

1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4

INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
Scope ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
References----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
Definitions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3
Approved Products ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4

IMPLEMENTATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
Approved Installers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4
Field Quality Control ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
Rejected materials ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
Records --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Page 2

GENERAL

1.1

INTRODUCTION

1.1.1

Scope

This Section includes the requirements for concrete work for pipelines, roadworks, runways,
structures, water retaining structures, foundations and bases for structures and equipment.

This Part includes relevant standards, definitions, abbreviations, and requirements for testing
facilities, rejected materials, and record keeping.

Related Sections are as follows:


Aggregates
Cementitious Materials
Water
Admixtures
Property Requirements
Concrete Plants
Transportation and Placing of Concrete
Formwork
Curing
Reinforcement
Construction Joints
Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete
Protective Coatings to Concrete
Hot Weather Concrete
Miscellaneous
Precast Concrete
Prestressed Concrete
Water Retaining Structures

Section 1,
Section 2,
Section 4,
Section 6,
Section 8,
Section 9,

General
Quality Assurance and Quality Control
Foundations and Retaining Structures
Roadworks
Drainage Works
Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

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This Section:
Part 2,
Part 3,
Part 4,
Part 5,
Part 6,
Part 7,
Part 8,
Part 9,
Part 10,
Part 11,
Part 12,
Part 13,
Part 14,
Part 15,
Part 16,
Part 17,
Part 18,
Part 19,

1.1.2

References

The following standards are referred to in this Part:


ASTM C31 ..................Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in
the Field
ASTM C39 ..................Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical
Concrete Specimens
ASTM C143 ................Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement C Concrete
ASTM C1064 ..............Standard Test Method for Temperature of Freshly Mixed HydraulicCement Concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Page 3

BS 6100, ....................Glossary of Building and civil engineering terms


BS EN 932-1 ..............Tests for general properties of aggregates. Methods for sampling
BS EN 932-2 ..............Tests for general properties of aggregates. Methods for reducing
laboratory samples
BS EN 12350-1 ..........Method of sampling fresh concrete in site
BS EN 12350-2 ..........Testing fresh concrete. Slump-test
BS EN 12390-1 ..........Shape, dimensions and other requirements for specimens and moulds
BS EN 12390-2 .......... Making and curing specimens for strength tests
GSO ISO 1920-1 ........Testing of concrete Part 1: Sampling of fresh concrete
GSO ISO 1920-2 ........Testing of concrete Part 2: Properties of fresh concrete
GSO ISO 1920-3 ........Testing of concrete Part 3: Making and curing test specimens
1.1.3

Definitions

Definitions used in this Section.


The following are terms and abbreviations used:

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degree Celsius
calorie
centimetre
day
Characteristic compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cylinders
Compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cylinders
Characteristic compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cubes
Compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cubes
Mean compressive strength of concrete
Mean compressive strength of concrete at the age of (j) days
ground granulated blast furnace slag
guaranteed ultimate tensile strength
hour
kilogram
kilojoule
kilonewton
litre
metre
square metre
cubic metre
milligram
minute
millimetre
square millimetre
months
mega Pascal
kilo Pascal
moderate sulphate resisting Portland cement
ordinary Portland cement
pulverised fuel ash
polyvinylchloride
second
silica fume
sulphate resisting Portland cement

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C
cal
cm
d
fck,cyl
fc,cyl
fck,cube
fc,cube
fcm
fcm,j
GGBS
GUTS
h
kg
kJ
kN
l
m
2
m
3
m
mg
min
mm
2
mm
months
MPa
kPa
MSRPC
OPC
PFA
PVC
s
SF
SRPC

QCS 2014

ton
ppm

1000 kg
part per million

micron

10

10 meter

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-6
-6

Reference to a technical society, institution, association or governmental authority is made in


accordance with the following abbreviations.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
American Concrete Institute
American Society for Testing and Materials
American Welding Society
British Standard
British Standard Code of Practice
British Standards Institution
Cement and Concrete Association
Construction Industry Research and Information Association
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
Concrete Society
Deutsches Institut fur Normung e.V.
Euro Norm
Federal Highway Authority
GCC Standardization Organization
Institution of Civil Engineers
International Organization for Standardization
Prestressed Concrete Institute
Qatar Construction Specifications
Qatar Standards
United Kingdom Department for Transport

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AASHTO
ACI
ASTM
AWS
BS
BSCP
BSI
C & CA
CIRIA
CRSI
CS
DIN
EN
FHWA
GSO
ICE
ISO
PCI
QCS
QS
UK DfT
Products

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

1.1.4

Approved Products

The contract specific documentation may identify approved products and approved or
prequalified manufacturers and suppliers of products used in concrete work.

1.2

IMPLEMENTATION

1.2.1

Approved Installers

The contract specific documentation may identify approved or prequalified providers of


concrete construction services.

1.2.2

Field Quality Control

The Contractor shall carry out the test procedures required by this Section and any other
tests and test procedures as directed by the Engineer from time to time. The test procedures
shall be carried out using the facilities of an approved independent testing laboratory.

Supply, storage, sampling and testing of all materials shall be the responsibility of the
Contractor, unless the Contract specifies otherwise.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Page 5

The Engineer may also require the Contractor to take samples of materials and deliver them
to the Central Materials Laboratory for additional tests to be carried out by the Employer.
Sampling procedures shall be in accordance with BS EN 932 or relevant ASTM Standards,
and sample sizes shall conform to the requirements shown in Table 1.1.

The minimum equipment required for testing on Site is given in Table 1.2. This equipment
shall be maintained on Site at all times during concreting operations together with the
necessary scoops, buckets, sample containers, and other items required for sampling. The
cube curing tank shall be located in an air-conditioned area as stated in part 06.

1.2.3

Rejected materials

Any material rejected by the Engineer, in particular cement which has deteriorated or
aggregates which have segregated or become contaminated, shall be immediately removed
from the Site.

1.2.4

Records

The Contractor shall maintain on the Site full records of all work carried out accurately
related to the location of the work on site, which shall include:
(a)

the time and date when all concrete was poured, formwork removed and when
formwork props were fully removed

(c)

daily maximum and minimum temperatures.

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all cubes and other tests

One copy of all test results shall be sent to the Engineer immediately upon completion of the
tests

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(b)

Table 1.1
Sampling Procedure and
Minimum Sample Sizes for Central Materials Laboratory
Material
Cement

Aggregate

Reinforcement
Water

Test

Min. Sample

Full range of tests

Composite sample of 7 kg
taken from at least 12 bags

Full range of tests

200 kg

Sieve analysis
Chemical analysis
Soundness test
Water absorption
Particle density
Flakiness index
Fines content
LA Abrasion value

50 kg

Tensile test

500 mm

Bend test

300 mm

Full range of tests

5 litres

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Page 6

Table 1.2
Minimum Testing Equipment for Each Site*

Cube making
BS EN 12390-1
and
BS EN 12350-1:2000
or
GSO ISO 1920-1
and
GSO ISO 1920-3
or ASTM C31 and C39
Cube curing
BS EN
12390-2
or
GSO ISO 1920-3
or ASTM C39
ASTM C1064

Slump cone with base plate


Compacting rod, circular cross-section
and round ends
Remixing container, 300 mm ruler,
moist cloth
Scoop and shovel
Timer
100 or 150 mm cubical or cylindrical
1
moulds
Compacting rod or bar Set of tools for
assembling and stripping moulds
Remixing container
Trowel, Scoop, Shovel and Mallet
Mould release agent in closed
container with brush
Hessian or sacking, impervious sheet
Maximum/minimum thermometer
Waterproof marking crayon/paint or
equivalent
Curing tank (in air conditioned room)
Supply of packing materials for sending
cubes to commercial laboratory
Concrete thermometer

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Slump test BS EN
12350-2
or
GSO ISO 1920-2
or
ASTM C143

Equipment to be Provided

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Test

Minimum Number
Required
1
1
1
1
1

6
1
1
1
lot
1
1
1
Lot
1

1 - The use of 100 mm cube and cylinder moulds are permitted when the nominal maximum aggregate
size is not greater than 20mm

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
02: Aggregates

Page 1

AGGREGATES ....................................................................................................... 2

2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Definitions
3
Source Approval
4
Sampling
4

2.2

QUALITY AND TESTING ........................................................................................ 5

2.3

STORAGE AT CONTRACTOR PLANT ................................................................... 5

2.4

FINE AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE AND MORTAR ........................................... 7

2.5

COARSE AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE............................................................. 8

2.6

COMBINED AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE......................................................... 8

2.7

WASHING AND PROCESSING .............................................................................. 9

2.8

LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATES.............................................................................. 9

2.9

COARSE RECYCLED AGGREGATES ................................................................... 9

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
02: Aggregates

Page 2

AGGREGATES

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1

Scope

This part covers the requirements of aggregates for use in structural concrete.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section.....
Part 3, .............. Cementitious Materials
Part 4, .............. Water
Part 6, .............. Property Requirements
Part 7, .............. Concrete Plants
Part 8, .............. Transportation and Planning of Concrete
Part 15, ............ Hot weather Concreting
Part 17, ............ Structural Precast Concrete
Part 18, ............ Prestressed Concrete
References

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ASTM C33 ..................Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates


ASTM C40 ..................Test Method for Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregates for Concrete
ASTM C88 ..................Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulphate
or Magnesium Sulphate

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2.1.2

ASTM C123 ................Test Method for Lightweight Pieces in Aggregate


ASTM C127 ................Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
ASTM C128 ................Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate
ASTM C131 ................Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse
Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine
ASTM C136 ................Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse
Aggregate
ASTM C142 ................Test Method for Clay Lumps and Friable Particles in Aggregates.
ASTM C535 ................Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Large-Size Coarse
Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine
ASTM C702 ................Standard Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
ASTM D75 ..................Standard Practice for Sampling Aggregates
BRE Digest 330-2.......Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete Detailed Guidance for New
Construction.
BS 933-3 ....................Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates Determination of
particle shape. Flakiness index
BS 933-7 ....................Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates Determination of shell
content. Percentage of shells in coarse aggregates
BS 933-9 ....................Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates Assessment of fines.
Methylene blue test

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Part
02: Aggregates

Page 3

BS 933-11 ..................Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates Classification test for


the constituents of coarse recycled aggregate
BS 1097-6 ..................Tests for mechanical and physical properties of
Determination of particle density and water absorption

aggregates

BS 8500 part 2 ...........Concrete. Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1.


Specification for constituent materials and concrete
BS EN 12620 ..............Aggregates for concrete
BS EN 1744-1 ............Tests for chemical properties of aggregates, Chemical analysis
BS EN 1744-5 ............Tests for chemical properties of aggregates. Determination of acid
soluble chloride salts
BS EN 1367-2 ............Tests for thermal and weathering properties of
Magnesium sulphate test. BS EN 1367-4 Determination
shrinkage

aggregates.
of
drying

BS EN 933 ..................Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates


BS EN 1097-2 ............Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates. Methods
for the determination of resistance to fragmentation
BS EN 1097-6 ............Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates.
Determination of particle density and water absorption

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BS EN13055-1 ...........Lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar


and grout.
BS PD 6682-1 ............Aggregates for concrete. Guidance on the use of BS EN 12620

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BS PD 6682-4 ............Aggregates Lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar and grout.


Guidance on the use of BS EN 13055-1
EN 13139 ..................Aggregates for mortar
EN 998-1 ...................Specification for mortar for masonry Rendering and plastering mortar
EN 998-2 ...................Specification for mortar for Masonry mortar
ISO 9001:2008 ...........Quality management systems -- Requirements
ISO 17025 ..................General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration
laboratories
RILEM AAR1 ..............RILEM Recommended Test Method AAR-1 Detection of potential
alkali-reactivity aggregates, Petrographic method
RILEM AAR3 ..............RILEM Recommended Test Method AAR-3 Detection of potential
alkali-reactivity - 38C test method for aggregate combinations using
concrete prisms
2.1.3

Definitions

Aggregate: granular material used in construction and may be natural, manufactured or


recycled.

Natural aggregate: aggregate from mineral sources which has been subjected to nothing
more than mechanical processing.

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
02: Aggregates

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Manufactured aggregate: aggregate of mineral origin resulting from an industrial process


involving thermal or other modification.

Recycled aggregate: aggregate resulting from the processing of inorganic material previously
used in construction.

Lightweight aggregate: aggregate of mineral origin having a particle density not exceeding
2,000 kg/m3 or a loose bulk density not exceeding 1,200 kg/m3.

2.1.4

Source Approval

The Contractor shall use only those imported materials sourced from an Accredited Quarry
Producer or Accredited Supplier and which have been approved by Qatar Standards or their
representatives.

The accredited aggregate suppliers shall provide the source name(s) for every shipment of
aggregates delivered to the concrete supplier.

The source of material supply may be changed by the Contractor during the project, provided
that the replacement materials shall be sourced from an Accredited Quarry Producer and the
replacement materials are not significantly different in terms of physical and chemical
properties, thus ensuring that the resultant concrete continues to comply fully with the
specified requirements.

When considering whether an aggregates supplier and aggregates producer are suitable to
be Accredited, preference will be given to organisations with a proper quality management
system, such as ISO 9001 or another quality management system approved by Qatar
Standards.

When requested by the engineer, the aggregate supplier shall provide a geotechnical
analysis on the rock samples before blasting and grinding to ensure the proper quality of
materials.

The aggregates shall be properly stocked and labelled without intermingling at any storage
area.

When requested by the engineer, the aggregates supplier shall provide data for the past 6
months that shows the consistency of materials and conformity with this specification.

The supplier shall verify the compliance of aggregates as per QCS by an independent
qualified testing agency accredited to ISO 17025, and approved by Qatar Standards.

2.1.5

Sampling

The Contractor shall provide samples of both fine and course aggregate to the Engineer, in
accordance with the requirements of relevant standards in QCS for sampling, sample
reducing and testing of Aggregates, for testing at least two weeks before beginning deliveries
to the Site.

All samples shall be taken in the presence of the Engineer or an approved testing agency
assigned by the Engineer.

Aggregate sampling and testing shall be conducted by qualified staff.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
02: Aggregates

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QUALITY AND TESTING

Aggregates shall consist of tough, hard, durable and uncoated particles containing no
harmful material in quantities sufficient to adversely affect the concrete or reinforcing steel,
and shall contain no materials likely to cause staining or otherwise disfigure the concrete
surface.

Aggregates shall be obtained from a source approved by the Engineer.

Aggregate shall meet the requirements given in Table 2.1. Additional tests detailed in BS EN
12620 with BS PD 6682, EN 13139, EN 998-1, EN 998-2, or relevant ACI and ASTM
standards and codes of practice may be required by the Engineer to satisfy certain
requirements.

Contractor shall provide all data as specified in QCS.

Sampling of the aggregates shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of BS
EN 12620, BS EN 933, or ASTM D75 and ASTM C702.

Fine aggregates shall be natural sand or manufactured crushed rock sand. Crushed rock
sand shall be the direct product of a manufacturing process, not the by-product of coarse
aggregate production.

Beach sand shall not be permitted for use in concrete mixes.

The use of clean Dune Sand, blended with coarser sand, may be permitted providing it can
be shown that the sand is free from contaminants. The use of local Dune sand shall be
preapproved by the Ministry of Environment.

Samples of aggregates shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of Table 1.1- Part
1.

10

Frequency of routine testing shall meet the requirements as listed in Section 2. Frequency of
testing may be increased by the engineers request if testing results show inconsistency, and
frequency may be reduced if approved by the engineer if materials are highly consistent.

11

Mineralogical tests are to be carried out as instructed by the Engineer.

12

No aggregate deliveries shall be made to the Site until the Engineer has approved the
samples as complying with this specification.

2.3

STORAGE AT CONTRACTOR PLANT

Aggregate shall be stored as follows:

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2.2

(a)

each nominal size of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate shall be kept separated and
clearly labelled at all times.

(b)

The height of stockpiles shall be controlled to prevent harmful segregation and


breakage of the aggregate.

(c)

stockpiles shall be on hard and clean surfaces with not more than 5 % slope

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Part
02: Aggregates

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(d)

contamination of the aggregates by the ground or other foreign matter shall be


effectively prevented at all times

(e)

each heap of aggregate shall be capable of draining freely

(f)

stockpiles shall be protected from direct sunlight

(g)

unloading of aggregate shall be controlled to prevent harmful segregation and


breakage.

The Contractor shall maintain the stockpiles of coarse aggregate in separate gradings.

At the construction site, the preparation, location and size of any stockpile shall be approved
by the Engineer.
Table 2.1
Limits for Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Aggregates for Normal Concrete
Test Methods
No.

Permissible Limits

Requirement
BS / EN

ASTM

Fines

Coarse

933-1

Standard

Standard

2. Natural: materials finer than 0.063 mm.

933-1

Crushed rock: materials finer than


0.063mm.
3. Fines quality
a) Structural concrete
Sand Equivalent (%)

3% max
7% max

2% max
2% max

933-8

60% min

933-9

2% max

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b)

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1. Grading

Non-structural concrete
Methylene blue adsorption
3
value (0/2mm)

4. Clay lumps and friable particles

C142

1.0 (g/kg)
max
2% max

5. Lightweight pieces

C123

0.5% max

0.5% max

6. Organic impurities for fine aggregates

C40

NA

7. Water absorption (saturated surface

1097-6

Colour
standard not
darker than
4
plate No. 3
2.3% max

8. Particle density for normal weight

1097-6

2.0 min

2.0 min

9. Shell Content:

933-7

3% max

3% max

10. Flakiness index

933-3

11. Acid-soluble chlorides:

1744-5

2.0% max

dry)

concrete

35% max

a) Reinforced and mass concrete

0.06% max

0.03% max

b) Prestressed concrete and steam


5
cured structural concrete

0.01%

0.01%

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
02: Aggregates

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Test Methods
No.

Permissible Limits

Requirement
BS / EN

ASTM

Fines

Coarse

12. Acid-soluble sulphate

1744-1

0.4% max

0.3% max

13. Soundness by magnesium sulphate (5

1367-2

15% max

15% max

cycles)

Resistance to fragmentation: Los

14. Angeles abrasion

1097-2

30% max

15. Drying shrinkage

1367-4

0.075% max

16. Potential reactivity:

See Note 6 below

Notes:

5.

6.

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3.
4.

Use of BS EN or relevant GSO standards.


If the Sand Equivalent value is less than 60% and greater than or equal to 50%, the sand shall be
considered non-harmful and is accepted provided that the Methylene Blue value is less than or equal to
1.0 (g/kg).
Not required when the fines content in the fine aggregate, or in the all-in aggregate, is 3% or less.
Organic impurities: use of a fine aggregate failing in the test is not prohibited, provided that:
a. The discoloration is due principally to the presence of small quantities of coal, lignite, or similar
discrete particles.
b. When tested for the effect of organic impurities on strength of mortar, the relative strength at 7
days, calculated in accordance with ASTM C87, is not less than 95 %.
If the chloride content is higher than 0.01% the following steps may be taken:
a- The aggregates may be washed by suitable water (Sec 5 Part 4) before mixing to lower the chloride
content to the specified value (0.01%).
b- If the washing process does not reduce the chloride content to the required value, then the Acid
Soluble Chloride content in the concrete ingredients (the sum of the contributions from the
constituent materials) shall be tested as mentioned in BS 8500-2. The allowable Acid Soluble
chloride content limit shall not exceed the values given in Section 5, Part 6, Para 6.5.3.
The alkali-aggregate reactivity shall be assessed at source in accordance with BS 206-1 and BS 85002. Certification shall be obtained from the aggregate source indicating absence of deleterious
expansion of concrete due to alkali aggregate reactivity.

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1.
2.

2.4

FINE AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE AND MORTAR

Fine aggregate consist of natural clean sand, stone screenings or a combination and can be
produced from natural disintegration of rock or gravel and/or by the crushing of rock or gravel
or processing of manufactured aggregate or artificial, conforming to the requirements of
physical and chemical properties complying with Table 2.1 and subject to the Engineer's
acceptance.

Crushed fine aggregates may be blended with local washed sand provided that the final
aggregate complies with the requirements in Table 2.1.

The gradation of fine aggregate for concrete and mortar shall be in accordance with the
gradation designations in BS EN 12620 with BS PD 6682, EN 13139 , EN 998-1 , EN 998-2,
or relevant ACI and ASTM standards and codes of practice and subject to the Engineers
acceptance.

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02: Aggregates

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Each batch of aggregate delivered to the Site shall be kept separate from previous batches,
and shall be stored to allow for inspection and tests to be carried out.

Local natural sand shall be mechanically washed to remove salts and other impurities in
order to meet the specified requirements.

The storage area for the clean washed sand shall be shaded from the direct rays of the sun
and shall be screened for protection from dust. The area in the neighbourhood of
stockpile/mixing plant shall be watered as necessary, to reduce the rising of dust.

The usage of Dune sand shall be accepted as governed by the regulations of Qatar Ministry
of Environment and shall be:
(a)

Not used for any reinforced concrete

(b)

Used only for blocks, block mortar, plasters, soil cement, shotcrete and insulation
concrete.

COARSE AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE

The coarse aggregate is granular material and may be natural, manufactured, recycled or a
combination. It shall be free from deleterious matter and conforming to the requirements of
physical and chemical properties in Table 2.1 as a minimum requirements and subject to the
Engineer's acceptance within BS EN 12620, BS PD 6682 or ASTM C33

For imported aggregate, Qatar Standards may publish more requirements and stringent limits
than specified in Table 2.1.

For other types of concrete mixes and subject to Engineer's acceptance, coarse aggregate
shall comply with the relevant BS EN or relevant ACI and ASTM standards and codes. The
nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall be not larger than: (a) 1/5 the narrowest
dimension between sides of forms, nor (b) 1/3 the depth of slab, nor (c) 3/4 the minimum
clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires, bundles of bars, individual
tendons, bundled tendons, or ducts.

These limitations shall not apply if, in the judgment of the licensed design professional,
workability and methods of consolidation are such that concrete can be placed without
honeycombs or voids.

As requested by the Engineer, the Contractor shall mechanically wash the aggregates to
remove salts and other impurities in order to meet the requirements specified.

2.6

COMBINED AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE

The material passing the 0.063mm sieve shall not exceed 3.0 % of the combined aggregate

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2.5

(by weight). The combined aggregate gradation used in the work shall be as specified,
except when otherwise approved or directed by the Engineer.
2

Changes in the approved gradation shall not be made during the progress of the works
unless approved or directed by the Engineer.

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
02: Aggregates

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WASHING AND PROCESSING

Where aggregates have been washed shortly before delivery to the Site, or if stockpiles have
been sprayed to cool them, samples of the aggregate shall be taken frequently to determine
the correct amount of water to add to the mix.

2.8

LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATES

Lightweight aggregates are those having particle densities not exceeding 2,000 kg/m3 or
3
loose bulk densities not exceeding 1200 kg/m .

Lightweight aggregates include natural aggregate, aggregate manufactured from natural


materials and/or a by product of industrial processes, and some recycled aggregate.

Lightweight aggregates shall be in accordance with BS EN13055-1 and BS PD 6682-4, or


equivalent ASTM standards.

2.9

COARSE RECYCLED AGGREGATES

Excavation Waste (EW), coarse recycled aggregates (RA), and coarse recycled concrete
aggregates (RCA) shall meet with the requirements of Table 2.1, with the exception that
water absorption shall not exceed;

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2.7

3% for structural concrete

(b)

4% for non-structural concrete.

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(a)

For structural concrete EW and/or RCA may be used in designated concrete of maximum
C30. Its proportion shall be not more than a mass fraction of 20% of coarse aggregate (BS
8500-2 sec 6.2.2), except where approved by Qatar Standards to use a higher proportion.

For non-structural concrete, such as crash barriers and soakaways, EW and/or RCA may be
used in designated concrete of maximum C40. Its proportion shall be not more than a mass
fraction of 50% of coarse aggregate (BS 8500-2 sec 6.2.2), except where approved by Qatar
Standards to use a higher proportion.

For non-structural concrete RA may be used in designated concrete of maximum C25. Its
proportion shall be not more than a mass fraction of 20% of coarse aggregate (BS 8500-2
sec 6.2.2), except where approved by Qatar Standards to use a higher proportion.

When the composition of coarse RCA and coarse RA is tested in accordance with BS EN
933-11, the test result obtained for each type of particle shall not exceed the maximum value
specified in Table 2.2.

EW aggregate shall meet the same requirements for RCA, as given in Table 2.2.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
02: Aggregates

Page 10

Table 2.2
Requirements for coarse RCA and coarse RA, (mass fraction, %)
Requirement

RCA

1, 3

RA
1.

2.
3.
4.

Maximum
masonry
content

Maximum
fines

Maximum
lightweight
2
material

Maximum
Asphalt

Maximum
foreign
material
e.g. glass,
plastic,
metals

5.0

5.0

0.5

5.0

1.0

1.0

100

1.0

10.0

1.0

-4

Maximum
acid soluble
sulphate
(SO3)

Where the material to be used is obtained by crushing hardened concrete of known


composition that has not been in use, e.g. surplus precast units or returned fresh concrete,
and not contaminated during storage and processing, the only requirements are those for
grading and maximum fines.
Material with a density less than 1,000 kg/m3
The provisions for coarse RCA may be applied to mixtures of natural coarse aggregates
blended with the listed constituents.
The appropriate limit and test method needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis (see
Note 6 to 4.3 of BS 8500-2).

TC

Type of
Aggregate

The floating material (FL) content, as per BS EN 933-11, shall not exceed 5.0 cm /kg.

RCA should be treated as highly reactive aggregate. The alkali contribution from RCA shall
be determined as given in BS 8500-2.

For manufacturing of masonry concrete blocks, the usage of recycled aggregates is


permitted up to 100% as given in Sec. 13 in accordance with ACI 555.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
03: Cementitious Materials

Page 1

CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS................................................................................. 2

3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Terms and Definitions:
3

3.2

SOURCE APPROVAL ............................................................................................. 3

3.3

SAMPLING .............................................................................................................. 3

3.4

QUALITY AND TESTING ........................................................................................ 3

3.5

DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING ................................................................ 4

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
03: Cementitious Materials

Page 2

CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS

3.1

GENERAL

3.1.1

Scope

This Part covers the requirements for the testing and use of cement in structural concrete.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


Part 6

Property Requirements

3.1.2

References

The following standards are referred to in this Part:


ASTM C10 ..................Standard specification for natural cement
ASTM C91 ..................Specification for Masonry cement
ASTM C114 ................Test methods for chemical analysis of Hydraulic Cement
ASTM C115, ...............Test method for fineness of Portland cement by the Turbidimeter
ASTM C150 ................Standard specification for Portland cement

TC

ASTM C183 ................Standard Practice for sampling and the amount of testing of Hydraulic
cement
ASTM C188 ................Test method for density of Hydraulic cement

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ASTM C186 ................Test method for heat of hydration of Hydraulic cement


ASTM C204 ................Test method for fineness of Hydraulic cement by air permeability
ASTM C348 ................Test method for flexural strength of Hydraulic cement mortar
ASTM C349 ................Test method for compressive strength of Hydraulic cement mortar
using portion of prism broken in flexure
ASTM C430 ................Test method for fineness of Hydraulic cement by the 45mm (No.325)
ASTM C595 ................Standard specification for blended Hydraulic cement
ASTM C618 ................Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural
Pozzolan for Use in Concrete
ASTM C845 ................Specification for Expansive Hydraulic cement
ASTM C989 ..............Standard Specification for Slag Cement for Use in Concrete and
Mortars
ASTM C1157 ..............Standard performance specification for Hydraulic cement
ASTM C1240 .............Standard Specification for Silica Fume Used in Cementitious Mixtures
ASTM C1328 ..............Specification for plastic cement (Stucco)
ASTM C1329 ..............Specification for Mortar cement
BS 146 ........................Portland blast furnace cement
BS 1370 ......................Low heat Portland cement
BS 4027 ......................Sulphate-resisting Portland cement
BS EN 196, .................Methods for testing cement

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
03: Cementitious Materials

Page 3

BS EN 197-1, .............Cement, Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for


common cements.
BS EN 197-4 .............Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for low
early strength blastfurnace cements
Terms and Definitions:

Cementitious Materials: Portland cement in combination with one or more of the following:
blended hydraulic cement, fly ash and other pozzolans, ground granulated blast-furnace slag,
silica fume and Metakaolin; subject to compliance with requirements of this specification.

PC: shall mean Portland cement or CEM I.

FA or PFA: shall mean fly ash or pulverised fuel ash.

GGBS: shall mean ground granulated blast furnace slag.

3.2

SOURCE APPROVAL

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval full details of the proposed source of
cement. These sources of cement supply shall be regularly and thoroughly investigated to
ensure that the quality of the material supply is satisfactory and that it does not deteriorate
during the performance of the project.

The cement source shall not be changed without the Engineer's acceptance.

The Contractor shall supply the Engineer with the manufacturers test certificates certifying
that the cement is in compliance with the relevant standards.

For imported cement the manufacturers test certificates shall be provided with each
consignment. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer the date of manufacture and proof
that the specifications have been complied with, certified by an independent agency in the
country of origin.

Cement manufacturers shall label their packaging and delivery documents and shall provide,
where applicable, information on the packing/dispatch date, storage conditions and the
storage period appropriate to maintaining the activity of any reducing agent and to keeping
the content of soluble chromium (VI) below the 2 ppm limit. The Engineer has the right to test
the cement for presence of chromium at the contractors expense.

3.3

SAMPLING

The methods of obtaining samples of cement for testing shall be carried out as described in
EN 196 or ASTM C183

3.4

QUALITY AND TESTING

The cementitious material shall fully comply with the relevant standard(s) from the following
list:

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3.1.3

ASTM C150 ................Standard specification for Portland cement


ASTM C595 ................Standard specification for blended Hydraulic cement

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
03: Cementitious Materials

Page 4

ASTM C618 ...............Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw natural pozzolan for use
in concrete
ASTM C989 ...............Standard specification for ground granulated blastfurnace slag for use
in concrete and mortars
ASTM C1157 ..............Standard performance specification for Hydraulic cement
ASTM C1240 ..............Standard specification for silica fume used in cementitious mixtures
BS 146 ........................Portland-blast furnace cement
BS 1370 ......................Low heat Portland cement
BS 4027 ......................Sulphate-resisting Portland cement
BS EN 197-1, ............minimum grade 42.5
BS EN 450 .................Fly ash for concrete.
BS EN 15167 .............Ground granulated blastfurnace slag for use in concrete, mortar and
grouts.
EN 12363 ..................Silica fume for concrete.
Relevant GSO
The water-soluble chromium (VI) content shall not exceed 2ppm (0,0002%) by total dry
weight of cementitious materials.

3.5

DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING

Cement shall be delivered to the Site in sealed and branded bags, or in the manufacturers
containers, bearing the manufacturers name, cement type and date of manufacture, in
batches not exceeding 100 tons.

Cement shall be stored at the site in such a manner, as to prevent its deterioration, intrusion
of moisture and foreign matter. It must be kept dry at all times. Immediately upon arrival at
the Site the Contractor shall store the cement in

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(a)

bins or silos designed for the purpose. It shall be tight and provide for free movement
to discharge opening, or

(b)

dry, weather tight and properly ventilated structures with floors raised a minimum of
450 mm above the ground with adequate provision to prevent absorption of moisture.

All storage facilities shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer, and shall be such as to
permit easy access for inspection and identification. Prolonged storage of cement at site is to
be avoided.

For bagged cement, each consignment of cement shall be kept separately, and the
Contractor shall use the consignments in the order in which they are received.

The Contractor shall keep records of the various consignments of cement in store, giving
quantities received and used, and the sections of the work in which the cement has been
used, on a daily basis and make a weekly return to the Engineer accordingly. Cement used in
the Works shall be free flowing and free from lumps.

In no case shall bagged cement be stored in stacks more than eight bags high.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
03: Cementitious Materials

Page 5

A free passage of at least 1 m shall be left between the cement and the side walls of the
structure.
Different types of cement shall be kept in clearly marked separate storage facilities.

Cement delivered to Site in drums or bags by the supplier or manufacturer shall be stored in
the drums or bags until used in the Works.

10

Any cement in drums or bags which have been opened shall be used immediately.

11

Cement that has partially or fully caked in storage will not be permitted in work and shall be
immediately removed from the storage area. Any bag or package or sample of cement which
has been damaged, or rebagged or in any way has deteriorated shall be rejected either as an
individual bag or package or as the whole consignment in which such bag, package or
sample is contained, as advised by the Engineer.

12

Where Site limitations preclude the storage of cement on Site, cement shall be stored at a
central location and shall be delivered daily as required to specific job sites.

13

The Contractor shall provide weighing machines which shall be kept permanently in each
shed for checking the weight of the bags or barrels of cement. The weighing machines shall
be calibrated by an independent agency. The Engineer shall have access at all times to the
cement storage sheds.

14

During transport and storage the cement shall be fully protected from all weather elements.

15

Any consignment of cement not used within two months from the date of manufacture and
cement which in the opinion of the Engineer is of doubtful quality shall not be used in the
Works until it has been retested and test result sheets showing that it complies in all respects
with the specification and relevant standards have been delivered to the Engineer.

16

Cement stored for longer than 28 days shall be tested for loss on ignition" prior to use to
check for deterioration, and any cement which fails the test shall not be used in the works.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
04: Water

Page 1

WATER ................................................................................................................... 2

4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2

4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4

QUALITY OF WATER ............................................................................................. 3


General
3
pH of Water
3
Permissible Temperatures
3
Supply and Storage
3

4.3
4.3.2

TESTING AND SAMPLING ..................................................................................... 3


Health and Safety
5

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
04: Water

Page 2

WATER

4.1

GENERAL

4.1.1

Scope

This Part includes water used for concrete mixtures, washing of aggregates and equipment,
wetting of surfaces or ponding during curing or for wetting formwork and washing
reinforcement.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 2, .............. Aggregates
Part 6, .............. Property Requirements
Part 9, .............. Formwork
Part 10, ............ Curing
Part 11, ............ Reinforcement

4.1.2

References

The following standards are referred to in this Part:

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ASTM C109 ................test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars
(using 2-in or 50 mm Cube Specimens)
BS 1377 ......................Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes.
BS 2690 ......................Methods of testing water used in industry
BS 6068 ......................Water quality
BS EN ISO 9963-1 .....Determination of total and composite alkalinity
BS EN ISO 9963-2 .....Determination of carbonate alkalinity
EN 196-1 ....................Determination of strength
EN 196-2 ....................Methods of testing cement - Part 2: Chemical analysis of cement
EN 196-3 ....................Determination of setting time and soundness
EN 1008 .....................Mixing water for concrete, Specification for sampling, testing and
assessing the suitability of water, including water recovered from
processes in the concrete industry, as mixing water for concrete
SM 5220 B ................. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
SM 4500 ....................Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater
ISO 7890

...............Water quality -- Determination of nitrate -- Part 1: 2,6-Dimethylphenol


spectrometric method

SM 3125B (ICP/MS) ...Metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
04: Water

Page 3

QUALITY OF WATER

4.2.1

General

Potable water is suitable for use in concrete, while water of other origin such as underground
water, natural surface water, recovered water, as well as municipal treated water or mixed
water shall be tested to prove that its quality shall conform to water quality requirements as
given below in 4.3.

On site, where a permit is issued for Municipal Treated Effluent use for concrete, the effluent
shall be treated by tertiary treatment stage: Reverse Osmosis (R.O.), and disinfection
(Ultraviolet Radiation, or ozonation).

The water shall be examined in accordance with the test procedures stated in Table 1, EN
1008. Water not conforming to one or more of the requirements in Table 1, EN 1008 may be
used only, if it can be shown to be suitable for use in concrete, in accordance with the
physical tests of Table 1 below.

The site health and safety services and Treated Effluent Quality shall fulfil the requirements
of 5

4.2.2

pH of Water

The pH of water used in concrete works shall be as shown in Table 4.2.

4.2.3

Permissible Temperatures

Temperature of water for concrete shall not be less than 5 C and not more than 40 C

Water may be cooled to not less than 5 C by the gradual addition of chilled water or ice as

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4.2

follows:
(a)

no ice particles shall be present in the mix

(b)

alternatively, flaked ice may be used

(c)

ice to be used shall be crushed and shall be a product of frozen water which
complies with the acceptance criteria of Tables 4.1 and 4.2 and 4.3.

Every effort should be made to protect water pipes and tanks from the sun; e.g., burying,
shading, insulation or painting white.

4.2.4

Supply and Storage

The Contractor shall make his own arrangements and obtain the approval of the Engineer for
the supply of water.

Storage of water should be such that contamination is prevented from occurring. Any
measures taken to avoid contamination of the water shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

4.3

TESTING AND SAMPLING

Whenever required to do so by the Engineer, the Contractor shall take samples of the water
being used, or which it is proposed to use, for mixing concrete and test them for quality.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
04: Water

Page 4

Samples of water of not less than 5 l shall be taken, sealed and sent for testing at an
approved independent laboratory, prior to the approval of any water source, and whenever
the sources of water is changed periodically during the continuance of its use.

Water of questionable quality should comply with the physical tests of Table 4.1 and chemical
limitations listed in Table 4.2 & Table 4.3.

No source of water shall be used until the required tests have demonstrated its suitability for
concreting.

The use of water from a municipal or government supply does not preclude the requirement
for testing.
Table 4.1
Acceptance Criteria and Physical Tests for Mixing Water
Test Method

Limits

EN 196-1

90 %

Setting time, max. deviation from control, (h:min)

EN 196-3

from 1:00 early to 1:30 later

TC

Compressive strength at 7 d, min % of control

Parameter
(a)

AM

Table 4.2
Chemical Limitations for Mixing Water

Chloride (as CI)


(a-1) for Prestressed concrete.

500

(a-2) for reinforced concrete.

1000

(a-3) for concrete without reinforcement.

4500

2-

Sulphates (as SO4 )

(c)

Alkali
(c-1) Alkali carbonates and bicarbonates

(c-2) Alkali equivalent sodium oxides


Total dissolved ions, including
a, b and c above

EN 196-2

pH

2000

BS 6068-2.51
BS EN ISO 9963-1
BS EN ISO 9963-2

500

EN 196-2

1500

BS 1377 : Part 3

1000
2000
5000

(d-1) for prestressed concrete


(d-2) reinforced concrete.
(d-3) for concrete without reinforcement.
(e)

Maximum Limit,
mg/l

BS 6068-1.37 (ISO
9297)

(b)

(d)

Test Method

BS 6068-2.50

6.5 - 9.0

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
04: Water

Page 5

Table 4.3
Maximum limit of Harmful Contaminants
Parameter

Test Method

Maximum Limit, mg/l

COD

SM 5220 B

50

Phosphate; expressed as PO4 - P

SM 4500 P B, C, SM 4500
PD by subtraction

30

ISO 7890-1

100

Nitrate; expressed as NO3 -N


Lead; expressed as Pb
Zinc; expressed as Zn

2+

2+

SM 3125B (ICP/MS)
SM 3125B (ICP/MS)

100
100

SM: Standards Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.

Health and Safety

On site, where a permit is issued for Municipal Treated Water use in construction works, the
effluent should be treated by tertiary treatment stage including filtration and disinfectant
(Chlorine alone, or Ultraviolet Radiation, or ozonation). Furthermore, the following site health
and safety services and the Treated Effluent Quality shall be fulfilled:

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4.3.2

(a)

Residual chlorine level shall be within the range of 0.5 1.0 mg/l. For water to be used
for concrete, the disinfectant shall be Ultraviolet Radiation, or ozonation.

(b)

Coliform level shall fulfil one of the following:


(i)

Fecal Coliform < 200 CFU/100 ml, in case there is no direct exposure on site
labour.

(ii)

Total Coliform < 23 CFU/100 ml, in case there is direct exposure on site labour.

(c)

The site shall be facilitated by health and safety guidelines signs, where it is indicated
by Arabic, English, and any other languages where there are 5 workers or more on the
site, that Water not for Human Consumption

(d)

The site shall be facilitated by health and safety equipment, as well as, personal health
and safety protection equipment.

(e)

Labour shall follow health and safety guidelines and instructions and use their health
and safety personal protection equibment.

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
05: Admixtures

Page 1

ADMIXTURES ......................................................................................................... 2

5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Definitions
2
Submittals
2

5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2

USE OF ADMIXTURES ........................................................................................... 3


General
3
Trials
3

5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.6
5.3.7

WATER PROOFING ADMIXTURES ....................................................................... 3


General
3
Water resisting admixtures
4
Permeability reducing admixture
4
Submittals
4
General
4
Organic Corrosion Inhibitors
4
Inorganic Corrosion Inhibitors
5

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
05: Admixtures

Page 2

ADMIXTURES

5.1

GENERAL

5.1.1

Scope

This Part includes materials added to the concrete materials during mixing.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 1 ............... General
Part 6 ............... Property Requirements
Part 7 ............... Concrete Plants
Part 16 ............. Miscellaneous

5.1.2

References

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:
ACI 212.3R-10............Report on Chemical Admixtures for Concrete
ACI 302 ......................Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction

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ACI 305 ......................Hot Weather Concreting

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ACI 308 ......................Standard Practice for Curing Concrete


ASTM C494, ...............Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete
ASTM C1582, .............Standard Specification for Admixtures to Inhibit Chloride-Induced
Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete
BS EN 934 ..................Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout (Parts: 2, 6)
BS EN 196, ................Methods of testing cement
BS EN 14889 .............Fibres for concrete Polymer fibres. Definitions, specifications and
conformity
NSF ............................ Standard 61

5.1.3

Definitions

Admixtures are materials added during the mixing process of concrete to modify the
properties of the concrete mix in the fresh and/or hardened state.

5.1.4

Submittals

In addition to the specified general requirements for approval of materials, approval of


admixtures shall be subject to extensive trials to demonstrate the suitability, adequacy of
dosing arrangements and performance.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
05: Admixtures

Page 3

5.2

USE OF ADMIXTURES

5.2.1

General

Admixtures are materials added to the concrete materials during the mixing process to
modify its properties in the fresh and/or hardened state.

Where approved and or directed by the Engineer, admixtures shall be used as a means of:

(a)

enhancing concrete durability

(b)

increasing workability of the concrete without increasing the water:cement ratio

(c)

controlling retardation and setting time.

Admixtures shall comply with the following BS EN 934 2 requirements or the equivalent
ASTM C494:
(a)

water reducing/plasicizing admixture

(b)

high range water reducing/plasticizer admixture

(c)

set retarding admixtures

The methods and the quantities of admixture used shall be in accordance with the
manufacturers instruction and subject to the Engineers approval after evaluation in trial
mixes and shall in no way limit the Contractors obligations under the Contract to produce
concrete with the specified strength, workability and durability.

The effects of accidental overdose of the admixture and measure to be taken if an overdose
occurs shall be provided by the Contractor to the Engineer.

No admixtures containing chlorides shall be used. In particular, the use of acceleration


admixtures containing calcium chloride shall not be used.

The use of the admixtures shall be controlled; i.e., strict quality control to ensure correct
dosages as prescribed by the manufacturer and justified by trial mixes to be used. A
calibrated dispenser or flowmeter shall be used for the addition of the admixture.

5.2.2

Trials

In addition to the standard requirements for the approval of materials, approval of admixtures
shall be subject to extensive trials to demonstrate the suitability, adequacy of dosing
arrangements and performance, when a proven history of performance cannot be provided to
the satisfaction of the Engineer.

5.3

WATER PROOFING ADMIXTURES

5.3.1

General

The admixture shall be suitable for use in the Gulf condition, and specially formulated for
higher ambient temperature.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
05: Admixtures

Page 4

The admixture shall be added as per manufacturers datasheet. Approved third party
laboratory verification shall be conducted prior to use of material for the works. The
manufacturers technical representative shall be present to ensure proper dosage of
admixture during the trial mix.

5.3.2

Water resisting admixtures

Water resisting admixtures may be used with the permission of the Engineer and shall
comply with the requirements of BS EN 934-2.

The admixture is to be added as per the Manufacturers supplier data sheet at the time of
mixing. An approved lab verification shall be made prior to use,

5.3.3

Permeability reducing admixture

The admixture shall be a permeability reducing admixture for Non-Hydrostatic Conditions


(PRAN) and for hydrostatic conditions (PRAH) as indicated by ACI 212.3R-10, or crystalline
waterproofing admixture.

For PRAH, independent testing shall be performed according to NSF Standard 61 and
approval for use of waterproofing material on structures holding potable water shall be
evidenced by NSF certification.

5.3.4

Submittals

The Contractor shall submit manufacturers' specifications, installation instructions and other
data to show compliance with the requirements of this part of the specification and the
Contract Documents.

The Contractor shall submit comprehensive test results for the water proofing admixture as
per the tests in the specification, and evidence of their ability to meet all the requirements
specified.

The Contractor shall submit a guarantee for the water proofing admixture. The guarantee
shall be worded to reflect the required performance of the material and shall be approved by
the Engineer.

CORROSION INHIBITING ADMIXTURES

5.3.5

General

Where reinforced concrete structures are exposed to aggressive environment such as


underground and marine structures, the use of a corrosion inhibiting admixture shall be used.

Corrosion Inhibiting Admixtures shall comply with ASTM C1582 Standard Specification for
Admixtures to Inhibit Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete.

5.3.6

Organic Corrosion Inhibitors

The admixture shall be based on either aqueous emulsion of amines and esters or amine
carboxylates and shall be capable of forming a protective corrosion resistant film around the
steel reinforcement.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
05: Admixtures

Page 5

The corrosion inhibitor shall be capable of effecting protection to the steel where concrete
has cracked and allows access to the elements responsible for corrosion.

Organic corrosion inhibitors have a fixed dosage rate independent of chloride levels and shall
be incorporated at the dosage rate recommended and tested by the Manufacturer.

5.3.7

Inorganic Corrosion Inhibitors

Inorganic corrosion inhibitors shall be based on calcium nitrites capable of oxidizing steel to a
more stable form increasing its passivity in the presence of chlorides.

Dosage of inorganic corrosion inhibitors ranges from 10 to 30L/m3 depending on the


expected chloride levels as defined by ACI 212 Table 13.1.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 1

PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................... 2

6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Definitions:
6
Submittals
7

6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2

EXPOSURE CLASSES ......................................................................................... 10


General
10
Reinforcement corrosion and sulphate classes
10

6.3
6.3.1

FRESH CONCRETE ............................................................................................. 12


General
12

6.4

GRADES OF CONCRETE..................................................................................... 13

6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
6.5.5
6.5.6
6.5.7

DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................ 13


General
13
Maximum acid soluble chloride content
14
Type of cementitious material
14
Resistance to alkali-silica reaction
15
Recommendations to resist reinforcement corrosion
15
Recommendations to resist sulphate attack
16
Durability-Related Properties
16

6.6
6.6.1

DESIGN OF CONCRETE MIXES .......................................................................... 17


Concrete
18

6.7

TRIAL MIXES ........................................................................................................ 25

6.8
6.8.1
6.8.2
6.8.3
6.8.4

QUALITY AND TESTING ...................................................................................... 27


General
27
Tests for Concrete
27
Hardened Tests for Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
29
Quality Control charts
29

6.9

WORKS TEST CUBES ......................................................................................... 30

6.10
6.10.1
6.10.2

REJECTION OF CONCRETE MIXES ................................................................... 30


Rejection of Concrete Mixes:
30
Unsatisfactory Concrete Works
31

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 2

PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS

6.1

GENERAL

6.1.1

Scope

This Part includes Grades 15 MPa and above of concrete to be used in the civil works, with
the requirements for workability, permeability, and drying shrinkage.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 2, ........... Aggregates
Part 3, ........... Cementitious Materials
Part 4, ............ Water
Part 5, ........... Admixtures
Part 7, ............ Concrete Plants
Part 8, ........... Transportation and Placing of Concrete
Part 9, .............. Formwork
Part 13, ............ Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete
References

The following standards are referred to in this Part. The designer along with contractor are
responsible to use the latest update standard as published by the organization:

AM

TC

6.1.2

ACI 207.1R .................Guide to Mass Concrete


ACI 207.2R .................Report on Thermal and Volume Change Effects on Cracking of Mass
Concrete
ACI 207.5R .................Roller - Compacted mass concrete
ACI 213, .....................Guide for Structural Lightweight-Aggregate Concrete
ACI 214, .....................Evaluation of Strength Test Results of Concrete
ACI 221, .....................Guide for Use of Normal Weight and Heavyweight Aggregates in
Concrete
ACI 237R 07 ..............Self Consolidating Concrete
ACI 301, .....................Specifications for Structural Concrete
ACI 304, .....................Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, and Placing Concrete
ACI 304.2, ..................Placing Concrete by Pumping Methods
ACI 318, .....................Metric Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete &
Commentary
ACI 506, ....................Guide to Shotcrete
ACI 506.1, ..................Guide to Fiber-Reinforced Shotcrete
ACI 506.2, ..................Specification for Shotcrete
ACI 555, .....................Removal and Reuse of Hardened Concrete
ASTM A 820, ..............Specification for Steel Fibers for Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
ASTM C 31, ................Practice for making and curing concrete test specimens in the field
ASTM C 33, ...............Specification for Concrete Aggregates

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06: Property Requirements

Page 3

ASTM C 39, ................Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete


Specimens
ASTM C 42, ................Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed
Beams of Concrete
ASTM C 94, ................Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete
ASTM C192, ...............Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the
Laboratory
ASTM E 119, ..............Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials
ASTM C 138, ..............Test Method for Density (Unit Weight), Yield, and Air Content
(Gravimetric) of Concrete
ASTM C 150, .............Specification for Portland Cement
ASTM C 172, ..............Practice for Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete
ASTM C 173, ..............Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the
Volumetric Method
ASTM C 231 ...............Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the
Pressure Method
ASTM C 232, .............Test Methods for Bleeding of Concrete
ASTM C 311, .............Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans
for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete

TC

ASTM C 387, ..............Specification for Packaged, Dry, Combined Materials for Mortar and
Concrete
ASTM C 597, ..............Test Method for Pulse Velocity through Concrete

AM

ASTM C 617, .............Practice for Capping Cylindrical Concrete Specimens


ASTM C 618, .............Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan
for Use in Concrete
ASTM C 637, ..............Specification for Aggregates for Radiation-Shielding Concrete
ASTM C 638, .............Descriptive Nonmenclature of
Radiation-Shielding Concrete

Constituents

of

Aggregates

for

ASTM C 803, .............Test Method for Penetration Resistance of Hardened Concrete


ASTM C 805, .............Test Method for Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete
ASTM C 856, .............Practice for Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete
ASTM C 900, .............Test Method for Pullout Strength of Hardened Concrete
ASTM C 989, ..............Standard Specification for Slag Cement for Use in Concrete and
Mortars
ASTM C 1018, ............Test Method for Flexural Toughness and First-Crack Strength of FiberReinforced Concrete
ASTM C 1116, ...........Specification for Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
ASTM C 1140, ............Practice for Preparing and Testing Specimens from Shotcrete Test
Panels
ASTM C 1152 .............Standard Test Method for Acid-Soluble Chloride in Morter and
Concrete.
ASTM C 1218 .............Standard Test Method for Water-Soluble Chloride in Morter and
Concrete.
ASTM C 1231, ............Practice for Use of Unbonded Caps in Determination of Compressive
Strength of Hardened Concrete Cylinders

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Page 4

ASTM C 1240, ............Specification for Silica Fume Used in Cementitious Mixtures


ASTM C 1385, ............Practice for Sampling Materials for Shotcrete
ASTM C 1399, ............Test Method for Obtaining Average Residual-Strength of FiberReinforced Concrete
ASTM C 1480, ............Specification for Packaged, Pre-Blended, Dry, Combined Materials for
Use in Wet or Dry Shotcrete Application
ASTM C 1550, ............Test Method for Flexural Toughness of Fiber Reinforced Concrete
(Using Centrally Loaded Round Panel)
ASTM C 1604, ............Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores of Shotcrete
ASTM C 1609, ............Test Method for Flexural Performance of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
(Using Beam With Third-Point Loading)
ASTM C 1611, ............Test Method for Slump Flow of Self-Compacting Concrete
ASTM C 1666, ............Specification for Alkali Resistant (AR) Glass Fiber for GFRC and
Fiber-Reinforced Concrete and Cement
ASTM D 5759, ............Guide for Characterization of Coal Fly Ash and Clean Coal
Combustion Fly Ash for Potential Uses
ASTM D 6942, ............Test Method for Stability of Cellulose Fibers in Alkaline Environments

TC

BRE digest 433, .........Recycled Aggregates


BS 4027, ....................Specification for Sulphate-Resisting Portland Cement

AM

BS 6073-2:2008, ........Precast concrete masonry units. Guide for specifying precast concrete
masonry units
BS 8500, ....................Concrete, Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1.
BS 8666,.....................Specification for scheduling, dimensioning, bending and cutting of
steel reinforcement for concrete
BS EN 206-1, ............Concrete. Specification, Performance, Production And Conformity
BS EN 450,.................Fly Ash for Concrete. Definition, Specifications And Conformity Criteria
BS EN 771-3, .............Specification for masonry units. Aggregate concrete masonry units
(dense and light-weight aggregates
BS EN 772-2, ............. Methods of test for masonry units. Determination of percentage area
of voids in masonry units (by paper indentation)
BS EN 12350,.............Testing Fresh Concrete
BS EN 12350-1, .........Testing fresh concrete - Part 1: Sampling
BS EN 12350-2, .........Testing fresh concrete - Part 2: Slump test
BS EN 12350-3, .........Testing fresh concrete - Part 3: Vebe test
BS EN 12350-4, .........Testing fresh concrete - Part 4: Degree of compactability
BS EN 12350-5, .........Testing fresh concrete - Part 5: Flow table test
BS EN 12350-6, .........Testing fresh concrete - Part 6: Density
BS EN 12350-7, .........Testing fresh concrete - Part 7: Air content - Pressure methods
BS EN 12390,.............Testing Hardened Concrete
BS EN 12390-1, .........Testing hardened concrete - Part 1: Shape, dimensions and other
requirements for specimens and moulds
BS EN 12390-2, .........Testing hardened concrete - Part 2: Making and curing specimens for
strength tests

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Page 5

BS EN 12390-3, .........Testing hardened concrete - Part 3: Compressive strength of test


specimens
BS EN 12390-4, .........Testing hardened concrete - Part 4: Compressive strength Specification for testing machines
BS EN 12390-5, .........Testing hardened concrete - Part 5: Flexural strength of test
specimens
BS EN 12390-6, .........Testing hardened concrete - Part 6: Tensile splitting strength of test
specimens
BS EN 12390-7, .........Testing hardened concrete - Part 7: Density of hardened concrete
BS EN 12390-8, .........Testing hardened concrete - Part 8: Depth of penetration of water
under pressure
BS EN 12620,.............Aggregate For Concrete
BS EN 15167 .............Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag For Use In Concrete, Mortar
And Grout. Conformity Evaluation
BS EN 1744, ..............Tests For Chemical Properties Of Aggregates
BS EN 1992-3:2006 ...Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures. Liquid retaining and
containing structures
BS EN 1992-3:2006 ...UK National Annex to Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures.
Liquid retaining and containment structures

TC

BS PD 6682-1, ...........Aggregates for Concrete. Guidance on the Use of BS EN 12620

AM

Concrete Society Report No. 31, Permeability testing of site concrete


EN 1011, .................... Welding. Recommendation for welding of metallic materials
EN 1992-1-1, ..............Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for
buildings
GSO ISO 1920-1 ........Testing of concrete Part 1: Sampling of fresh concrete
GSO ISO 1920-2 ........Testing of concrete part 2: properties of fresh concrete
GSO ISO 1920-3 ........Testing of concrete part 3: Making and curing test specimens.
GSO ISO 1920-4 .......Testing of concrete part 4: strength of hardened concrete.
GSO ISO 1920-5 .......Testing of concrete part 5: properties hardened concrete other than
strength.
GSO ISO 1920-6 ........Testing of concrete part 6: sampling, preparing and testing of
concrete core .
GSO ISO 1920-7 .......Testing of concrete part 7: Non destructive test on hardened
concrete.
ISO 1920-8 .................Testing of concrete -- Part 8: Determination of drying shrinkage of
concrete for samples prepared in the field or in the laboratory
ISO 1920-9 .................Testing of concrete -- Part 9: Determination of creep of concrete
cylinders in compression
ISO 1920-10 ...............Testing of concrete -- Part 10: Determination of static modulus of
elasticity in compression

QCS 2014

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Page 6

CSTR11......................Concrete core testing The concrete Society


RILEM CPC 11.3 .......Absorption of water by immersion under vacuum
The Concrete Society CS163. Guide to the design of concrete structures in the Arabian
Peninsula.
The European Guidelines for Self-Compacting Concrete Specification, Production and Use
6.1.3

Definitions:

Exposure conditions will apply as follows:


Class X0: No risk of corrosion or attack. Non saline conditions. Blinding concrete, nonreinforced concrete or slab on ground.

(b)

Class X1: Mild exposure Non saline conditions (dry or wet, rarely dry) External
concrete at least 3m above ground level, internal concrete in dry conditions, concrete
permanently submerged in non-saline water or non-aggressive groundwater.

(c)

Class X2: Moderate exposure Non saline conditions (Cyclic wet and dry). External
reinforced concrete less than 3m above ground level, water-retaining structures
exposed to fluctuating water levels.

(d)

Class X3: Aggressive exposure Permanently submerged or wet (rarely dry) Concrete
in contact with groundwater including capillary rise zone, concrete containing or
permanently exposed to saline water.

(e)

Class X4: Severe exposure Moderate humidity External concrete within 1km from
the sea or in contact with high saline water table or sabkhas. Concrete not affected by
condensation, irrigation or leakage, which are more than 3m above ground level.

(f)

Class X5: Extreme exposure Cyclic wet and dry, external concrete within 1km from
the sea or in contact with high saline groundwater or sabkhas. Concrete affected by
condensation, irrigation or leakage, which are less than 3m above ground level or
within capillary zone. Concrete surfaces exposed to sea water splash or in sea water
tidal zone.

(g)

Sulphate exposure classes S1 to S4: the exposure classes are related to sulphate
attack in relation to sulphate and pH of the ground water.

AM

TC

(a)

Concrete is a mixture (mix) of cementitious materials, coarse and fine aggregate, and water,
with or without admixtures, which develops its properties by cement hydration.

"Cementitious Materials": Portland cement in combination with one or more of the following:
blended hydraulic cement, fly ash and other pozzolans, ground granulated blast-furnace slag
and silica fume; subject to compliance with requirements of this specification.

Water/Cementitious Ratio shall mean the ratio between the total weight of water in the
concrete (less the water absorbed by the aggregate) and the weight of cementitious
materials, expressed as a decimal fraction.

Admixtures shall mean a material other than water, aggregate, cementitious materials or
fiber reinforcement, used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar. Admixtures are added
during the mixing process of concrete to modify the properties of the concrete mix in the
fresh and/or hardened state.

Hot Weather shall mean any combination of the following conditions that tends to impair the
quality of freshly mixed or hardened concrete by accelerating the rate of moisture loss and
rate of cement hydration, or otherwise causing detrimental results such as: a. High ambient
temperature (when the shade temperature is above 40 deg C on a rising thermometer, 43
deg C on a falling thermometer), b. High concrete temperature, c. Low relative humidity, d.
2
High wind speed and e. whenever the rate of evaporation exceeds 0.75 kg/m /h

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Mass concrete is defined as any volume of concrete with dimensions large enough to
require that measures be taken to cope with generation of heat form hydration of the cement
and attendant volume change to minimize cracking. Reinforced Massive concrete structures
include pile caps, transfer plates, and structural members where the least dimension
exceeds 1.5 meters.

Coarse Aggregate shall be considered as that size passing a 20mm sieve (or larger sieve
size) and predominately retained on a 4mm sieve.

Fine Aggregate shall be considered as that size predominately passing a 4mm sieve and
predominately retained on a 0.063mm size.

10

PC shall mean Portland cement or CEM I.

11

FA shall mean pulverised fuel ash or fly ash.

12

GGBS shall mean ground granulated blastfurnace slag.

13

SF shall mean silica fume. Other names are condensed silica fume and microsilica

14

Gap-graded aggregate shall mean graded aggregate without one or more of the
intermediate sizes.

15

Single-size aggregate shall mean aggregates containing a major proportion of particles of


one sieve size.

16

Target Mean Strength shall mean the specified characteristic strength plus the margin.

17

Margin shall mean the difference between the specified characteristic strength and the
target mean strength.

18

Acceptable or Accepted shall mean acceptable or accepted by the Engineer.

19

Approval or Approved shall mean approval from the Engineer.

20

All-in aggregate shall mean the materials composed of a mixture of coarse and fine
aggregates.

21

Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC): concrete that is able to flow and consolidate under its own
weight, completely fill the formwork even in the presence of dense reinforcement, whilst
maintaining homogeneity and without the need for any additional compaction.

6.1.4

Submittals

The Contractor shall submit details of mix designs to the Engineer for approval.

Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS or equivalent for all products. test results and other
information as required to prove compliance with the specification shall be submitted to the
Engineer for approval according to the relevant sections of QCS on at least the following
products

Cement:

AM

TC

(a)

Recent independent test results acceptable to the Engineer confirming compliance


with the specified requirements and referenced standards.

(b)

Manufacturer's certificates shall also be supplied for each batch of production of


cement or on a weekly basis, whichever is more frequent, certifying compliance with
the BS EN 197 or other equivalent standard.

QCS 2014

(c)

The early compressive strength of each consignment of cement shall conform to the
requirements of QCS part 3 at the independent site laboratory. Deviation of more than
10% from either the previous consignment value or the rolling average shall be
immediately reported to the Engineer. Testing at an independent laboratory shall be as
instructed by the Engineer.

GGBS:
(a)

Recent independent test results acceptable to the Engineer confirming compliance


with the specified requirements and referenced standards.

(b)

Manufacturer's certificates with all information necessary to verify compliance shall


also be supplied for each consignment of GGBS or on weekly basis, whichever is
more frequent.

(c)

The early compressive strength of each consignment of GGBS shall be determined in


accordance with BS EN 197 and BS EN 15167 or ASTM C989 at the independent site
laboratory based on a blend of 50/50 % GGBS and CEM 1. Deviation of more than 5%
in strength from either the previous consignment value or the rolling average shall be
immediately reported to the Engineer. Testing at an independent laboratory shall be in
accordance with per BS EN 197 and BS EN 15167 standards, and approved by the
Engineer.

FA:
(a)

Recent independent test results acceptable to the Engineer confirming compliance


with specified requirements of BS EN 450 or ASTM C618.

(b)

Manufacturer's certificates with all information necessary to verify compliance with


internationally recognized standards shall also be supplied with each consignment of
FA.

(c)

The materials shall comply with QCS part 3. Deviation of the strength factor by more
than 5% from either the previous consignment value or the rolling average shall be
immediately reported to the Engineer and the Technical Manager of the premix
company.

TC

Page 8

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Silica fume:
(a)

Recent independent test results acceptable to the Engineer confirming compliance


with specified requirements and referenced standards.

(b)

Manufacturer's certificates with all information necessary to verify compliance with


internationally recognized standards shall also be supplied with each consignment of
silica fume.

(c)

7 day pozzolanic activity test in accordance with BS EN 13263-1 or ASTM C 1240 on


each consignment of silica fume at the Independent site laboratory. Deviation of the
activity index by more than 5% from either the previous consignment value or the
rolling average shall be immediately reported to the Engineer and the Technical
Manager of the premix company.

Aggregates:
(a)

Recent independent test results acceptable to the Engineer confirming compliance


with the specified requirements and referenced standards.

(b)

Full details of the proposed sources of aggregates.

Water: Recent independent test results acceptable to the Engineer confirming compliance
with the specified requirements and referenced standards.

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Admixtures: Manufacturers technical specifications and recommendations. Recent trial


results acceptable to the Engineer illustrating the efficiency of the product for its particular
application. Tests on specific gravity and solids content shall be conducted at the
Independent site laboratory on each consignment.

10

Mix Designs: Submit concrete mix designs for each type and strength of concrete required at
least thirty (30) days before placing concrete.

11

New mix designs, with historic data less than 6 months, shall be verified by an approved
independent testing laboratory in accordance with requirements of QCS Part 05 and shall be
coordinated with design requirements and Contract Documents.

12

Submit complete mix design data for each separate mix to be used on the Project in a single
submittal with at least the following information:
Type of cement*.

(b)

Portland cement content*.

(c)

Cementitious content* (GGBS, FA, natural pozzolan, rice husk ash and/or silica fume).

(d)

Max. aggregate size*.

(e)

Combined grading curve for coarse aggregate

(f)

Quantities of all individual materials*

(g)

Type of admixture(s)*

(h)

Target slump/slump flow (at discharge)* as per BS EN 12350-2

(i)

Initial and final concrete setting time for each mix design as per ASTM C403 or
equivalent BS EN standards, if specified

(j)

Fresh density of concrete as per BS EN 12350-6

(k)

Air content as per BS EN 12350-7

(l)

Target temperature*

(m)

Bleeding, if specified

(n)

Chloride and sulphate (SO3) contents

(o)

Details of calculated water/cementitious material (w/c) ratio*

(p)

Compressive strength grade*

(q)

Hardened density

(r)

Water absorption (%) and water penetration (mm), if specified

(s)

Rapid chloride permeability - Coulomb value, if specified

(t)

Chloride migration coefficient (m /sec), if specified

AM

TC

(a)

*Include on delivery ticket as a minimum


13

Data shall be from the same production facility that will be used for the Project.

14

Mix Design data shall include but not be limited to the following:
(a)

Locations on the Project where each mix design is to be used corresponding to


Structural General Notes on the Drawings.

(b)

Proportions: Concrete constituent materials shall be proportioned to yield 1 m

(c)

Submit strength test records, mix design materials, conditions, and proportions for
concrete used for record of tests, standard deviation calculation, and determination of
required average compressive strength, if required by the Engineer.

QCS 2014

Page 10

(d)

If early concrete strength is required, contractor shall submit trial mixture results as
required.

(e)

Test records to support proposed mixtures shall be no more than 12 months old and
use current cement and aggregate sources. Test records to establish standard
deviation may be older if necessary to have the required number of samples.

(f)

Manufacturer's product data for each type of admixture.

(g)

Manufacturers certifications that all admixtures used are compatible with each other.

(h)

All information indicating compliance with Contract Documents including method of


placement and method of curing.

Mass Concrete:
Submit mix design for mass concrete elements in conformance with requirements of
ACI 301 Section 8. The concrete mix design shall not be designed with a high early
strength unless otherwise demonstrated by the Contractor for capability of maintaining
proper temperature and approved by the Engineer.

(b)

Submit proposed methods of temperature control, including cementitious material


content control in mix design to reduce heat-generating potential of concrete,
precooling of ingredients to lower concrete temperature as placed, and methods to
protect mass concrete elements from excessive temperature differentials.

(c)

Submit analysis of anticipated thermal development within mass concrete elements


with the proposed mix design for these elements. Results of the analysis, using
methods in ACI 207.1R and ACI 207.2R such as the Schmidt model and site specific
data, shall address the maximum differential temperature and the maximum
temperature during curing

(d)

Submit proposed number and locations of temperature monitoring devices to record


temperature development between the interior and the exterior of mass concrete
elements.

TC

(a)

AM

15

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

6.2

EXPOSURE CLASSES

6.2.1

General

The exposure classes are related to the environmental conditions surrounding the concrete
in service.

The concrete may be subject to more than one of the classes described below, and the
environmental conditions to which it is subjected need to be expressed as a combination of
exposure classes.

Where two or more aggressive characteristics lead to the same class, the exposure shall be
classified into the next higher class; unless a special study for this specific case proves that it
is not necessary.

For a given structure, different concrete elements may be subject to different environmental
classes.

6.2.2

Reinforcement corrosion and sulphate classes

The classification system described below is based on the approach in BS EN 206-1, BS


8500-1, and the Concrete Society CS 163.

The exposure classes related to reinforcement corrosion are associated with carbonation and
chlorides as per Table 6.1.

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The exposure classes related to sulphate attack are given in Table 6.2 in relation to sulphate
and pH of the ground water.

The sulphate content as S04 mg/l shall be determined as per BS EN 196-2.

The pH shall be determined as per ISO 4316.


Table 6.1.
Exposure classes for reinforcement corrosion
Exposure Class

Class description
No risk of corrosion or attack. Non saline conditions. Blinding concrete,
non-reinforced concrete or slab on ground

X1

Mild exposure Non saline conditions (dry or wet, rarely dry). External
concrete at least 3m above ground level, internal concrete in dry
conditions, concrete permanently submerged in non-saline water or nonaggressive groundwater (Class S1).

X2

Moderate exposure Non saline conditions (cyclic wet and dry). External
reinforced concrete less than 3m above ground level, water-retaining
structures exposed to fluctuating water levels.

X3

Aggressive exposure Permanently submerged or wet (rarely dry).


Concrete in contact with groundwater including capillary rise zone,
concrete containing or permanently exposed to saline water.

X4

Severe exposure Moderate humidity. External concrete within 1km from


the sea or in contact with high saline water table or sabkhas. Concrete not
affected by condensation, irrigation or leakage, which are more than 3m
above ground level.

X5

Extreme exposure Cyclic wet and dry. External concrete within 1km from
the sea or in contact with high saline groundwater or sabkhas. Concrete
affected by condensation, irrigation or leakage, which are less than 3m
above ground level or within capillary zone. Concrete surfaces exposed to
sea water splash or in sea water tidal zone.

AM

TC

X0

Table 6.2.
Sulphate exposure classes
Sulphate and magnesium
Exposure
class

2:1 water/soil or groundwater


SO4 (mg/l)

Mg (mg/l)

Natural soil
Static
water pH

Mobile
2
water pH

Brownfield
Static
water
pH

Mobile
2
water pH

S1

< 1500

> 3.5

Not mobile

> 5.5

Not mobile

S2

1500-3000

> 3.5

Not mobile

> 5.5

Not mobile

S3

3001-6000

1000

> 3.5

Not mobile

> 5.5

Not mobile

S4

> 6000

1000

> 3.5

> 5.5

> 5.5

> 6.5

S5

> 6000

> 1000

> 3.5

> 5.5

> 5.5

> 6.5

Notes
1.
2.

Brownfield sites are those previously occupied and contain chemical residues into the ground
or groundwater
The mobility of water shall be determined as described in the Concrete Society CS 163.

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Page 12

6.3

FRESH CONCRETE

6.3.1

General

Where adequate workability is difficult to obtain at the maximum water/cementitious ratio


allowed, the use of plasticisers or water reducing admixtures may be considered.
Alternatively an increase in cementitious content may be considered where this will not
adversely affect the durability of the concrete.

Cementitious contents in excess of 400 kg/m shall not be used unless special consideration
has been given to the effect for heat of hydration and reduce thermal stress in the concrete,
and approval has been obtained from the Engineer. The maximum cementitious content shall
not exceed 500kg/m

The proportioning, mixing and placing of the mixture shall be in accordance with Parts 7 and

8 of this Section
Temperature (at placement):
Maximum fresh concrete temperature shall not exceed 32C unless construction
testing to verify a proposed concrete mixture will function satisfactorily at a concrete
temperature greater than 32C. No concrete shall be placed if the concrete
temperature is above 35C

(b)

For mass concrete, the concrete producer shall demonstrate that temperature of
concrete due to hydration shall comply with the maximum fresh concrete temperature
specified. The supplier may use in his demonstration testing heat sensors and
simulation technologies which measure the concrete heat of hydration and its rate
versus concrete curing age.

TC

(a)

AM

The Contractor is responsible for ensuring that the concrete is able to be fully compacted
within the concrete element regardless of reinforcing density or other limitations. This may
involve reducing the maximum aggregate size, increase the level of concrete workability or
use self-compacting concrete.

Where the consistence of concrete is to be determined, it shall be measured either by means


of:
(a)

Slump test conforming to BS EN 12350-2

(b)

Flow table test conforming to BS EN 12350-5

The consistence of concrete shall be determined at the time of use of the concrete or in the
case of ready-mix concrete, at the time of delivery.

The tolerances for the different consistence tests and target values are given in Table 6.3.
Table 6.3.
Tolerances for target values of consistence
Slump*

Flow diameter*

Target value (mm)

40

50 to 90

100

Tolerance (mm)

-30, +40

-40, +50

-50, +60

Target value (mm)

All values

Tolerance (mm)

-60, +70

* For spot samples taken from initial discharge.

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6.4

GRADES OF CONCRETE

Where strength is classified with respect to compressive strength, Table 6.4 gives the
concrete grade with the requirements for w/c ratio and cementitious content.

The characteristic compressive strength at 28 days of 150mm cubes (f ck, cube) or 150mm
diameter by 300mm cylinders (fck, cyl) may be used for the classification.

Exception will be made for concrete mixtures containing fly ash, silica fume or GGBS, where
testing shall be requested at 56 days, or 90 days as approved by the Engineer.

Table 6.4:
Concrete grades and composition requirements

(N/mm )

(N/mm )

(kg/m )

(w/c)

B 15

15

12

B 20

20

16

C 25

25

20

260

0.60

C 30

30

25

300

0.58

C 35

35

AM

Maximum

Concrete Grade

Minimum
characteristic
cylinder strength
(fck, cyl)

Minimum
characteristic cube
strength (fck, cube)

28

320

0.55

C 40

40

32

335

0.50

C45

45

35

355

0.47

C 50

50

40

370

0.45

C 60

60

50

380

0.40

C 75

75

60

390

0.35

TC

Minimum cementitious
content

Water : Cementitious
Ratio

6.5

DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS

6.5.1

General

Constituent materials shall not contain harmful ingredients in such quantities as may be
detrimental to the durability of concrete or cause corrosion of the reinforcement.

For reinforced concrete in the ground, the need for protection from chlorides must be
balanced against the need for protection from sulphates.

Protective measures include the use of surface treatment, alternative reinforcement and
increasing the concrete cover. In every case, the need for good quality concrete with low
permeability is paramount.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 14

6.5.2

Maximum acid soluble chloride content

The chloride content of the concrete, expressed as the percentage of chloride ions by mass
of cementitious materials, shall not exceed the values given in Table 6.5.

Calcium chloride and chloride based admixtures shall not be used in concrete containing
steel reinforcement or other embedded metal.

The determination of the chloride content in the concrete shall be conducted by the sum of
the contributions from the constituent materials as described in BS EN 206-1 and BS 8500-2.
Table 6.5.
Maximum chloride content of concrete (by weight of cementitious materials)
Concrete type

Concrete made with sulphate


resisting Portland cement

Concrete made with other cementitious


materials than SRPC

Reinforced concrete

0.15 %

0.3 %

Pre-stressed concrete

0.08 %

0.10 %

Type of cementitious material

Different types of cementitious materials offer different resistance to sulphate attack and
penetration of chlorides

The minimum cementitious content for different concrete grades is given in Table 6.4.

Table 6.6 gives the different types of cementitious materials and their combinations.

AM

TC

6.5.3

Table 6.6.
Cementitious materials and combinations
Cementitious material

Percentage of components

Portland cement

100% PC

Sulphate-resistance Portland
cement

100% SRPC

PC/fly ash

PC/ground granulated
blastfurnace slag

Triple blend
PC/FA/SF

65-79% PC
35-21% FA
35-65% PC
65-35% GGBS
55-70% PC
35-25% FA
10-5% SF
30-45% PC

Triple blend PC/GGBS/SF

60-50% GGBS
10-5% SF

BS EN 197-1
designation

ASTM
standard

CEM I

Type 1

Type 5

CEM II/B-V

CEM III/A

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 15

Resistance to alkali-silica reaction

Alkali-silica reaction is the most common form of alkali-aggregate reaction.

Dry concrete is not prone to cracking by alkali-silica reaction, as it needs an external source
of water to develop sufficiently to cause cracking.

Where aggregate contain varieties of silica susceptible to attack by alkalis from cement and
other sources and the concrete is exposed to humid conditions, actions shall be taken to
prevent deleterious alkali-silica reaction using recommendations and procedures given in BS
EN 206-1 and BS 8500-2.

6.5.5

Recommendations to resist reinforcement corrosion

Durability design should start at the concept design stage, continuing through the design,
detailing, specification and execution phases.

This section covers the concrete grade, cementitious type, and minimum concrete cover for
various exposure classes as given in Table 6.1.

Table 6.7 provided recommended values of concrete grade and cover thickness to resist
reinforcement corrosion at different exposure classes.

TC

6.5.4

AM

Table 6.7.
Recommended durability requirement to resist reinforcement corrosion
Exposure Class

Cementitious type
(Table 6.6)

Minimum concrete cover (mm)

X0

No risk of
corrosion

25

X1

Mild

45

40

35

30

X2

Moderate

50

45

40

35

X3

Aggressive

70

65

60

55

PC/FA
PC/GGBS
Triple blend

X4

Severe*

75

70

65

60

PC/FA
PC/GGBS
Triple blend

X5

Extreme*

80

75

70

65

Triple blend

C30

C40

C50

C60

C75

Minimum concrete
grade

All

All

All

*High level of cement replacement is required for severe and extreme exposure conditions.
Other protection measures such as coated reinforcement or surface treatment may be
considered.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 16

6.5.6

Recommendations to resist sulphate attack

The exposure classification shall be identified based on the sulphate and magnesium
contents in the ground and groundwater, pH and mobility of groundwater as given in Table
6.2.

The recommended concrete specification requirements in terms of concrete grade and


cementitious type are given in Table 6.8.

Unless stated otherwise by the Engineer or project designs, all concrete below ground shall
have surface protection to prevent the movement of moisture from the ground, through the
foundations into the superstructure. The method of protection shall be in accordance with
Section 15 of the QCS or as approved by Qatar Standards.
Table 6.8
Recommended durability requirement to resist sulphate attack

Exposure class

Minimum concrete grade

Cementitious type

S1

C35

All

C40

Triple blend

S4
S5

C50

SRPC, PC/FA, PC/GGBS

C50

Triple blend

AM

S3

TC

S2

C60
C60
C75

See Note

SRPC, PC/FA, PC/GGBS


Triple blend
See Note

Note:
1
S5 requires special treatment when the sulphate content exceeds 6000 mg/l and the magnesium
content exceeds 1000 mg/l.
6.5.7

Durability-Related Properties

The durability of concrete is greatly influenced by the ability of the concrete cover to resist the
movement of liquid and gas through concrete.

The commonly used test for assessing the transport properties of concrete are listed in Table
6.9 together with typical values. Lower value indicates more durable concrete.

No values are currently specified for various exposure classes, but may be requested by the
Engineer. Table 6.9 gives the recommended durability-related properties and typical values
for the development of mix design and comparative performance as given in the Concrete
Society CS163.

For Severe and Extreme exposures, it is recommended to use high durable concrete (Table
6.9)

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 17

Table 6.9
Recommended properties and typical values for concrete
Concrete property

Test method

Water absorption
Water penetration,
Rapid chloride permeability (RCP),
Chloride migration

Age range between 28 and 90 days


High durability

Minimum durability

BS 1881: Part 122

2%

4%

BS EN 12390-8

5 mm

30 mm

ASTM C 1202

500 coulombs

NT Build 492

2.0 x10

-12

(m /s)

4000 coulombs
9.0 x10

-12

(m /s)

1. Concrete shall be tested for any of the transport properties when requested by the Engineer and shall
be tested at 28 days.

2. Exception will be made for concrete mixtures containing fly ash, silica fume or GGBS, where testing
shall be requested at 56 days, or 90 days.

6.6

DESIGN OF CONCRETE MIXES

At the start of the construction period, the Contractor shall design a mix for each grade of
concrete as stated hereafter.

Each mix design shall be such that:


the aggregate shall comprise fine aggregate and coarse aggregate with size specified
in Section 5, Part 2.

(b)

the combined aggregate grading shall be continuous

(c)

the aggregate quantity shall be calculated by weight.

AM

TC

(a)

Where a concrete production facility has strength test records not more than 12 months old,
a sample standard deviation, Ss, shall be established. Test records from which Ss is
calculated shall consist of at least 30 consecutive tests or two groups of consecutive tests
totalling at least 30 tests

Where a concrete production facility does not have strength test records meeting
requirements of 6.6 (3) above, but does have test records not more than 12 months old
based on 15 to 29 consecutive tests, a sample standard deviation Ss shall be established as
the product of the calculated sample standard deviation and modification factor of Table 6.10
Table 6.10
Modification Factor for Sample Standard Deviation When Less Than 30 Tests Are Available
No. of tests

Modification factor for sample standard


deviation

Less than 15

Use para 7. Below

15

1.16

20

1.08

25

1.03

30

1.00

1- Interpolate for intermediate number of tests


2- Modified sample standard deviation, Ss, to be used to determined required
average strength fcr

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 18

To determine the correction factor between cube strength and cylinder strength, the
contractor shall establish at least 30 consecutive strength tests from each proposed mix
design. This correction will remain valid thru the project providing that no change in the
properties of the materials and no change in source occurred.

Required average compressive strength (Target Mean Strength) fcr used as the basis for
selection of concrete proportions shall be determined from Table 6.11 using the sample
standard deviation, Ss

Table 6.11:
Required Target Mean Strength when data are available
to establish a sample Standard Deviation
Specified compressive
N/mm2 or MPa

strength,

Fc < 35 MPa --- see footnote

Required average compressive strength, Target


2
Mean Strength, N/mm or MPa

Fcr = fc + 1.34Ss ------------------ Eq. 1


Fcr = fc + 2.33Ss 3.5 ---------- Eq. 2
Fcr = fc + 1.34Ss ------------------ Eq. 1

TC

Fc > 35 MPa --- see footnote

Fcr = 0.90fc + 2.33Ss ------------ Eq. 3

AM

Note: Use the larger value computed from any equation


When a concrete production facility does not have field strength test records for calculation of
Ss, Required average strength (Target Mean Strength) fcr shall be determined as follow:
(a)

Fcr = fc + 8.5 MPa when 20 < fc < 35 MPa

(b)

Fcr = 1.10fc + 5 MPa when fc > 35 MPa

6.6.1

Concrete

Portland cement concrete shall consist of a mixture of cementitious materials, fine aggregate,
coarse aggregate, water, and additives (when required). It shall be classified as in Table 6.4
unless otherwise stated hereafter and requested by the Engineer.

Blinding concrete
(a)

Blinding concrete shall be of minimum Grade C15 and above.

(b)

The thickness of the blinding concrete shall be as shown on the Drawings, but shall in
no instance be less than 75 mm.

(c)

The surface finish to blinding concrete shall be Class U4 as specified in Clause 9.3.1
of Part 9 of this Section or as directed by the Engineer.

QCS 2014

Page 19

Mass Concrete
(a)

The fresh concrete temperature at placing shall not exceed 21C to minimise thermal
cracking. A higher temperature of up to 27C may be accepted with a demonstration of
the satisfactory performance of concrete including mock up and thermal calculations.
The maximum allowable differential temperature between the interior and the exterior
of the mass concrete element shall not exceed 20 C. The maximum temperature in
any location within the mass concrete structure during curing shall not exceed 70 C.
The drop in concrete surface temperature during, and at the conclusion of the
specified curing period, shall not exceed 11 C in any 24 hour period.

Self-Compacting Concrete
(a)

General: Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a special concrete that requires


minimum or no vibration for placing and compaction. It is able to flow under its own
weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction, even in the presence
of congested reinforcement. The hardened concrete is dense, homogeneous and has
the same engineering properties and durability as traditional vibrated, fully compacted
concrete.

(b)

Self-Compacting Concrete Supplier: SCC shall be supplied by a competent concrete


producer with a record of successfully producing this type of concrete at considerable
volume and with high consistency.

(c)

Constituent Materials, General: The constituent materials for SCC are the same as
those used in traditional concrete conforming to EN 206-1, as specified in part 2 of this
section.

(d)

To achieve these requirements the control of the constituent materials needs to be


increased and the tolerable variations restricted, so that daily production of SCC is
within the conformity criteria without the need to test and/or adjust every batch.

(e)

Recommended Test Requirements for SCC:

AM

TC

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Laboratory tests

Field Tests

Slump-flow

600 750 mm

550 750 mm

V-Funnel

6 25 sec

N.A

L-Box (3 bars)

> 0.80

N.A

J-Ring

< 10mm

N.A

(f)

Concrete specimens shall be moulded in single layer without rodding and tapping

(g)

Slump flow and VSI testing shall be performed as outlined in the European Guidelines
for SCC, BS EN 12350-8 and BS EN 12350-9 or ACI 237R 07 and ASTM C 1611/C
1611M

Pile Concrete
3

(a)

The cementitious content shall not be less than 380 kg/m , as specified in Section 4.

(b)

The water-cementitious ratio shall not exceed 0.45

QCS 2014

Page 20

(c)

The concrete mixture shall be designed of high slump not less than 150 mm allowing
proper free fall with excellent homogeneity. When concrete mixture requires slump of
greater than 230 mm, it shall be designed as Self-Compacting Concrete or as
instructed by the Engineer.

(d)

The concrete slump shall have adequate workability retention using approved type of
retarder and shall be submitted in the design mix.

(e)

The increase in workability shall not permit any decrease in the specified design
strength

(f)

The concrete in a pile shall, if at all possible, be placed in one continuous operation.

Underwater Concrete
(a)

Shall comply with ACI 304 Chapter 8

(b)

The Cementitious content shall not be less than 390 kg/m

(c)

The water-cementitious ratio must not exceed 0.40

(d)

Fine aggregate contents of 45 to 55% by volume of total aggregate and air contents of
up to approximately 5% are generally specified.

(e)

Concrete shall be more cohesive and less prone to washout of cement or fines from
the concrete during placement. Antiwashout admixtures or alternative concrete mix
shall be used for underwater concrete.

(f)

Trial placements shall be conducted to verify that the concrete proportioned with the
antiwashout admixture can maintain adequate slump life and can flow for the required
distance.

(g)

The concrete mixture shall be designed of high slump not less than 150 mm allowing
proper free fall with excellent homogeneity. The use of air-entraining admixture shall
be evaluated as it increases the workability. When concrete mixture requires slump of
greater than 230 mm, it shall be designed as Self Compacted Concrete. The increase
in slump shall be made using proper admixtures.

(h)

The concrete slump shall have adequate retention using approved type of retarder and
shall be submitted in the design mix.

(i)

The increase in workability shall not permit any decrease in the specified design
strength

(j)

The concrete shall be placed in one continuous operation

(k)

The final selection of a concrete mixture shall be based on test placements made
under water in a placement box or in a pit that can be dewatered after the placement.
Test placements shall be examined for concrete surface flatness, amount of laitance
present, quality of concrete at the extreme flow distance of the test, and flow around
embedded items, if appropriate.

TC

AM

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Shotcrete
(a)

The classification of shotcreting shall be in accordance to the process used (wet-mix


or dry-mix) and the size of aggregates used.

(b)

All materials shall be as per QCS except for aggregate where gradation shall be as per
ACI 506R and 506.2R

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 21

(c)

Steel and synthetic fibers will be used to reduce propagation of cracks. Fibers shall be
as per Manufacturer supplier data sheet and shall conform to ASTM A 820 for steel
fibers and ASTM C1116 for synthetic fibers.

(d)

The nozzle operator should be certified (refer to ACI CP-60) and have completed at
least one similar application as a nozzle operator on a similar project. The nozzle
operator should also be able to demonstrate, by test, an ability to satisfactorily perform
the required duties and to apply shotcrete as required by specifications

(e)

Before shotcreting the surface shall be prepared and maintained before and during
shotcrete application. Surface preparation shall conform to ACI 506 R chap. 5

(f)

The cementitious content shall not be less than 360 kg/m where wet-mix is applied
the slump shall be in the range of 40 to 80 mm

(g)

Normal testing ages for compressive strength are 7 and 28 days; however, shorter
periods may be required for particular applications or conditions as directed by the
3
Engineer. Testing shall be on daily production or every 30 m whichever is greater.

(h)

Sampling and testing, however, should be varied according to the size and complexity
of the project. Sampling should be done in accordance with ASTM C 1385. Making
extra cylinders or panels shall be at the request of Engineer if testing results vary.

(i)

Testing for water absorption and drying shrinkage shall be at the request of the
Engineer.

(j)

Fiber-reinforced shotcrete requires fiber washout tests or flexural toughness testing


according to ASTM C 1018.

(k)

Acceptance of shotcrete should be based on results obtained from drilled cores or


sawed cubes (ASTM C 42). The use of data from nondestructive testing devices, such
as impact hammers or probes (ASTM C 805, ASTM C 803), ultrasonic equipment
(ASTM C 597), and pull-out devices (ASTM C 900) may be useful in determining the
uniformity and quality of the in-place shotcrete. These tests, however, may not provide
reliable values for compressive strength.

(l)

Core grading is a method used to evaluate encasement of reinforcement. Core


grading shall be used for nozzle operator evaluation. Core grading should not be used
to evaluate structures.

AM

TC

No-Fines Concrete and Pervious concrete


(a)

No-fines concrete shall be made using a coarse aggregate conforming QCS section 5
part 3

(b)

Proportion of aggregate, cement and water shall be determined by trial mixes by the
Contractor and to be accepted by the Engineer.

(c)

All the aggregate particles are to be coated with a film of cement grout.

(d)

No-fines concrete when placed shall contain no layers of laitance.

(e)

No-fines concrete shall not be mixed by hand.

(f)

Mechanical vibration shall not be used to compact no-fines concrete.

(g)

Three test cubes of no-fines concrete shall be made of each preliminary mix.

(h)

Minimum crushing strength of the chosen mix shall be 5 MPa at 28 days.

QCS 2014

(i)

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 22

The porosity of no-fines concrete shall be such that water will pass through a slab
2
300 mm thick at the rate of not less than 7 l/m s of slab with a constant 100 mm
depth of water on the slab.

10

Where a slab incorporating vertical weep holes or drain holes is casted above a layer
of no-fines concrete; any polyethylene sheeting shall be pierced below the pipes
forming such drain holes and the edges of the sheeting sealed to the lower end of the
pipe to prevent the ingress of grout and fine particles from the slab concrete into the
no-fines concrete.

(k)

The limit for the maximum height of drop while placing is not applicable for no fines
concrete.

(l)

Formwork shall remain in place until the no fines concrete has gained adequate
strength to support itself as per the requirements of Part 10 of this Section.

(m)

Curing shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of Part 11 of this Section

(n)

The fresh density of Pervious concrete shall be tested as per ASTM C1688 and the
infiltration rate shall be tested as per ASTM C1701 and to follow ACI 522.1R for testing
and quality control scheme.

Concrete with recycled aggregates shall be generally approved once the source of recycled
aggregates is identified based on type and approved by the Engineer.
The recycled aggregates shall meet with BS EN 12620 and QCS requirements.

(b)

The concrete made with recycled aggregates shall be limited to design strength of C40
MPa cube strength; unless otherwise accepted by the Engineer. BS EN 206-1 shall be
the code of practice and guide for the usage of recycled concrete aggregates in
concrete or ACI 555 and BRE digest 433.

(c)

The Water-cementitious ratio shall not exceed 0.50

(d)

To determine a target mean strength on the basis of a required strength, a higher


standard deviation (increased by 40%) shall be used when designing a concrete with
recycled aggregates of variable quality than when recycled aggregate of uniform
quality or virgin aggregates are used

(e)

Specific gravity, unit weight, and absorption of aggregates should be determined


before mixture proportion studies

(f)

The mixture proportion should be based on the measured density of the recycled
aggregates intended in the job concrete

(g)

Trial mixes shall be made to verify the requirements with project specification and
QCS.

TC

(a)

AM

(j)

Heavyweight and radiation shielding concrete


(a)

The quality of the aggregates should comply with the requirements of QCS for normal
weight aggregates, ASTM C 637 for heavyweight aggregates and ASTM C638 for
aggregates to be used in radiation-shielding concrete.

(b)

When ferrophosphorous aggregates are used, tests shall be made to determine if


gases (nontoxic) might be released during construction.

(c)

Aggregates shall be checked for every delivery to ensure that they conform completely
with purchase specifications

QCS 2014

Page 23

(d)

Aggregates shall be frequently evaluated for the effects of deleterious substances or


aggregate coatings on concrete strength or the promotion of corrosion in metallic
aggregates or embedments

(e)

The chemical properties of all high-density aggregates must be provided to the


Engineer for evaluation before use with due consideration given to chemical reactivity,
particularly in highly alkaline environment as found in cement paste.

(f)

Tests for alkali-aggregate reactivity shall be determined from each source and supplier
and shall be made every 3 months.

(g)

The fresh density of high-density concrete shall be made from each truck

(h)

Lead shot concrete shall not be use for structural concrete.

(i)

Thermal conductivity, elastic behaviour and shrinkage, hardened density, strength as


well as other hardened concrete properties shall be tested and verified before the use
of concrete.

Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

(b)

Classification of fiber-reinforced concrete shall be made based on the material type of


the fiber incorporated:
(i)

Type I Steel Fiber-Reinforced ConcreteContains stainless steel, alloy steel, or


carbon steel fibers conforming to Specification of BS EN 14889-1 or ASTM
A820 /A820M .

(ii)

Type II Glass Fiber-Reinforced ConcreteContains alkali-resistant (AR) glass


fibers conforming to Specification C 1666/C 1666M.

(iii)

Type III Synthetic Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Contains synthetic fibers for


which documentary evidence can be produced confirming their long-term
resistance to deterioration when in contact with the moisture and alkalis present
in cement paste and the substances present in admixtures and shall conform to
BS EN 14889-2

(iv)

Type IV Natural Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Contains natural fibers for which


documentary evidence can be produced confirming their long-term resistance to
deterioration when in contact with the moisture and alkalis present in cement
paste and the substances present in admixtures. Test Method ASTM D 6942
shall be used to determine the susceptibility of these fibers to deterioration as a
result of exposure to alkalis in concrete

(v)

When the purchaser chooses to permit the use of fibers other than those
complying with the above classifications, the manufacturer or supplier shall
show evidence satisfactory to the purchaser that the type of fiber proposed for
use shows long-term resistance to deterioration when in contact with the
moisture and alkalis present in cement paste and the substances present in
admixtures

TC

(a)

AM

11

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

The contractor shall submit:


(i)

Type of fiber-reinforced concrete required

(ii)

Designated size, or sizes, of coarse aggregates

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 24

Slump or time of flow required at the point of delivery, or when appropriate the point of
placement, subject to the tolerances hereinafter specified Slump shall be specified
when it is anticipated to be 50 mm or more. Except as otherwise specifically permitted
by the Engineer, cement, supplementary cementitious materials, fine and coarse
aggregates, mixing water, and admixtures shall be measured in accordance with the
applicable requirements of QCS

(d)

Fibers shall be measured by mass. When the fibers are to be measured by mass,
bags, boxes, or like containers are acceptable provided that such like containers are
sealed by the fiber manufacturer and have the mass contained therein clearly marked.
No fraction of a container delivered unsealed, or left over from previous work, shall be
used unless weighed.

(e)

Prepackaged, dry, combined materials, including fibers, shall comply with the
packaging and marking requirements of Specification ASTM C 387 or C 1480 and
shall be accepted for use provided that after addition of water, the resulting fiber
reinforced concrete meets the performance requirements of this specification

(f)

Batching plant used for the preparation of continuously mixed fiber-reinforced concrete
shall comply with the applicable requirements of NRMCA. Fiber-reinforced concrete
shall be added directly to the concrete at the time of batching in amounts in accord
with approved submittals for each type of concrete required. Mix concrete in strict
accord with fiber-reinforced concrete manufacturer, instructions and recommendations

(g)

Fiber-reinforced concrete shall be free of fiber balls when delivered

(h)

The manufacturer of the fiber-reinforced concrete shall furnish to the purchaser a


delivery ticket or statement of particulars on which is printed, stamped, or written,
information with details of the type, brand, and amount of fibers used.

(i)

The contractor shall afford the inspector all reasonable access, without charge, for the
procurement of samples of freshly mixed fiber-reinforced concrete at the time of
placement to determine compliance with the requirements of this specification.

(j)

Samples of batch-mixed fiber-reinforced concrete shall be obtained in accordance with


Practice ASTM C 172 or C 1385/C 1385M for shotcrete as appropriate, except that
wet-sieving shall not be permitted. Sampling for uniformity tests shall be in accordance
with specification ASTM C 94/C 94M

(k)

If the measured slumps, time of flow, or air content fall outside the limits permitted by
this specification, make a check test immediately on another portion of the same
sample. If the results again fall outside the permitted limits, the material represented by
the sample fails to meet the requirements of this specification

(l)

The following shall apply to all forms of fiber-reinforced concrete except dry-mix
shotcrete. When applicable, the slump shall be in tolerance with this section para
6.4.2.5 (a) and (b).

(m)

The time of flow shall be in the tolerances as follow:

AM

TC

(c)

(i)

When the project specifications for time of flow are written as a minimum or
not less than requirement

Plus Tolerance
Minus Tolerance

Specified time of flow


If 15sec or less
If more than 15 sec
5s
10s
0s
0s

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements
(ii)

When the project specifications for time of flow are not written as a minimum
or not less than requirement:
For specified time of flow
8 to 15 s
More than 15 s

Tolerances for time of flow


Tolerance
+ 3s
+ 5s

(n)

Finishability - Pre-project trials shall be utilized to determine acceptable surface


finishability by the Engineer. The manufacturer shall provide the services of a qualified
technician to instruct the concrete supplier in proper batching and mixing of materials
to be provided.

(o)

Provide fibers for concrete reinforcing capable of achieving a two hour fire resistance
rating when tested under ASTM E 119. Fire tests must be certified.

Lightweight concrete
This clause of the specification refers to lightweight concrete with improved insulation
properties where the practical range of densities is between about 300 and 1850
kg/m3.

(b)

The required density and strength of the lightweight concrete will be specified on the
drawings or directed by the Engineer.

(c)

The method of production of lightweight concrete will be shown on the drawings or


directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall submit full technical details of the
materials and method of production for the lightweight concrete along with a list of
previous projects where the particular system has been used.

(d)

After source approval of the material and system the Contractor shall submit a mix
design for the lightweight concrete for the approval of the Engineer. After the review
and approval of the mix theoretical mix design the Contractor shall carry out a trial mix
to check the workability of the fresh concrete and to allow samples to be made for
compressive strength and density.

(e)

The Engineer may also instruct that tests are carried out for abrasion resistance and
thermal insulation properties.

(f)

Iightweight concrete shall be made with lightweight aggregates as approved in part 2 of


section 05 in QCS for its use in concrete

(g)

The performance of lightweight concrete shall follow ACI 213R

TC

(a)

AM

12

Page 25

6.7

TRIAL MIXES

As soon as the Engineer has approved the concrete mix design for each grade of concrete
and during or following the carrying out of the preliminary tests, the Contractor shall prepare a
trial mix of each grade in the presence of the Engineer at least 35 days before
commencement of concreting. Trial mix shall be mixed and handled by means of the same
plant which the Contractor proposes to use in the Works. The trial mix shall comprise not
3
less than 50% from the central mixing drum capacity but not less than 3.0 m of concrete.
The trial mix can be exempted if concrete supplier provides through an independent
approved testing agency adequate history on strength:

(a)

Not less than 30 strength test results as in para 6.6 of this specification

(b)

The results shall valid by no more than 6 months from the date of approval

Batch the field concrete trial mixture within -5C of the proposed maximum allowable fresh
3
concrete temperature in a truck-mixer with a minimum batch size of 3 m .

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Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 26

The concrete mixture shall be held in the mixer for 120 minutes, unless otherwise specified
by the Engineer. During the entire 120-minute period, agitate the mixer at 1 to 6 rpm. At the
end of 120 minutes, mix the concrete mixture at full mixing speed designated by the
manufacturer (6 to 18 rpm) for 2 minutes.

For each trial mix, a plant production trial shall be carried out and the slump of the concrete
checked immediately after discharge from the mixer and thereafter at 30 min intervals up to
the maximum time period envisaged for delivery and standing on site. Based on this trial the
mix design shall identify any adjustments to the range of plasticiser for acceptable workability
for different times after batching. Where ready mix concrete is being used, the above
requirement may be waived at the discretion of the Engineer if the Contractor has
documented previous experience of a particular mix design with test results available.

The proportions of cement, aggregate and water shall be carefully determined by weight in
accordance with the Contractor's approved mix design (or modified mix design after
preliminary tests).

Each sample shall consist of at least 9 specimens for strength analysis where 3 specimens
for each age will be tested to determine the concrete strength at the required age.

If either or both the average value of the strength of the three cubes tested at 28 d is less
than the required strength (target strength) or the difference between the greatest and the
least strengths is more than 15 % of the average strengths, as per BS EN 206-1, the
Contractor shall take measures as deemed necessary such as:
Propose new mix design

(b)

Provide new materials and prepare and test further trial mixes until specified
requirements are achieved.

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(a)

Additionally, the Contractor shall measure the temperature, workability of concrete in each
batch.

When requested by engineer, a mock-up of 2x2x2 m shall be made at jobsite and full scale
tests of the workability of each trial mix shall be made by the Contractor in the presence of
the Engineer. The following tests shall be made on the Site by filling trial moulds to confirm
the suitability of:

(a)

mix for the works

(b)

type of plant used for mixing

(c)

face intended for use in the works

(d)

type of form oil

(e)

type of protective coatings.

10

Redesign of the concrete mixes and trial mixes of concrete shall be repeated for each grade
of concrete until the concrete meets the requirements in this specification and it is verified by
full scale mockup test as described above.

11

Approval of the job-mix proportions by the Engineer or his assistance to the Contractor in
establishing those proportions, in no way relieves the Contractor of the responsibility of
producing concrete which meets the requirements of this Specification.

12

All costs connected with the preparations of trial mixes and the design of the job mixes shall
be borne by the Contractor.

13

The Contractor shall declare any change in the source of the material and any changes in the
cement content consumption greater than 20.0kg/m from that used in the trial mixes.

QCS 2014

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Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 27

QUALITY AND TESTING

6.8.1

General

In order to ensure that the quality of materials and mix proportions are maintained throughout
concreting operations, sampling and testing shall be carried out using the relevant standard
procedures and all other relevant codes quoted in this specification in accordance with a
routine testing program that shall be agreed with the Engineer before the start of concrete
work.

The Contractor, through a third party approved testing agency, shall supply all necessary
tools for tests, shall cast all concrete specimens, strip and store them in water as stated in
BS EN 12390-2. The Contractor shall also arrange for the transport of samples to the place
of testing and shall supply the Engineer with duplicate copies of all test certificates.

6.8.2

Tests for Concrete

Unless the Engineer directs otherwise, the program shall include at least the tests specified
below.

Tests on aggregates shall be as described in Part 2 of this Section.

Concrete shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of this specification by qualified
field testing technicians or engineer. Concrete testing laboratory personnel shall be certified
from a recognised Institution. Field personnels in charge of sampling concrete; testing for
slump, and temperature; and making and curing test specimens shall be certified from a
recognised Institution too.

Slump tests (and VSI testing when applicable) shall be carried out at the rate of one test per
3
load of concrete delivered to the Site, or one test per 10 m whichever is the lesser for the
3
3
first 50 m of concrete then at a rate of 1 slump test for every 50 m if concrete was
consistent during production. In the event of inconsistent slump values, the Engineer may
instruct the Contractor to check the slump test on each truck of concrete at the plant. The
Contractor shall carry out an investigation to establish the cause of the high variation in slump
and shall take any necessary corrective measures. The slump requirements for the fresh
concrete are to be approved by the Engineer.

The adjustment for the slump of concrete to fit the job requirement can be conducted only
one time using a proper additive at jobsite provided that such addition does not increase the
water-cement ratio and setting time above the maximum permitted by the specifications. This
addition will only be made at the approval of Engineer.

Concrete shall be available within the permissible range of slump for a period of 30 min
starting either on arrival at the job site or after the initial slump adjustment as permitted
3
above, whichever is later. The first and last quarter m discharged are exempt from this
requirement. If the user is unprepared for discharge of the concrete from the vehicle, the
producer shall not be responsible for the limitation of minimum slump after 30 min have
elapsed starting either on arrival of the vehicle at the prescribed destination or at the
requested delivery time, whichever is later.

When air-entrained concrete is desired the purchaser shall specify the total air content of the
concrete. The air content of air-entrained concrete when sampled from the transportation unit
at the point of discharge shall be within a tolerance of +1.5% of the specified value.

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6.8

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Page 28

Concrete strength test:


(a)

Each concrete strength sample shall consist of at least seven specimens, two to be
tested at 7 days, three at 28 days and two to be tested at the discretion of the
Engineer. Additional samples may be prepared as directed by the Engineer to be
tested at the discretion of the Engineer for strength and/or durability.

(b)

When concrete cylinders have been specified, the concrete specimens shall not be
capped using sulphur for environmental effect. The Contractor shall follow one of the
following procedures and as approved by the Engineer:
(i)

Cap the specimens in accordance with ASTM C617 using neat cement paste
and/or High-strength gypsum cement paste

(ii)

Saw cut and Grind the surface of the concrete to the desired planeness and
perpendicular

(iii)

Test the concrete cylinders using Unbonded Caps in accordance with ASTM
C1231

(iv)

For field specimens, the contractor has the right to either use the conversion
listed in EN 206 or determine the conversion factor for each specified concrete
mix design by testing at least 36 comparative specimens (i.e. 18 cubes versus
18 cylinders sampled from 3 consecutive batch trial mix).

(c)

A minimum of one sample shall be taken of each mix every day the mix is used

(d)

Samples shall be taken at the average rate of the followings:


3

One sample every 30 m3, if the pour is less than or equal to 90 m

(ii)

One sample every 100 m3, if the pour is greater than 90m and equal to or less
than 2000 m3,

(iii)

One sample every 200 m3, if the pour exceeds 2000 m .

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(i)

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Section 05: Concrete


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06: Property Requirements

(e)

Test specimens for compressive strength testing shall be prepared and cured in
accordance with BS EN 12390-2. The compressive strength of the specimens shall be
determined in accordance with BS EN 12390-3.

(f)

A test shall be the average of the strength of the specimens tested at the age
specified. If a specimen shows definite evidence other than low strength, of improper
sampling, moulding, handling, curing, or testing, it shall be discarded and the strength
of the remaining cubes shall then be considered the test result.

(g)

Identity criteria of concrete strength shall be assessed for each individual test result
and the average of non-overlapping results as per BS EN 206-1 and explained below:
(i)

The average strength tests (average of two specimens or more) shall be equal
to or greater than the characteristic (fck) + 2 MPa, and

(ii)

Any individual test result shall be equal to or greater than fck 4 MPa. The test
result shall be that obtained from the average of the results of two or more
specimens made from one sample for testing at the same age.

If works test specimens fail at 28 days the Contractor shall suspend concreting operations
and shall not proceed further without approval. The Contractor shall carry out in-situ testing
of the suspect concrete in accordance with Part 13 of this Section, in the presence of the
Engineer. All defective work shall be replaced and retested to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.

QCS 2014

Page 29

Hardened Tests for Fiber-Reinforced Concrete


When post-crack flexural performance is used as the basis for acceptance of fiberreinforced concrete, make, condition, and test sets of test specimens in accordance
with Test Method ASTM C1399, C1550 or C1609/C1609M as specified.

(b)

When flexural strength is used as the basis for acceptance, make and test sets of at
least three test specimens in accordance with the requirements for sampling and
conditioning given in Test Method ASTM C1609/C1609M. Test specimens
representing thin sections, as defined in C1609/C1609M, or specimens representing
fiber-reinforced shotcrete of any thickness, shall be tested as cast or placed without
being turned on their sides before placement on the support system. Acceptance shall
not be based on flexural strength alone when post-crack performance is important.
Test Method C1609/C1609M provides for the determination of first peak flexural
strength when required by the purchaser. For many type-amount fiber combinations,
the first peak flexural strength is not significantly greater than the peak strength in
flexure.

(c)

When compressive strength is used as part of the basis for acceptance of fiberreinforced concrete, make sets of at least two test specimens in accordance with the
applicable requirements of Practices ASTM C31/C31M and C192/C192M and as
specified in this section, or Test Methods C42/C42M or C1604/C1604M and condition
and test in accordance with Test Methods BS EN 12390, C39/C39M, C42/ C42M, or
C1604/C1604M. Acceptance shall not be based on compressive strength alone.

(d)

The frequency of tests on hardened fiber-reinforced concrete shall be in accordance


with the following requirements:

TC

(a)

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6.8.3

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

(i)

Batch-Mixing: Tests shall be made with same frequency as in conventional


concrete. Each test shall be made from a separate batch. On each day fiberreinforced concrete is mixed, at least one test shall be made for each class of
material.

(ii)

When fibers are added, subject for approval of the Engineer, at the truck mixer
3
the tests shall be made for each 20 m or fraction thereof, or whenever
significant changes have been made in the proportioning controls. On each day
fiber-reinforced concrete is mixed, at least one test shall be made for each class
of material.

(iii)

For Shotcrete: Tests shall be made for each 38 m placed using specimens
sawed or cored from the structure or from corresponding test panels prepared in
accordance with Practice ASTM C1604 and C 1140. On each day fiberreinforced shotcrete is prepared; at least one test shall be made for each class
of material.

6.8.4

Quality Control charts

The Contractor shall submit a continuous statistical analysis, on a monthly basis, for strength
showing the potential strength of the concrete, variations in measured strength by
determining the standard deviation (margin), batch-to-batch variations of the proportions and
characteristics of the constituent materials in the concrete, the production, delivery, and
handling process, and climatic conditions; and variations in the sampling, specimen
preparation, curing, and testing procedures (within-test).

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

Page 30

The Contractor shall provide in his analysis the mean strength, calculated standard deviation,
the normal distribution of concrete strength and the frequency histogram. The Contractor
shall draw the upper and lower lines for warning line (Target mean strength + 2 x standard
deviation) and control line (Target mean strength + 3 x standard deviation)

The contractor shall use the methods, of computing standard deviation along with coefficient
of variation and factors for computing within-test standard deviation from range, addressed in
ACI 214

This recalculated margin, if adopted by the Engineer, becomes the current margin for the
judgement of compliance with the specified characteristic strength of concrete

6.9

WORKS TEST CUBES

Test cubes shall be taken as specified from fresh mixed concrete which is being used in the
Works and which has been prepared in the normal way.

Cubes shall be numbered sequentially and marked:


Time, date and name of individual

(b)

Section of work from which samples are taken

(c)

Mix reference and delivery note number

(d)

Name of technician

(e)

and any other relevant information.

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(a)

Tests for slump, as per BS EN 12350-2, and temperature shall be made and recorded
whenever samples are taken.

The cube manufacture shall be in accordance with BS EN 12390-2.

When Self Compacting Concrete is used, the concrete specimens shall not be consolidated
in moulds and it shall be placed in a single lift then levelled with minimum manipulation.

All samples shall be moulded at jobsite on a levelled surface area to within 20 mm per meter

Immediately after moulding and finishing, the specimens shall be stored for a period up to 48

h in a temperature range from 20 to 26 C and in an environment preventing moisture loss


from the specimens

Specimens shall not be transported or handled until at least 14 h after casting

Transportation time from site to laboratory for final curing and strength testing shall not
exceed 4 hours. Specimens shall be protected from direct sun or rapid evaporation and
placed on cushion layer to reduce vibration

6.10

REJECTION OF CONCRETE MIXES

6.10.1

Rejection of Concrete Mixes:

Concrete mixes shall be rejected if they fail to meet one or more requirements, which cannot
be brought into compliance as related to any of the following:

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
06: Property Requirements

(a)

Improper class or grade of concrete

(b)

Slump or temperature not within specified limits

(c)

Oversized aggregate

(d)

Maximum water-cementitious ratio is exceeded

Page 31

Concrete shall not be rejected unless it has been visually inspected by the Engineer or
representatives.

6.10.2

Unsatisfactory Concrete Works

A test shall be the average of the strengths of the specimens tested at the age specified. If a
specimen shows definite evidence other than low strength, of improper sampling, moulding,
handling, curing, or testing, it shall be discarded and the strength of the remaining specimens
shall then be considered the test result and where the range of the test values is more than
15 % of the mean, the results shall be disregarded unless an investigation reveals an
acceptable reason to justify disregarding an individual test value. To conform to the
requirements of this specification, strength tests representing each class of concrete must
meet the following requirements:
The average of any three consecutive strength tests shall be equal to, or greater than,
the specified strength, f c, and

(b)

When the specified strength is 35 MPa or less, no individual strength test (average of
at least two specimen tests) shall be more than 3.5 MPa below the specified strength, f
c

(c)

When the specified strength is greater than 35 MPa, no individual strength test
(average of two specimen tests) shall be less than 0.90 f c.

AM

TC

(a)

Should any of the test results be unsatisfactory, the Engineer may order the work to be
stopped pending his further instructions. Executed work for which test results are
unsatisfactory shall be liable to rejection and if so advised the work shall be rebuilt at the
Contractor's expense.

In the case of the 7-day works cube tests proving unsatisfactory, the work may be stopped
liable to rejection pending the result of the 28-day test. If the test results fail to comply with
the requirements, the work represented shall be immediately liable to rejection.

The cost of all such cuttings, preparation of specimens, transportation and testing, and of
making good the portions of the structure affected shall be borne by the Contractor.

Regardless of satisfactory test cube results, any concrete work which, in the Engineer's
opinion, is excessively honeycombed or in any other way is defective, shall be liable to
rejection. Minor defects apparent on stripping the formwork must be made good at the
Contractor's expense. No such repair work shall be carried out until after inspection by the
Engineer and his acceptance of the proposed treatment has been given. Work which has
not been previously inspected but which shows signs of such treatment shall be liable to
rejection as defective work.

The cost of all delays on site due to faulty concrete work shall be met by the Contractor.
END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 1

CONCRETE PLANTS.............................................................................................. 2

7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2

7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
7.2.5
7.2.6

BATCHING .............................................................................................................. 3
General
3
Plant Type
5
Bins and Weight Batchers
5
Tolerances of Measuring Equipment
5
Batching Tolerances
6
Charging the Mixer
7

7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4

MIXING.................................................................................................................... 7
Charging Concrete Materials
7
Mixing Time for Stationary Mixers
7
Mixing
8
Limitation of Water : Cement Ratio
8

7.4
7.4.1

READY-MIXED CONCRETE ................................................................................... 9


General
9

7.5

APPENDIX A: CONCRETE PLANT INSPECTION CHECKLIST ........................ 11

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 2

CONCRETE PLANTS

7.1

GENERAL

7.1.1

Scope

This Part covers batching and mixing of concrete together with inspection of concrete plants.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 1 ............... General
Part 2 ............... Aggregates
Part 3 ............... Cementitious materials
Part 4 ............... Water
Part 5 ............... Admixtures
Part 6 ............... Property Requirements
Part 8 ............... Transporting and Placing of Concrete
Part 15 ............. Hot Weather Concreting
Part 16 ............. Miscellaneous
References

TC

ACI 304 ......................Guides for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, and Placing Concrete
ASTM C94 ..................Specification for ready-mixed concrete

AM

7.1.2

BS 1881......................Testing concrete
BS 8500......................Concrete Specification complementary to EN 206
BS EN 12390..............Testing of hardened concrete
BS EN 12390-1:2000 .Testing hardened concrete Part 1: Shape, dimensions and other
requirements for specimens and moulds
BS EN 12390-2:2000 .Testing hardened concrete Part 2: Making and curing specimens
for strength tests
BS EN 12390-3:2000 .Testing hardened concrete Part 3: Compressive strength of test
specimens
BS EN 12390-4:2000 .Testing hardened concrete Part 4: Compressive strength Specification for testing machines
BS EN 12390-5:2000 .Testing hardened concrete Part 5: Flexural strength of test
specimens
BS EN 12390-6:2000 .Testing hardened concrete Part 6: Tensile splitting strength of test
specimens
BS EN 12390-7:2000 .Testing hardened concrete Part 7: Density of hardened concrete
BS EN 12390-8:2000 .Testing hardened concrete Part 8: Depth of penetration of water
under pressure
BS EN 12350..............Testing fresh concrete
BS EN 12350-1:2000 .Testing fresh concrete - Part 1: Sampling

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 3

BS EN 12350-2:2000 .Testing fresh concrete - Part 2: Slump test


BS EN 12350-3:2000 .Testing fresh concrete - Part 3: Vebe test
BS EN 12350-4:2000 Testing fresh concrete - Part 4: Degree of compatibility
BS EN 12350-5:2000 Testing fresh concrete - Part 5: Flow table test
BS EN 12350-6:2000 Testing fresh concrete - Part 6: Density
BS EN 12350-7:2000 Testing fresh concrete - Part 7: Air content - Pressure methods
GSO EN 206-1, ..........Concrete. Specification, performance, production and conformity
GSO ISO 1920-1 ........Testing of concrete Part 1: Sampling of fresh concrete
GSO ISO 1920-2 ........Testing of concrete part 2: properties of fresh concrete
GSO ISO 1920-3 ........Testing of concrete part 3: Making and curing test specimens.
GSO ISO 1920-4 ........Testing of concrete part 4: strength of hardened concrete.
GSO ISO 1920-5 ........Testing of concrete part 5: properties hardened concrete other than
strength.
GSO ISO 1920-6 ........Testing of concrete part 6: sampling, preparing and testing of
concrete core.
GSO ISO 1920-7 ........Testing of concrete part 7: Nondestructive test on hardened
concrete.

TC

ISO 1920-8 .................Testing of concrete -- Part 8: Determination of drying shrinkage of


concrete for samples prepared in the field or in the laboratory

AM

ISO 1920-9 .................Testing of concrete -- Part 9: Determination of creep of concrete


cylinders in compression
ISO 1920-10 ...............Testing of concrete -- Part 10: Determination of static modulus of
elasticity in compression

7.2

BATCHING

7.2.1

General

During measurement operations, aggregates shall be handled in a manner to maintain their


desired grading, and all materials shall be weighed to the tolerances required for the desired
reproducibility of the selected concrete mix.

The coarse aggregate shall be controlled to minimize segregation and undersized material.
Fine aggregate shall be controlled to minimize variations in gradation, giving special attention
to keeping finer fractions uniform and exercising care to avoid excessive removal of fines
during processing

Avoid blending two sizes of fine aggregate by placing alternate amounts in bins or stockpiles
or when loading cars or trucks. Satisfactory results are achieved when different size fractions
are blended as they flow into a stream from regulating gates or feeders. A more reliable
method of control for a wide range of plant and job conditions, however, is to separate
storage, handling, and batching of the coarse and fine fractions

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 4

Stockpiling of coarse aggregate shall be kept to a minimum because fines tend to settle and
accumulate. When stockpiling is necessary use of correct methods minimizes problems with
fines, segregation, aggregate breakage, excessive variation in gradation, and contamination.
Stockpiles shall be built up in horizontal or gently sloping layers, not by end-dumping. Trucks,
loaders, and dozers, or other equipment shall not be operated on the stockpiles because, in
addition to breaking the aggregate, they frequently track dirt onto the piles

Stockpiles located to prevent contamination; arranged to assure that each aggregate as


removed from its stockpile is distinct and not intermingled with others. The concrete supplier
is asked to separate storage bins or compartments for each size and type of aggregate
properly constructed and charged to prevent mixing of different sizes or types

Sequencing and blending of the ingredients during charging of the mixers shall be carried out
in such a way as to obtain uniformity and homogeneity in the concrete produced as indicated
by such physical properties as unit weight, slump, air content, strength and air-free mortar
content in successive batches of the same mix proportions and as stated in ASTM C94
Annex A.

The mix recipe for the mixes to be produced shall be readily available to the mixer operator.
Only authorised personnel shall be allowed to make changes to the mix design.

All cement bags shall be stored in weathertight, properly ventilated structures to prevent
absorption of moisture.

Storage facilities for bulk cement shall include separate compartments for each type of
cement used. The interior of a cement silo shall be smooth, with a minimum bottom slope of
50 degrees from the horizontal for a circular silo and 55 to 60 degrees for a rectangular silo.
Silos shall be equipped with non-clogging air-diffuser flow pads through which small
quantities of dry, oil-free, low-pressure air can be introduced intermittently at approximately 3
to 5 psi (20 to 35 kPa) to loosen cement that has settled tightly in the silos. Storage silos shall
be drawn down frequently, preferably once per month, to prevent cement caking.

10

Each bin compartment from which cement is batched shall include a separate gate, screw
conveyor, air slide, rotary feeder, or other conveyance that effectively allows both constant
flow and precise cutoff to obtain accurate batching of cement

11

Fly ash, ground slag, or other pozzolans shall be handled, conveyed, and stored in the same
manner as cement. The bins, however, shall be completely separate from cement bins
without common walls that could allow the material to leak into the cement bin.

12

All bins and silos shall be properly tagged at silos, bins and near charging hose.

13

Bags of cement should be stacked on pallets or similar platforms to permit proper circulation
of air. For a storage period of less than 60 days, stack the bags no higher than 14 layers, and
for longer periods, no higher than seven layers.

14

The water batcher and the water pipes should be leak-free. If ice is used, the ice facilities,
including the equipment for batching and transporting to the mixer, should be properly
insulated to prevent the ice from melting before it is in the mixer.

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 5

Plant Type

Manual control batching. Manual plants are acceptable for small jobs having low batching
3
3
rate requirements, generally for jobs up to a total concrete quantity of 1000 m and 10 m /h.

Semi-automatic control batching. In this system, aggregate bin gates for charging batchers
are opened by manually operated push buttons or switches. Gates are closed automatically
when the designated weight of material has been delivered.

Automatic control batching. Automatic batching of all materials is electrically activated by a


single starter switch. However, interlocks shall interrupt the batching cycle when the scale
has not returned to 0.3 % of zero balance or when weighing tolerances detailed in
Clause 7.2.5 of this Part are exceeded.

7.2.3

Bins and Weight Batchers

Batch plant bins shall be of sufficient size to effectively accommodate the production capacity
of the plant. Compartments in bins separate the various concrete materials, and the shape
and arrangement of aggregate bins shall prevent aggregate segregation and leakage.

Weight batchers shall be charged with easy-operating clam shells or undercut radial-type bin
gates.

Gates used to charge semi-automatic and fully automatic batchers shall be power operated
and equipped with a suitable in flight correction to obtain the desired weighing accuracy. They
shall be calibrated by the plant supplier for the types of aggregate used at the standard range
of moisture contents.

Weigh batchers shall be accessible for obtaining representative samples, and they shall be
arranged to obtain the proper sequencing and blending of aggregates during charging of the
mixer.

The amount of concrete mixed in any one batch shall not exceed the rated capacity of the
mixer.

All mixing and batching plants shall be maintained free of set concrete or cement and shall
be clean before commencing mixing.

For each different type of cement at use at the plant a separate silo shall be provided.

7.2.4

Tolerances of Measuring Equipment

Scales for weighing concrete ingredients shall be accurate when in use within 3 % and
1.5 % for additives. Standard test weights shall be available to permit the checking of scale
accuracy.

Testing of the weighers shall be at three-month intervals. If water is dispensed by flow meter
the frequency of testing shall be at three-month intervals. Such testing shall be undertaken by
a calibration company approved by the Central Materials Laboratory, and calibrated to
recognized international standards.

Test certificates shall be displayed in the plant in prominent positions.

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7.2.2

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Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 6

Batching Tolerances

Operation of batching equipment shall be such that the concrete ingredients are consistently
measured within the following tolerances. The plant shall have the ability to flag values that
are outside these limits. The operator shall make manual adjustments to the batching and
the final weights shall be within the given limits stated in table 7.1. Any adjustments shall be
displayed on the batch weight printouts.

Cementitious materials shall be measured by mass. When supplementary cementitious


materials are used in the concrete mixtures, the cumulative mass is permitted to be
measured with hydraulic cement, but in a batch hopper and on a scale which is separate and
distinct from those used for other materials.

Aggregate shall be measured by mass. Batch mass measurements shall be based on dry
materials and shall be the required masses of dry materials plus the total mass of moisture
(both absorbed and surface) contained in the aggregate

Mixing water shall consist of water added to the batch, ice added to the batch, water
occurring as surface moisture on the aggregates, and water introduced in the form of
admixtures. The added water shall be measured by weight or volume.

Added ice shall be measured by weight. In the case of truck mixers, any wash water retained
in the drum for use in the next batch of concrete shall be accurately measured; if this proves
impractical or impossible the wash water shall be discharged prior to loading the next batch
of concrete

Chemical admixtures in powdered form shall be measured by mass. Liquid chemical


admixtures shall be batched by mass or volume

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7.2.5

Table 7.1
Typical batching tolerances Ingredient
Typical batching
tolerances
Ingredient
Cement and other
cementitious
Materials
Water (by volume or
weight), %

Batch weights greater than


30% of scale capacity
Individual
Cumulative
batching
batching
1% of required mass or
0.3% of scale capacity,
whichever is greater
1

Not
recommended

Batch weights less than


30% of scale capacity
Individual
batching

Cumulative
batching

Not less than required weight or 4%


more than required weight

Not recommended

Aggregates, %

0.3% of scale
capacity or
3% of required
cumulative
Weight, whichever is
less

Admixtures (by
volume or weight), %

Not
recommended

Not recommended

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 7

Cement supplied in bags shall be placed directly from the bag into the intake of the mixing
plant and each batch must contain one or more complete bags of cement. No mixer having
a rated capacity of less than a one-bag batch shall be used and the mixer shall not be
charged in excess of its rated capacity.

7.2.6

Charging the Mixer

Each batch shall be so charged into the mixer that some of the water will enter in advance of
the cement and aggregates. Controls shall be provided to prevent batched ingredients from
entering the mixer before the previous batch has been completely discharged.

The first batch of concrete through the mixer shall contain an excess of cement to allow for
coating of the inside of the mixing drum without reducing the required mortar content of the
mix.

Mixing plant that has been out of action for more than 30 minutes shall be thoroughly cleaned
before any fresh concrete is mixed in it.

When a change of mix is made to one using a different type of cement, the mixing plant shall
be thoroughly cleaned of all traces of the previously used cement, whatever is the time
interval between successive mixes.

7.3

MIXING

7.3.1

Charging Concrete Materials

Water shall enter the mixer first with continuous flow while other ingredients are entering the
mixer. Water charging pipes must be of the proper design and of sufficient size so that water
enters at a point well inside the mixer and charging is completed within the first 25% of the
prescribed mixing time and where concrete uniformity shall be verified by approved inspector.

Admixtures shall be charged to the mixer in accordance with the instructions of the
manufacturer. Automatic dispensers shall be used.

7.3.2

Mixing Time for Stationary Mixers

The mixing time required shall be based upon the ability of the mixer to produce uniform,
homogeneous, consistent mixture throughout the batch and from batch to batch.

Final mixing times shall be based on the results of mixer performance tests made at the start
of the project and the time fixed unless a change is authorised by the Engineer. The time
shall however not be less than 60 Sec unless otherwise verified as stated hereafter. Where
no mixer performance tests are made, the acceptable mixing time for mixers having
3
capacities of 0.75 m or less shall be not less than 1 min. For mixers of greater capacity, this
minimum shall be increased 15 s for each cubic meter or fraction thereof of additional
capacity.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 8

Where mixer performance tests have been made on given concrete mixtures in accordance
with the testing program ASTM C94 Annex A and NRMCA certification, and the mixers have
been charged to their rated capacity, the acceptable mixing time is permitted to be reduced
for those particular circumstances to a point at which satisfactory mixing defined in ASTM
C94 and NRMCA certification for central mixing plants shall have been accomplished. When
the mixing time is so reduced the maximum time of mixing shall not exceed this reduced time
by more than 60 s for air-entrained concrete. The mixing time shall be measured from the
time all ingredients are in the mixer.

Batch mixers with audible indicators used in combination with interlocks which prevent mixer
discharge prior to completion of a preset mixing time shall be provided on automatic plants
and are also desirable on manual plants.

The mixer shall be designed for starting and stopping under full load.

7.3.3

Mixing

All structural concrete to be placed in-situ shall be manufactured in a computer controlled


batching plant of the types described in Clause 7.2.2 of this Part.

The plant shall be complete with suitable water chilling or ice making facilities, or both, to
ensure concrete temperatures are maintained as specified in Parts 6 and 15 of this Section.

Concrete shall be mixed in batches in plant capable of combining the aggregates, cement
and water (including admixtures, if any) into a mixture of uniform colour and consistency and
of discharging the mixture without segregation.

Automatic moisture content probes, set in the hoppers shall be used to continuously
determine the moisture content of the aggregates.

Contractor shall make due allowance for the water contained in the aggregates when
determining the quantity of water to be added to each mix.

The amount of water added to each mix shall be adjusted to maintain the constant approved
water : cement ratio of the mixed concrete.

7.3.4

Limitation of Water : Cement Ratio

No concrete shall exceed the water : cement ratio as given in Part 6 of this Section.

The quantity of water used in mixing shall be the least amount that will produce a workable
homogeneous plastic mixture which can be worked into the forms and around the
reinforcement.

Excess water over the maximum allowed by the mix design shall not be permitted and any
batch containing such excess will be rejected.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 9

7.4

READY-MIXED CONCRETE

7.4.1

General

The manufacture of readymix concrete for use in government projects may only be carried
out in batching plants that have an approval certificate issued by the Central Materials
Laboratory. When this certificate is under renewal process by the readymix concrete
manufacturer, other certificate such as NRMCA shall be considered by the Engineer as
approval on the uniformity and consistency of the facility. The engineer may request to revalidate the uniformity tests under his supervision. In addition, the use of readymix concrete
in any part of the work shall require the Engineers written approval.

The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer on the following:


(a)

materials used in ready-mixed concrete comply with the specification in all respects

(b)

manufacturing and delivery resources of the proposed supplier are adequate to ensure
proper and timely completion.

The specified requirements as to the sampling, trial mixing, testing and quality of concrete, of
various grades as described in Part 6 of this Section, shall apply equally to ready-mixed
concrete.

Every additional facility, including but not limited to testing equipment, labour, laboratory
facilities and transport, which the Engineer or persons authorised by him may require for the
supervision and inspection of the batching, mixing, testing and transporting to Site of readymixed concrete shall be provided by the Contractor at no extra cost.

Copies of all delivery notes shall be submitted to the Engineer in duplicate, on computer
generated forms and shall include at least the following information.

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(a)

name of supplier, serial number of ticket and date

(b)

truck number

(c)

name of Contractor

(d)

name of Contract and location of office

(e)

grade of concrete

(f)

specified workability

(g)

type and source of cement

(h)

source of aggregate

(i)

nominal maximum size of aggregate

(j)

quantity of each concrete ingredient

(k)

type of admixture and quantity

(l)

water content

(m)

time of loading and departure from ready-mix plant

(n)

arrival and departure times of truck

(o)

time of completion of discharge

QCS 2014

(p)

Section 05: Concrete


Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 10

notations to indicate equipment was checked and found to be free of contaminants


prior to batching.

A copy of the delivery note shall be given to the Engineer's site representative for each load.

Unless approved otherwise in advance of batching all concrete of single design mix for any
one day's pour shall be from a single batch plant of a single supplier.

Ready-mix concrete shall conform to BS 8500 in addition to GSO EN 206-1, except


materials, testing and mix design shall be as specified in this Section.

Transit mixers equipped with automatic devices for recording the number of revolutions of
the drum shall be used.

10

Excess water over the maximum allowed by the mix design shall not be added.

11

Each mixer truck shall arrive at the job site with its water container full.

12

In the event that a container is not full or concrete tests give a greater slump than acceptable,
the load shall be rejected.

13

Shade temperature and concrete temperature shall be recorded at the point of discharge of
the mixer and at placement for each load of concrete delivered to site.

14

Maximum and minimum temperatures and wet bulb temperatures shall be recorded daily.

15

Slump tests shall be performed in accordance with BS EN 12350 or relevant GSO standard
at the point of placement as stated in Part 6.

16

No water shall be added at the Site.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

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APPENDIX A: CONCRETE PLANT INSPECTION CHECKLIST

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7.5

Section 05: Concrete


Part
07: Concrete Plants

Page 11

Qatar General Organization for Standards and Standardization

CONCRETE PLANT INSPECTION CHECK LIST

New Approval

Renewal

Regular Inspection

1.0 GENERAL INFORMATION OF PLANT


1.1

Company Name

1.2

Inspection Date

1.3

Plant Location

1.4

Plant No/s

1.5

Plant Manufacturer

1.6

Plant ID No.

1.7

Approval Certificate No :

1.8

Contact a Plant

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2.0 FACTORY CONDITION

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Yes No

Concrete Floor Under Mixer and silos

2.2

Concrete floor with Slope under materials

Yes No

2.3

Hard and stable surface for Access and ramps

Yes No

2.4

Floors Clean

Yes No

2.5

Cleaning plan implements

Yes No

2.6

Drainage System

Yes No

2.7

Separated Place of Waste materials

Yes No

2.8

Separated Place of wash tank

Yes No

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2.1

3.0 MATERIAL STORAGE AND HANDLING


3.1

Cement and Cementations materials (including blended cements, fly ash, GGBS, silica fume..)

3.1.1 The Silos of Cement


No

A.

Outside Cleaning for Cement silo

Yes

B.

Cement scale calibration

Current Expired

C.

Reflective color for cement silo

Yes

No

D.

Board clarify the cement type

Yes

No

3.1.2 The silos of cementations materials


A.

Outside Cleaning for Cementations silo

Yes

No

Page 12 of 15

B.

Cementations scale calibration

Current Expired

C.

Reflective Color for Cementations Silo

Yes

No

D.

Board Clarify the Cementations Type

Yes

No

E.

All Cementations Materials Excess of use


protected under shad

Yes

No

3.2

Aggregates:

A.

Aggregate Shading

Yes

No

B.

Aggregate Separation under shad

Yes

No

C.

Aggregate Separation in bins

Yes

No

D.

Aggregate scale calibration

Current Expired

E.

Cover for Conveyer Belts

Yes

No

F.

Board Clarify the Aggregate Type

Yes

No

G.

Effective method for checking the level of


material inside the bins

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Water supply

A.

Water pipe insulated

B.

Chiller using

C.

Ice plant or Nitrogen cooling

D.

Water gauge calibration

4.2

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4.1

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4.0 Water & Admixture Supply

Current Expired

Admixture supply
No

A.

Additive storage silos

Yes

B.

Additive Gage calibration

Current Expired

C.

Board Clarify the Admixture Type

Yes

No

D.

All admixture excess of use protected under


shad

Yes

No

E.

Agitation system for all storage tanks or silos


more than 5000 liter

Yes

No

5.0 Requirements of the Concrete batching plant


5.1

Certificate validity

Yes

No

5.2

Computer controlled

Yes

No

5.3

Plant type

Wet mix

5.4

Computer printout

Yes

5.5

Calibration validity

Current

5.6

Cleaning of plant blades

Yes

Dry mix
No

Expired
No

Page 13 of 15

6.0 Laboratory
6.1

Records for raw materials and cube tests


Frequency
of Tests

Was Test

Required Tests to QCS 2014

Performed?

Yes No

6.1.2 Fines content (%)

Yes No

6.1.3 Fines quality

Yes No

6.1.4 Clay lumps and friable


particles

Yes No

6.1.5 Lightweight pieces

Yes No

6.1.6 Organic impurities

Yes No

6.1.7 Water Absorption

Yes No

6.1.8 Particle density

Yes No

6.1.9 Shell Content

Yes No

6.1.10 Flakiness Index (%)

Yes No

6.1.11 Chloride content (%)

Yes No

6.1.12 Sulphate content (%)

Yes No

6.1.13 Soundness (%)

Yes No

6.1.14 Los Angeles abrasion

Yes No

6.1.15 Moisture Content (%)

Yes No

6.1.16 Compressive Strength

Yes No

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6.1.1 Grading

Comments of Inspection

6.1.17 Other test*


*Such as recycled aggregate

6.2

Specimens testing at inspection time


ITEMS

CASE

6.2.1 Method of slump test

Yes

No

6.2.2 Curing of samples

Yes

No

6.2.3 Water Temperature Of Curing Tank Yes

No

6.2.4 Concrete Temperature at plant

Yes

No

6.2.5 Concrete Slump at plant

Yes

No

COMMENTS

Page 14 of 15

6.3

Laboratory equipment calibration


EQUIPMENT

CASE

6.3.1 Compression Testing Machine

Yes

No

6.3.2 Sieves

Yes

No

6.3.3 Balance

Yes

No

6.3.4 Thermometers

Yes

No

COMMENTS

8.0 Plant representative information


Name of representative

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7.0 Recommendations

Contract number

Signature

9.0 Inspector team


Inspected by

Signature

Page 15 of 15

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
08: Transportation and Placing of Concrete

Page 1

TRANSPORTATION AND PLACING OF CONCRETE ............................................ 2

8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope of Work
2
References
2
Submittals
2

8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3

TRANSPORTATION ............................................................................................... 3
General
3
Pumped Concrete
3
Records
4

8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.3.5

PLACING CONCRETE ............................................................................................ 4


General
4
Preparation
4
Placing
5
Compaction
7
Continuity of Concrete Work
8

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
08: Transportation and Placing of Concrete

TRANSPORTATION AND PLACING OF CONCRETE

8.1

GENERAL

8.1.1

Scope of Work

This part deals with the transportation, placing and compaction of concrete.

Related Parts are as follows:

Page 2

This Section
Part 1 ............... General
Part 7, .............. Concrete Plants
Part 9, .............. Formwork
Part 15, ............ Hot Weather Concreting
Part 16, ............ Miscellaneous
8.1.2

References

TC

ACI 304, ............. Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, and Placing Concrete
ASTM C94, ......... Specification for ready-mixed concrete
BS 8500,............. Concrete, Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1.
BS EN 206-1, ..... Concrete. Specification, performance, production and conformity
EN 1992-1-1 ....... Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for
buildings
Submittals

Should the Contractor propose to use concrete pumps for the transportation and placing of
concrete, he shall submit details of the equipment and operating techniques he proposes to
use for the approval of the Engineer.

A method statement shall be submitted for approval for major concrete placements, which
shall address

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8.1.3

(a)

the planned rate of placing

(b)

number of batching plants

(c)

number of trucks

(d)

number and positioning of pumps

(e)

pour sequence

(f)

quality control measures

(g)

spare equipment

(h)

any other factors that might affect the placing of concrete.

The method statement should be submitted at least three days in advance of the planned
pour. If required by the Engineer or any other concerned party a prepour planning meeting
may be arranged with representatives from the ready-mix supplier, Contractor and Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of his proposed operations
and standby equipment.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
08: Transportation and Placing of Concrete

Page 3

TRANSPORTATION

8.2.1

General

Transportation delivery and handling shall be in accordance with the requirements of BS


8500 and BS EN 206-1.

Concrete shall be conveyed from the mixer to its place in the Works as rapidly as possible by
methods which will prevent segregation or drying out and ensure that the concrete is of the
required workability at the point and time of placing.

Should segregation occur in the concrete then the materials shall be remixed to the
satisfaction of the Engineer or discarded. Furthermore the cause of the segregation shall be
determined and further occurrences prevented.

The Contractor shall ensure that the time between placing of different lifts or layers of
concrete is short enough to prevent the formation of cold joints. The Contractor shall ensure
that there is a back up plant that can be used in the event of a breakdown, and that adequate
provision has been made for the number of delivery trucks.

The concrete shall be transported to the site in an approved type of truck mixer or agitator
truck which apart from the cab and chassis shall be painted white and kept clean at all times.
The discharge chute and other dirty areas shall be washed down after delivery to prevent
spillage on the roads.

If a truck mixer or a truck body with an agitator is used for central-mixed concrete, limit the
volume of concrete charged into the truck to 80% of the drum or truck volume as per ASTM
C94 and NRMCA requirements. if shrink mixing is approved by the engineer limit the volume
of concrete charged into the truck to 63% of the drum volume.

All trucks shall be rotated 30 revolutions at mixing speed before discharging concrete to
assure uniformity.

The insides of concrete mix trucks shall be inspected periodically, and any build up of
concrete removed that may impair the efficiency of the mixing action. All trucks shall be
NRMCA certified or any equivalent certification

Discharge of the concrete shall be completed within 90 min, or before the drum has revolved
300 revolutions, whichever comes first, after the introduction of the mixing water to the
cement and aggregates or the introduction of the cement to the aggregates. These limitations
are permitted to be waived by the purchaser if the concrete is of such slump or slump flow
after the 90 min time or 300-revolution limit has been reached that it can be placed, without
the addition of water, to the batch. In hot weather, or under conditions contributing to quick
stiffening of the concrete, a time less than 90 min is permitted to be specified by the Engineer

8.2.2

Pumped Concrete

Access for the pump shall be checked prior to the pour. If access cannot be assured, the
Contractor shall not continue with concreting operations.

If approval is obtained for pumped concrete, the Contractor shall ensure that shock is not
transferred from the pipeline to the formwork and previously laid concrete.

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8.2

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
08: Transportation and Placing of Concrete

Page 4

During placing concrete by pumping the end hose must never reach into the concrete. All
measures shall be taken to avoid blockage of the delivery hose system. The Compaction of
concrete shall be carried out as per standard practice procedures.

Grout shall be pumped through the concrete pump to provide initial lubrication. The initial
discharge of any pumped concrete shall not be incorporated in the permanent works.

Where concrete is conveyed by chuting or pumping the plant shall be of a size and design to
ensure continuous flow in the chute or pipe. The slope of the chute or the pressure of the
pump shall allow the concrete to flow without the use of any water additional to that approved
by the Engineer to produce the required consistency and without segregation of the
ingredients. The delivery end of the chute or pipe shall be thoroughly flushed with water
before and after each working period and kept clean. The water used for this purpose shall
be discharged outside and away from any permanent works.

8.2.3

Records

Within 24 h of delivery, the Contractor shall provide the Engineer with delivery notes giving
the information required under Paragraph 7.4.1.5 of this Section.

8.3

PLACING CONCRETE

8.3.1

General

The Contractor shall obtain the approval of the Engineer to his proposed arrangements
before beginning concreting.

All placing and compacting of concrete shall be carried out under the direct supervision of a
competent member of the Contractors staff with a minimum of five years of experience in
concreting works, and in a manner to produce a watertight concrete of maximum density and
strength.

For night concreting operations, the Contractor shall arrange adequate suitable lighting.

The Contractor shall provide safe secure access for all personnel on concreting operations.

Where the thickness of the concrete section exceeds 600 mm the Contractor shall adopt

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special precautions, to be approved by the Engineer, to avoid thermal cracking due to


external and core temperature differentials.
6

Concrete shall not be placed in adverse weather conditions such as dust storms or heavy
rain.

8.3.2

Preparation

No concrete shall be placed until the Engineer has inspected and approved in writing the
surfaces upon which the concrete is to be placed, the formwork, and reinforcing steel. The
Contractor shall give the Engineer at least 24 hours notice to enable this inspection to be
carried out. If concrete is not placed within 24 hours of approval being given, approval shall
be obtained again before concreting. An inspection shall be made immediately prior to
concreting to check the cleanliness of the forms.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
08: Transportation and Placing of Concrete

Page 5

Wood forms, unless lined, shall be oiled or wetted with water in advance of placing concrete
so that joints will tighten and prevent seepage of cement grout from the mix.

The reinforcement shall be sprayed with a small amount of water prior to starting the pour.
Reinforcement shall be secured in position, inspected, and accepted by the Engineer before
placing the concrete.

All inserts, anchor bolts, sleeves and other embedded items shall be accurately located,
using templates where appropriate, and held securely to prevent displacement during the
placing of the concrete. Aluminium items shall be completely covered and protected when
embedded in the concrete.

Except where shown on the drawings, no fixtures shall be attached to the concrete by shot
fixing or drilling without acceptance by the Engineer. Notwithstanding any such authorisation,
the Contractor shall be responsible for all damage so caused to the concrete and make good
at his own expense.

Water shall be removed from excavations before concrete is deposited. Any flow of water
shall be diverted through proper side drains and shall be removed without washing over
freshly deposited concrete. All dewatering works shall be continued as long as required.
Hardened concrete, debris, and foreign materials shall be removed from interior of forms and
from inner surfaces of mixing and conveying equipment.

Runways or other means accepted by the Engineer shall be provided for wheeled equipment
to convey the concrete to the points of deposit. Equipment used to deposit concrete shall not
be wheeled over reinforcement nor shall runways be supported on reinforcement.

Before depositing new concrete on or against concrete that has set, existing surfaces shall
be thoroughly roughened and cleaned of laitance, foreign matter and loose particles. Forms
shall be re-tightened and existing surfaces slushed with a grout coat of mortar consisting of
cement and fine aggregate in the same proportion in the mix, but not leaner than one (1) part
cement to two (2) parts fine aggregate, after the existing surface has been moistened. New
concrete shall be placed before the grout has attained initial set. Horizontal construction
joints shall be given a brush coat of grout consisting of cement and fine aggregate in the
same proportion as concrete to be placed, followed by approximately 75mm of concrete of
regular mix, except that the proportion of coarse aggregate shall be reduced 50%.

High strength grout for precision support of machine base and soleplates, including
equipment subject to thermal movement, tanks, column baseplates, bridge seats, anchor
bolts and dowels, etc., shall be a non-shrink, ready-to-use, fluid precision grout material,
proportioned, premixed and packaged at the factory, delivered to the job site to be placed
with only the addition of water, formwork, and curing shall be as specified.

8.3.3

Placing

Concrete shall be placed in its final position before initial set has commenced and shall not
be subsequently disturbed. All concrete shall be placed within 15 min of mixing unless carried
in purpose made agitators.

Concrete shall be carefully placed in horizontal layers which shall be kept at an even height
throughout the work. The depth of layers and time between placement of layers shall be such
that each layer can be properly merged into the preceding layer before initial set takes place,
the depth of layer shall be determined from the type of plant the Contractor proposes to use.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
08: Transportation and Placing of Concrete

Page 6

Concrete shall be allowed to slide or flow down sloping surfaces directly into its final position
from skips, down pipes or other placing machines or devices or, if this is not practical, it
should be shovelled into position, care being taken to avoid separation of the constituent
materials.

Concrete placed in horizontal slabs from barrows or other tipping vehicles shall be tipped into
the face of the previously placed concrete.

Concrete dropped into place shall be dropped vertically. It shall not strike the formwork
between the point of its discharge and its final place in the Work, and except by approval of
the Engineer it shall not be dropped freely through a height greater than 1.5 m. Chutes and
conveyor belts shall be also designed so that there is no segregation or loss of mortar and
shall be provided with a vertical tapered down pipe, or other device, to ensure that concrete is
discharged vertically into place.
Concrete shall not be placed in standing water in the formwork.

Concrete that has attained its initial set or has contained its water content for more than 1.5
hours or 300 drum revolutions, whichever comes first, shall not be deposited in the work.

Cold weather concreting shall be in accordance with EN 1992-1-1 or CIRIA Report 67 and
ACI 306.

Hot weather concreting shall be in accordance with Part 15 of this section.

10

Special care shall be taken to protect new concrete from the harmful effects of drying winds.

11

During wet weather, the concrete shall be adequately protected as soon as it is in position.

12

No concreting shall be carried out during periods of continuous heavy rain unless it is
completely covered during mixing, transporting and placing.

13

No concrete shall be carried out during dust storms.

14

Underwater placing of concrete is allowed only for unreinforced components, the placing
being effected exclusively with stationary tremies or with a bottom-opening watertight boxes
and shall be in accordance with the requirements of design or equivalent as accepted.

15

Underwater concrete is to be placed continuously without interruption. For water depths up to


1 m the concrete may be placed without tremie. In the case of water depths exceeding 1 m
the concrete is to be placed in such a way that it does not fall freely through the water. The
tremies must at all times dip sufficiently far into the freshly placed concrete to ensure that the
concrete emerging from the tremie does not come into contact with the water.

16

All work connected with the placing of concrete under water shall be designed, directed and
inspected with due regard to local circumstances and purposes. Work shall not proceed until
all phases and methods to be used in the placing operations have been accepted by the
Engineer.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
08: Transportation and Placing of Concrete

Page 7

Stops in concrete, at the end of a period of work, shall be made only at construction joint
locations shown on the drawings and/or positions accepted. Where the positions of
construction joints are not indicated on the drawings, these may be assumed, for estimating
purposes, to occur at 5 metre intervals in foundations and retaining walls and at one-third to
one-quarter of span in slabs and beams subject to a maximum spacing of approximately 9
metres.

18

At construction joint location the surface of the completed concrete shall be prepared by
spraying, wire brushing or chipping so that it is free from all laitance, scum and loose material
and shows a slightly roughened texture and tips of the coarse aggregate exposed. Before
continuing concreting the exposed concrete face shall be thoroughly wetted.

19

In the ground floor slab (where ground bearing), construction joints, crack inducer joints,
contraction joints and expansion joints shall be incorporated into the work as appropriate.
The spacing of construction joints, crack induced joints, contraction joints and expansion
joints in water retaining structures shall be shown on the design drawings

20

Where the positions or type of joints are not indicated on the drawings in the ground floor
slab, the slab shall be cast in strips not more than 4.0 metres wide, in alternating sequence,
across the width of the building. A minimum of 3 days shall elapse between the casting of
adjacent strips. Within each strip, crack induced joints shall be provided at not more than 5.0
metre spacing, and contraction joints shall be provided at not more than 15.0m spacing.
Across the width of the building, construction joint shall be provided between adjacent strips
th
with contraction joint at every 4 construction joint.

21

Wherever necessary and as required by the Engineer, waterstops of a type acceptable to the
Engineer shall be embedded in the concrete. The waterstop should be made of a high
quality material, which must retain its resilience through the service life of the structure for the
double function of movement and sealing. The surface of waterstops should be carefully
rounded to ensure tightness of the joint even under heavy water pressure. To ensure a good
tightness with or without movement of the joints, the waterstop should be provided with
anchor parts. The cross-section of the waterstops should be determined in accordance with
the presumed maximum water pressure and joint movements. The complete works of fixed
and welded connections must be carried out strictly in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions.

22

Engineers acceptance shall be obtained by the Contractor, prior to start of work, on the
casting sequence and the layout of joints.

23

Waterstops shall be carefully maintained in position prior to concreting on accurately profiled


stop boards to create rigid conditions.

24

The type of waterbar to be used shall suit the joint and purpose according to water bar
manufacturers recommendations

8.3.4

Compaction

Concrete shall be thoroughly compacted by vibration during the operation of placing and
thoroughly worked around the reinforcement, around embedded fixtures and into corners or
the formwork to form a solid mass free from voids.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
08: Transportation and Placing of Concrete

Page 8

When vibrators are used to compact the concrete, vibration shall be applied continuously
during the placing of each batch of concrete until the expulsion of air has practically ceased
and in a manner that does not promote segregation of the constituents of the concrete.

Immersion type vibrators shall be capable of producing not less than 10000 cycles per
minute, and external vibrators not less than 3000 cycles per minute.

A sufficient number of vibrators in serviceable condition shall be on site to ensure that spare
equipment is always available in the event of breakdown.

Immersion type vibrators shall be inserted into the uncompacted concrete vertically and at
regular intervals. Where the uncompacted concrete is in a layer above freshly compacted
concrete the vibrator shall penetrate vertically for about 100 mm into the previous layer.
Vibrators shall not come into contact with the reinforcement or the formwork. They shall be
drawn back slowly from the mass concrete so as to leave no voids. Internal type vibrators
shall not be placed in the concrete in a random or haphazard manner nor shall concrete be
moved from one part of the work to another by means of the vibrators.

Operators shall be trained in the use of vibrators. Foremen shall have a minimum of five
years of experience in the supervision of placing concrete

Vibration of the concrete shall not be applied by way of the reinforcement.

Compaction shall commence as soon as there is sufficient concrete to immerse the vibrator
and continue during the placing operations so that at no time shall there be a large volume of
uncompacted concrete in the formwork.

The duration of vibration shall be limited to that required to produce satisfactory compaction
without causing segregation. Vibration shall on no account be continued after water or
excess grout has appeared on the surface.

10

During the placing of all reinforced concrete, a competent steel fixer and a competent
carpenter shall be in attendance on each concreting gang. They shall ensure the
reinforcement embedded fittings and forms are kept in position as work proceeds.

8.3.5

Continuity of Concrete Work

Whenever instructed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall carry out the work in such a
manner that the placing of the concrete in any particular section of the structure shall be
executed without any interruption whatsoever from the beginning to the end of the operation.

Casting of concrete shall not begin until a sufficient quantity of approved material is at hand
to ensure continuity of operation, nor shall work begin until there is sufficient equipment in
reserve in case of breakdown.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Page 1

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FORMWORK ........................................................................................................... 2
GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
2
Quality Assurance
3
FORMWORK MATERIALS ...................................................................................... 5
General
5
CLASS OF FINISH AND MATERIALS: .................................................................... 5
Unformed surfaces
5
Surface Finish Classifications
7
Formwork Materials
7
Exposed Concrete Surface Finishes
7
Form Ties
8
Coating and Accessories
8
FORMWORK EXECUTION ..................................................................................... 9
General
9
Trial Panels
9
Formwork Face in Contact with Concrete
9
Sloping Surfaces
10
Temporary Openings
10
Form Windows
10
Co-ordination
10
Conduits
10
Ties and Bolts
11
Chamfers
11
Cambers
11
Exterior Angles
11
Surface Retarders
11
Detection of Movement During Concrete Placement
11
Building in Pipes
12
Working Platform
12
Safe Access
12
Kickers
12
Cover Spacers
12
Water Bars
12
REMOVAL OF FORMWORK................................................................................. 13
General
13
Stripping of Formwork
13
Holes to be Filled
14
Repair to Damaged Concrete Surfaces
14
DELIVERY AND STORAGE .................................................................................. 14
Delivery
14
Storage
14
TOLERANCES ...................................................................................................... 15
EARLY LOADING .................................................................................................. 15

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9
9.1
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
9.1.4
9.2
9.2.1
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
9.3.4
9.3.5
9.3.6
9.4
9.4.1
9.4.2
9.4.3
9.4.4
9.4.5
9.4.6
9.4.7
9.4.8
9.4.9
9.4.10
9.4.11
9.4.12
9.4.13
9.4.14
9.4.15
9.4.16
9.4.17
9.4.18
9.4.19
9.4.20
9.5
9.5.1
9.5.2
9.5.3
9.5.4
9.6
9.6.1
9.6.2
9.7
9.8

Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

Page 2

FORMWORK

9.1

GENERAL

9.1.1

Scope

This Part includes permanent forms, temporary formwork, and falsework for structural and
architectural cast-in-place concrete including form liners, coatings, and accessories.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 8, .............. Transportation and Placing of Concrete
Part 10, ............ Curing
Part 17, ............ Structural Precast Concrete.
Section 11: Health and Safety
Part 1, ............. Regulatory document
Part 2, ............. Safety and accident
(SAMAS)

prevention

management/administration

References

The following standards and other document are referred to in this Part:

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9.1.2

system

ACI Committee 117 ....Standard Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials (ACI
117-90), American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 22 pp.
ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Parts 2 and 5.
BS 8500......................Concrete
BS 5975......................Code of practice for false work
BS EN 12812..............Falsework. Performance requirements and general design CP3
chapter V-2: 1972
EN 1992-1-1 ...............Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for
buildings
GSO EN 206-1 ...........Concrete. Specification, performance, production and conformity
Concrete Society Technical Report No. 13
9.1.3

Submittals

Shop drawings shall include plans and sections, giving the following minimum information for
each level:
(a)

details of individual panels

(b)

position, size and spacing of adjustable steel shores

(c)

position, size and spacing of joists, soldiers, ties

(d)

details of formwork for columns, beams, parapets, slab and kickers

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

Page 3

(e)

details of construction joints and movement joints

(f)

details of retaining walls and deep beams showing the position and size of ties, joints,
soldiers and sheeting, together with detailed information on erection and casting
sequences and construction joints

(g)

general assembly details

(h)

full calculation sheets

(i)

proposals at all penetrations through the concrete

(j)

proposed sequence of shoring and reshoring beams and slabs for different spans and
floor heights and number of floors shored, and the stripping time for supported and
suspended structural elements, clearly identifying the supported element and
suspended element.

Scales of shop drawings shall be as follows:


(a)

details: 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20

(b)

construction: 1:50, 1:100

(c)

layout and Site Plan: 1:100 or 1:200

The Contractor shall submit samples of all proposed formwork materials and samples of ties
proposed for use in general situations above the water table and for fair faced concrete.

The Contractor shall allow 14 days for Engineers review of submittals or samples.

Supply and delivery of built-in pipework should be clearly shown on the detailed construction
program to be submitted by the Contractor.

Method Statements for erection and removal of formwork shall be submitted by the
Contractor before the start of the works for the Engineers review and approval. The Method
Statement shall include the Risk Assessments related to the activity.

When the formwork is to be carried out by a sub-contractor, then the pre-qualification


documents shall be submitted for the Engineers review and approval.

9.1.4

Quality Assurance

Formwork shall comply with the requirements of BS 5975 and EN 1992-1-1

The erection of formwork and associated falsework shall be executed and supervised by fully
qualified personnel having a minimum of five years experience.

The Contractor shall obtain approval to load any particular section of the works from the
Engineer.

Formwork design shall be carried out in accordance with the Concrete Society Technical
Report No. 13.

The erected formwork shall be watertight from the ingress of external liquids and the egress
of internal liquids. Adjustable steel supports and shores shall allow formboards and
framework to be accurately adjusted to line and level. The Contractor shall ensure that
adequate ground support for falsework is available, and if not shall take measures to make
them suitable.

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09: Formwork

Page 4

Formwork shall be designed to be sufficiently rigid to maintain the correct position, shape and
profile so that the final concrete structure is within the dimensional tolerances specified
Subpart 9.7 of this Part.

Formwork shall be designed to be demountable without causing shock, disturbance or


damage to the concrete.

Soffit formwork, properly supported on shores only, shall be capable of being retained in
position during the concrete maturing period.

The design shall allow free movement and accessibility under the formwork.

10

Shores for abnormal ceiling heights shall be specially designed.

11

The forms shall be designed to incorporate 20 mm chamfers on exposed corners of


columns, walls and beams.

12

The design of formwork shall take into account the following:


height and rate of pour

(b)

thickness of the member

(c)

concrete slump and density

(d)

placing temperature

(e)

texture of finish

(f)

construction joints

(g)

wind load

(h)

on soffit forms (in addition to concrete weight)

(i)

(j)

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(a)

(i)

an additional live load of 2.5 kPa, or

(ii)

if a motorised cart is used, an additional live load of 3.75 kPa

minimum design load for combined dead and live load


(i)

6.50 kPa

(ii)

if a motorised cart is used, 7.75 kPa

the worst combination of:


(i)

self-weight

(ii)

formwork forces

(iii)

reinforcement weight

(iv)

wet concrete weight

(v)

construction loads

(vi)

wind loads,

(vii)

incidental dynamic effects caused by placing, vibrating and compacting


concrete

(viii)

the use of externally applied vibrators

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13

Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

Page 5

(k)

method of concrete discharge

(l)

access for concrete placement and vibration.

Before beginning related formwork operations the Contractor shall erect a job mock-up, to a
reasonable size including all items such as sheeting, stiffeners, soldiers, ties etc. (and
including release agents, where used) for the following types of formwork, and shall obtain
the approval the Engineer before proceeding:
(a)

columns

(b)

slabs and beams

(c)

staircases

(d)

fair-faced concrete (show method used to conceal tie holes) cove ties not required.

Upon prior consultation, agreement of location and approval, the job mock-ups may remain
as part of the finished work.

9.2

FORMWORK MATERIALS

9.2.1

General

Forms shall be of wood; metal or other material acceptable to the Engineer.

The design of formwork shall be the responsibility of the Contractor.

Formwork shall conform to the requirements of EN 1992-1-1

Form oil and form sealer shall be of quality as acceptable to the Engineer.

9.3

CLASS OF FINISH AND MATERIALS:

9.3.1

Unformed surfaces

Unformed surfaces shall be classified as either:

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14

(a)

U4, timber trowel finish

(b)

U3, steel trowel finish

(c)

U2, brush finished

(d)

U1 other finish designated by the Engineer, such as:


(i)

Screeded Finish - Where the floor slab is to receive a screeded finish, the slab
shall be laid to the slopes and levels shown on the drawings and the top surface
shall be tamped whilst unset, to produce a suitable keyed surface for the receipt
of the appropriate finishing materials.

(ii)

Floated Finish - Where a floated finish is required to the floor slabs the top
surface shall be leveled and floated whilst unset to an uniform finish to the
slopes and levels shown on the drawings. The floating shall be done in such a
manner as not to bring an excess of mortar to the surface.

Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

Page 6

(iii)

Dustproof Finish - Where concrete surfaces are required to provide a dustproof


finish these shall be treated with two coats of accepted material. Each coat
shall be applied with a soft brush on a clean and dry surface in accordance with
the manufacturer's printed instructions.

(iv)

Non-slip Finish - Concrete surfaces described on the drawings as having a nonslip finish shall be treated with carborundum dust, evenly sprinkled on whilst the
concrete is still green, at a rate of 1 kg/m and lightly trowelled in before final
finishing. Alternatively, the carborundum dust may be incorporated into the finish
by means of a mechanical power float.

(v)

Hardened Finish - Where a hardened finish is required to the floor slabs these
shall be treated with three coats of accepted material. Each coat shall be
applied with a soft brush on a clean and dry surface in accordance with the
manufacturer's printed instructions.

(vi)

Finishing Unformed Surfaces - Finishing unformed surfaces shall be tamped,


floated, trowelled or brushed as defined below and shown on the drawings.
1.

Type T - Tamped surfaces shall be formed by levelling and tamping the


concrete to produce a uniform plain or ridged surface, surplus concrete
being struck off by a straight edge immediately after compaction. It is
also the first stage of the following finish.

2.

Type F - Floated surfaces shall be uniform surface which has been


worked no more than is necessary to remove screed marks by hand with
a wood float or by power float of a type acceptable to the Engineer. The
surface shall not be floated until the concrete has hardened sufficiently.

3.

Type ST - Steel trowelled shall be a hard, smooth finish, free from trowel
marks and formed with a steel trowel under firm pressure. Trowelling shall
not commence until the moisture film has disappeared and the concrete
has hardened sufficiently to prevent excess laitance from being worked to
the surface. If laitance is brought to the surface it shall be removed.

4.

Type BR - Brushed shall be formed before the concrete has hardened by


drawing a wire broom over the concrete surface at right angles to the
traffic flow to give an average texture depth of 1mm.

5.

For ground slab concrete shall be treated with sodium silicate or a similar
dust preventive coating. This must be applied in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions.

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QCS 2014

The type of finish will be specified on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Before
beginning any concrete pour with unformed surfaces, the Contractor shall obtain confirmation
of the type of finish required from the Engineer.

Initial finishing of unformed surfaces shall commence immediately after the placing and
compaction have taken place.

Suitable access boards or platforms shall be provided to allow access to all parts of
unformed surfaces to be finished.

Where a protective treatment or topping layer is to be applied to the concrete the


manufacturers and suppliers recommendations shall be followed concerning the required
finish.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

Page 7

Brush to finish shall be obtained by carrying out a steel trial finish and then using a suitable
stiff nylon brush dragged lightly across the surface.

The addition of small quantities of water to the finishing trowel will be permitted to aid
finishing.

9.3.2

Surface Finish Classifications

Finishes to formed surfaces of concrete shall be classified as F1, F2 and F3, or such other
special finish as may be designated.

Where the class of finish is not designated:


(a)

all internal concrete shall be finished to Class F3

(b)

external concrete below ground shall be finished to Class F1

(c)

where surfaces are to be tanked by covering with paint or sheeting, the formwork
shall be capable of achieving a finish suitable for the proposed tanking as directed by
the Engineer.

Formwork Materials

Formwork for Class F3 finish shall be lined with as large panels as possible of non-staining
material with a smooth unblemished surface such as sanded plywood or hard compressed
fibre board, arranged in a uniform approved pattern and fixed to back formwork by oval nails.

TC

9.3.3

the same type of lining shall be used throughout any one structure

(b)

unfaced wrought boarding or standard steel panels shall not be permitted.

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(a)

Formwork for Class F2 finish shall be faced with wrought tongued and grooved boards or
plywood arranged in a uniform approved pattern free from defects likely to detract from the
appearance of the surface.

Formwork for Class F1 finish shall be constructed of timber, or of any suitable materials
which will prevent loss of grout when the concrete is vibrated.

9.3.4

Exposed Concrete Surface Finishes

Exposed concrete surfaces shall have a Class F3 finish.

Care shall be taken to ensure that the finish to the exposed concrete on the external and
internal surfaces are of the highest quality to produce a smooth concrete surface of uniform
texture and appearance without visible imprint of grains, steppings or ridges.

The resulting concreting shall be free from honeycombing, stains, fins, lipping, nail and screw
marks, raised grain marks or any other imperfections and shall be of a uniform surface
texture and colour. Only very minor surface blemishes caused by entrapped air or water will
be accepted provided that they do not exceed 0.5% by area of each square metre considered
separately and in addition they shall not be concentrated in a manner such that they are
noticeable.

Formwork to the wetted surfaces of water retaining structures shall be Class F3

All exposed concrete corners and edges shall have 20 mm by 20 mm chamfers.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

Page 8

Grooves in exposed concrete shall be formed by attaching tapered planed timber battens
accurately aligned to the face of formwork.

9.3.5

Form Ties

Form ties shall conform to the following requirements:


(a)

factory-fabricated

(b)

adjustable in length

(c)

use removable or snap-off metal form ties

(d)

designed to prevent formwork deflection and to prevent spalling concrete surfaces on


removal

(e)

no metal shall be left closer than the applicable level of cover to the surface of the
concrete

(f)

holes larger than 10 mm diameter in the concrete surface, when using snap ties shall
not be permitted

(g)

form ties shall have a factor of safety not less than 1.5.

Coating and Accessories

Form coatings shall be commercial formulation form-coating compounds that will not bond
with, stain, nor adversely affect concrete surfaces requiring bond or adhesion, nor impede the
wetting of surfaces to be cured, shall be used. The use of form coatings shall be strictly in
accordance with the manufacturer instructions.

Formwork in contact with the concrete shall be treated with a suitable non-staining mould oil
to prevent adherence of the concrete.

Forms for exposed surfaces shall be coated with oil before reinforcement is placed. Forms
for unexposed surfaces may be thoroughly wetted with water in lieu of oiling, immediately
before placing of concrete except during freezing weather.

Excessive oiling of the forms shall not be permitted in order to prevent discoloration of the
cement plaster. Where concrete surface is to be painted, the form-oil must not affect the
bond between concrete and paint.

Care shall be taken to prevent the oil from coming in contact with reinforcement or with
concrete at construction joints. Any oil on reinforcing steel shall be removed.

Release agents shall not be used where concrete surfaces receive special finishes or applied
coatings which may be affected by the agent, unless approved by the Engineer.

Fillet and chamfer strips shall be PVC or timber to the approval of the Engineer.

Tapes to be used to seal joints of formwork panels for smooth finish concrete shall be plastic
faced adhesive tape to the approval of the Engineer.

Precast concrete moulds shall be rigid steel, wood or fibreglass moulds.

10

Flashing reglets shall be galvanised steel of the longest possible length.

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9.3.6

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

Page 9

FORMWORK EXECUTION

9.4.1

General

Where formwork to external faces will be permanently exposed, all horizontal and vertical
formwork joints shall be so arranged that joint lines will form a uniform pattern on the face of
the concrete.

Where the Contractor proposes to make up the formwork from standard sized manufactured
formwork panels, the size of such panels shall be approved by the Engineer before they are
used in the construction of the Works.

The finished appearance of the entire elevation of the structure and adjoining structures shall
be considered when planning the pattern of joint lines caused by the formwork and by the
construction joints to ensure continuity of horizontal and vertical lines.

Masonry nails or similar items shall not be used to fix formwork of the like to permanent
concrete works.

9.4.2

Trial Panels

The trial panels shall comprise surfaces that have unformed surfaces and formed surfaces
F1, F2 and F3.

The concrete cast from the job mock-up shall be used to assess the acceptability of the
Contractors workmanship for finishing.

If the finishing is deemed unacceptable by the Engineer, the Contractor shall prepare a
further mock-up with a particular class of finish.

The job mock-ups shall be retained during the course of the works to allow comparative
inspection, with production concreting and finishing and for the purpose of colour comparison
to ensure colour consistency.

9.4.3

Formwork Face in Contact with Concrete

Faces of formwork in contact with concrete shall be free from adhering foreign matter,
projecting nails and the like, splits or other defects, and all formwork shall be clean and free
from standing water, dirt, shavings, chippings or other deleterious matter.

Joints between forms and tie holes shall be watertight to prevent the escape of mortar or the
formation of fins or other blemishes on the face of the concrete.

The Contractor shall verify lines, levels and measurement before proceeding with formwork
erection.

The formwork surface shall be made clean and free from any foreign and deleterious matter,
prior to start the concrete pour.

In hot weather, the surface of the formwork shall be sprayed with water in order to lower the
temperature, prior to start the pour.

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9.4

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Part
09: Formwork

Page 10

Sloping Surfaces

Formwork shall be provided for the top surfaces of sloping work where the slope exceeds
15 from the horizontal (except where any such top surface is specified as a spaded finish).

The formwork shall be anchored to enable the concrete to be properly compacted and to
prevent flotation.

Care shall be taken to prevent air being trapped under the sloping formwork.

9.4.5

Temporary Openings

The Contractor shall provide temporary openings for inspection of the inside of the formwork
and for the removal of water used for washing down. The openings shall be formed as to be
easily closed before placing concrete.

Temporary opening shall be avoided in the case of fair faced concrete.

9.4.6

Form Windows

The Contractor shall provide windows in forms wherever directed by the Engineer or
necessary for access for concrete placement and vibration.

The windows shall be of a size adequate for tremies and vibrators spaced at maximum 1.8 m
centres horizontally.

Any windows shall be tightly closed and sealed before proceeding to place concrete at a
higher level.

9.4.7

Co-ordination

The Contractor shall ensure that the work of other trades in forming and setting openings,
slots recesses, chases, sleeves, bolts, anchors and other inserts is fully co-ordinated.

9.4.8

Conduits

Conduits or pipes shall be located so as not to reduce the strength of the construction.

In no case shall pipes other than conduits be placed in a slab 125 mm or less in thickness.

Conduits embedded in a concrete slab shall not have an outside diameter greater than
one-third the thickness of the slab nor be placed below the bottom reinforcing steel or over
the top reinforcing steel.

Conduits may be embedded in walls provided they are not larger in outside diameter than
one-third the thickness of the wall, are not spaced closer than three diameters on centre, and
do not impair the strength of the structure.

Embedded pipes and conduits shall be supported independently from reinforcing steel in a
manner to prevent metallic contact and thereby prevent electrolytic deterioration.

Pipes and conduits where embedded shall be placed as nearly as possible to the centre line
of the concrete section.

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9.4.4

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Part
09: Formwork

Page 11

Conduits, piping, and other wall penetrations or reinforcements shall be subject to the
Engineers review and approval.

Conduits shall be fixed properly to avoid any displacement during concreting and prevent
coming in contact with the forms.

9.4.9

Ties and Bolts

The position of ties passing through concrete shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

Ties, bolts or other devices shall not be built into the concrete for the purpose of supporting
formwork without the prior approval of the Engineer. The whole or part of any such supports
shall be capable of removal so that no part remaining embedded in the concrete shall be
nearer to the surface than the cover required for reinforcement.

9.4.10

Chamfers

Chamfer moulding strips shall be positioned on the exposed corners of columns and beams.

9.4.11

Cambers

If required, cambers shall be as shown on the Drawings.

The depth of beams at all points in the span, where cambers are used, shall be as shown on
the Drawings.

Allowance shall be made for compression and settlement of the formwork on line and level.

9.4.12

Exterior Angles

All exterior angles to concrete exposed to view in the completed structure shall be cast to the
true angles evenly throughout the length.

Care shall be taken to ensure that no waviness occurs along the angle and that no spalling
occurs to the concrete on removal of the formwork.

9.4.13

Surface Retarders

Surface retarders shall not be used on any formwork surface in contact with concrete unless
expressly authorised by the Engineer.

9.4.14

Detection of Movement During Concrete Placement

Devices of telltale type shall be installed on supported forms and elsewhere as required to
detect formwork movements and deflection during concrete placement.

Where required slab and beam cambers shall be checked and correctly maintained as
concrete loads are applied on forms.

Workmen shall be assigned to check forms during concrete placement and to promptly seal
all mortar leaks.

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
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Page 12

The forms shall be checked during concreting in order to identify any displacement and
provide corrective actions immediately.

9.4.15

Building in Pipes

Pipes and pipe specials through concrete walls and floors shall as far as possible be
positioned and built in during construction. They shall be located exactly in the positions
shown on the Drawings and shall be true to line and level.

The Contractor shall take particular care to ensure that fully compacted concrete is in contact
with the pipe at all points.

Where it is not practicable to cast pipes and specials in the concrete, boxholes shall be
formed in the shuttering.

The box shall have six or eight sides, depending on the pipe diameter, and shall be no larger
in size than will give adequate clearance for the subsequent positioning and grouting in of the
pipe. The sides of the boxhole shall be provided with a tapered central annular recess to
provide a positive key. The boxhole shall be provided with a grout hole and, at the top of the
central annular recess, a vent hole. The boxhole shall be stripped with the main shuttering
and the concrete surface thoroughly cleaned and roughened.

When the pipe is later fixed, the remaining hole shall be reshuttered and filled with non-shrink
epoxy grout or non-shrink concrete. In the case of water retaining structures, the Contractor
shall ensure that the measures adopted shall provide a finished joint which is resistant
against and free from leakage.

9.4.16

Working Platform

Safe working platform shall be provided according to Section 11 (Health and Safety).

9.4.17

Safe Access

Safe access shall be provided for the workers, inspectors, and other users according to
Section 11 (Health and Safety).

9.4.18

Kickers

Kickers shall be provided for walls and columns

The kickers shall be water tight in order to prevent any grout loss.

9.4.19

Cover Spacers

Cover spacers shall be used in order to maintain the required cover between the formwork
and reinforcement.

9.4.20

Water Bars

In the case of watertight constructions water bars or equivalent, as approved by the Engineer,
shall be used at joints.

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Page 13

REMOVAL OF FORMWORK

9.5.1

General

The Engineer shall be notified in writing before the removal of any formwork.

The Contractor, under no circumstances, shall strike the formwork until the concrete has
attained adequate strength to resist damage, in particular to arises and features.

Concrete shall be thoroughly wetted as soon as the forms are first loosened and shall be kept
wet during the removal operations and until the curing media is applied.

A potable water supply with hoses having fine fog spray attachments shall be ready at each
removal location before operations are commenced.

The forms after removal shall be cleaned and prepared for subsequent use.

9.5.2

Stripping of Formwork

The period of time elapsing between the placing of the concrete and the striking of the
formwork shall be approved by the Engineer after consideration of the loads likely to be
imposed on the concrete and shall in any case be not less than the periods shown in
Table 9.1

Stripping of the formwork within the time limits listed above does not relieve the Contractor
from successfully crushing test cubes and achieving the specified compressive strength
results.

Notwithstanding the foregoing the Contractor shall be held responsible for any damage
arising from removal of formwork before the structure is capable of carrying its own weight
and any incidental loading.

Where finished surfaces have re-entrant angles, the formwork shall be removed as early as
possible, within the time limits set above, to avoid shrinkage cracks.

The formwork shall be carefully stripped to avoid sudden shocks from the removal of
wedges, or vibration which might cause damage to the concrete.

Reshoring to beams and slabs shall be placed immediately after stripping formwork.

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9.5

Table 9.1
Stripping Times of Formworks
Type Of Formwork

Minimum Period Before


Stripping (Times Are From
Concrete Placement)

Beam sides, walls and column


Soffits of slabs (props left under)
Soffits of beams, joists and girders (props left under)
Props to slabs
Props to beams

1d
4d
10 d
11 d
15 d

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

Page 14

Holes to be Filled

Holes formed in concrete surfaces by formwork supports or the like shall be filled neatly with
non-shrink grout.

The Contractor shall clean and scarify any hole that is to be filled with non-shrink grout.

9.5.4

Repair to Damaged Concrete Surfaces

Where the concrete surface has been damaged, the Contractor shall break out any loose,
broken or cracked concrete or aggregate.

The concrete surrounding the hole shall be then be thoroughly soaked after which the
surface shall be dried so as to leave a small amount of free water on the surface. The
surface shall then be dusted with ordinary Portland cement by means of a small dry brush
until the whole surface that will come into contact with the dry-pack mortar has been covered
and darkened by absorption of the free water by the cement. Any dry cement in the hole shall
be removed

Dry-pack material shall then be placed and packed in layers having a compacted thickness in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Compaction shall be carried out by the use
of a hardwood stick and a hammer and shall extend over the full area of the layer, particular
care being taken to compact the dry-pack against the side of the hole. After compaction the
surface of each layer shall be scratched before further loose material is added

The hole shall not be over-filled and the surface shall be finished by layering a hardwood
block against the dry-pack fill and striking the block several times. Steel finishing tools shall
not be used and water shall not be added to facilitate finishing.

The surface of the concrete shall be rubbed down smooth with carborundum and water in an
approved manner within three days of removing the formwork. Holes left after removal of
such supports shall be neatly filled with non-shrink grout of a suitable consistency and
matching colour.

9.6

DELIVERY AND STORAGE

9.6.1

Delivery

The delivery of formwork materials shall be done in such a manner that damage can be
prevented.

9.6.2

Storage

Formwork should be stored, after cleaning and preparing for reuse if used before, in such a
manner that access to all different materials is available.

Materials which can be affected by weathering shall be stored in appropriate buildings or


under cover.

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9.5.3

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

Page 15

9.7

TOLERANCES

The concrete work shall be constructed to an accuracy which shall permit the proper
assembly of components and installations and shall be compatible with the finish. The
accuracy of the work shall be within the tolerances shown on the Drawings or specified
elsewhere and, in the absence of any other requirements, shall comply with the following:
All laying out dimensions
Sections of concrete members

5 mm
5 mm

Surface of foundations against ground

10 mm

Top surfaces of foundations, bases and piers

20 mm

Surface level of floor slabs (5m straight edge)


Surface level of floor slabs to datum
Plumb of columns and walls in storey height

5 mm
10 mm
5 mm

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Plumb of columns and walls in full building height (for each


storey) above the top of foundation:
20m building height
150m building height 20 m
building height 150 m
Inside faces of elevator shafts in storey height
Inside faces of elevator shafts in full building height (for each
storey) above the top of foundation:
20m building height
150m building height 20 m
building height 150 m

20 mm
(1/1000) of height
150 mm
5 mm

10 mm
(0.5/1000) of height
75 mm

9.8

EARLY LOADING

The Contractor should note that the loading from the falsework and wet concrete, during the
construction of a floor, will not exceed the permissible loading on the floor immediately below.
Consequently two of the floors immediately below the one being constructed will need to be
used, to share the loading.

While propping through two floors, the Contractor shall ensure, that the props beneath the
floor last constructed are released over its full extent as soon as the concrete has achieved
sufficient strength to support itself plus any superimposed loading, but not sooner than the
periods given in Table 9.1. The props shall then be re-tightened so that these may be used
to share the construction loading from the floor above.

Not withstanding the requirements of this Section for the removal times for formwork, the
following provisions shall apply to early loading of concrete.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
09: Formwork

Page 16

Concrete shall at no time be subject to loading including its own weight which will induce a
compressive stress in excess of 0.33 of the actual compressive strength of the concrete at
the time of loading or 0.33 of the specified 28 d characteristic strength whichever is the lower.
For the purpose of this clause the assessment of the strength of the concrete and the stress
produced by the loads shall be subject to the agreement of the Engineer.

If, due to his method of construction, the Contractor wishes to place an imposed load on the
structure, he shall arrange for additional cubes to be cast at the point of the structure to be
loaded and these cubes will be crushed to monitor the compressive strength in accordance
with BS EN 12390-3 Compressive strength of test specimens. The Contractor shall submit
calculations showing the stresses induced by any proposed temporary loads to be placed on
the structure.

No superstructure load shall be placed upon finished piers or abutments until the Engineer
has given his approval in writing and in no case shall any load be placed until the curing
period is complete.

Deck slabs of bridges shall only be opened to traffic or construction equipment and plant
when authorised by the Engineer and in no case until the curing period is complete.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 1

CURING .................................................................................................................. 2

10.1
10.1.1
10.1.2
10.1.3
10.1.4
10.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
2
Quality Assurance
2
Storage
2

10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.4
10.2.5
10.2.6
10.2.7
10.2.8
10.2.9
10.2.10
10.2.11
10.2.12

CURING .................................................................................................................. 2
General
2
Water for Curing
3
General Requirements
3
Curing of Formed Surfaces
4
Curing of Unformed Surfaces
4
Moisture Curing
4
Moisture Retaining Cover Curing
4
Liquid Membrane Curing
5
Steam Curing
5
Pavements and other slab on ground
5
Buildings, bridges, and other structures
5
Mass concrete
6

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10

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 2

10

CURING

10.1

GENERAL

10.1.1

Scope

This part covers the requirements for the curing of concrete.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 1, ............ General
Part 4, ............ Water
Part 6, ............ Property Requirements
Part 15, ........... Hot Weather Concreting
Part 16, ........... Miscellaneous.

10.1.2

References
AASHTO M 148.74, ...Liquid Membrane Curing
ACI 308 ..................... Guide to Concrete Curing

TC

ASTM C 309, .............. Specification for Liquid Membrane-forming Compounds for Curing
Concrete
BS 7542,..................... Method of test for curing compounds for concrete.
Quality management systems -- Requirements

AM

ISO 9001: 2008


10.1.3

Submittals

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer the proposed method of curing for approval.

10.1.4

Quality Assurance

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval the details of proposed curing
media, if any. Details shall include chemical tests for the product in accordance with
BS 7542 and details of quality assurance procedures, including ISO 9001 certificates if held.

10.1.5

Storage

Chemical curing compounds shall be stored in accordance with manufacturer's


recommendations.

10.2

CURING

10.2.1

General

The Contractor shall ensure that curing is provided for 24 hours per day including holidays
and that all related necessary plant and labour resources are also available.

Special attention shall be given to the curing of vertical and overhanging surfaces to ensure
satisfactory curing.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 3

The Contractor shall adopt curing measures that preclude the possibility of thermal shock to
the concrete during curing. This may be achieved by ensuring that the temperature of the
water used for curing does not differ from that of the concrete by more than 15 C.

Curing shall continue for at least 7 days and until it attains an in-place compressive strength
of the concrete of at least 70% of the specified compressive or flexural strength, whichever
period is longer. Curing shall not stop unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

When low W/cm is used, the concrete shall be preferably cured by water.

10.2.2

Water for Curing

Water used for any curing purposes shall conform to the requirements of Part 4 of this
Section.

10.2.3

General Requirements

Freshly placed concrete shall be protected from sun, wind, rain, exposure and excessive
drying out.

All concrete shall be cured for a period of time required to obtain the full specified strength,
but not less than seven consecutive days. The method of curing shall be by water for the first
seven days and by water or membrane until the concrete has reached the full specified
strength.

For mixtures with a low to zero bleeding rate, or in the case of aggressively evaporative
environments, or both, the curing shall start at early anytime between placement and final
finishing of the concrete. The curing shall be by reducing the moisture loss from surface
using fogging systems and the use of evaporation reducers such as monomolecular water
curing compound.

Exposed surfaces shall be protected from air blown contamination until 28 d after the
concrete is placed.

The method of curing shall ensure that sufficient moisture is present to complete the
hydration of the cement, and shall be to the approval of the Engineer. The method of curing
shall not:

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(a)

disfigure permanently exposed surfaces

(b)

affect bonding of subsequent coatings

(c)

increase the temperature of the concrete.

During the curing period, exposed concrete surface shall be protected from the direct rays of
the sun.

When liquid membrane is used to cure the concrete, it shall not be applied if bleeding water
is present on the surface of the concrete.

The applied film of the liquid membrane shall be continuous and protected from rain and any
damages for at least 14 days.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 4

Curing of Formed Surfaces

Formed surfaces, including the underside of beams, girders, supported slabs and the like, by
moist curing with the forms in place for the full curing period, or until the forms are removed.

When the forms are stripped, curing shall continue by any approved method.

When liquid membrane curing is used, it shall be applied immediately after de-shuttering. In
such cases the concrete surface shall be prepared prior to the application of the membrane
as recommended by the manufacturer.

Water curing is not required when liquid membrane is used.

10.2.5

Curing of Unformed Surfaces

Unformed surfaces shall be protected as soon as possible after the concrete has been
placed by polythene sheeting. When sufficiently hard, hessian or other absorbent material
shall be placed on the concrete surface and shall be kept wet for the required period. The
hessian shall be overlaid with a sheet of 1000 gauge polythene to assist in the retention of
water. Alternatively a curing method approved by the Engineer may be used.

Once the concrete is sufficiently hard, the top exposed surface of walls, columns and beams
shall be water cured and covered with wet hessian for the required curing period.

10.2.6

Moisture Curing

Moisture curing shall be performed by :

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10.2.4

(a)

covering the surface of the concrete with water and keeping it continuously wet

(b)

continuous use of fine fog water sprays

(c)

covering the surface with a saturated absorptive cover and keeping it continuously
wet.

(d)

Burlap, cotton mats, and other absorbent materials can be used to hold water on
horizontal or vertical surfaces.

(e)

Wet straw or hay can be used for wet-curing small areas, but there is the danger that
wind might displace it unless it is held down with screen wire, burlap, or other means

Where method (a) is employed, the bunds used shall not be made from fill from excavations
or any other areas where there is the possibility of chloride contamination.

10.2.7

Moisture Retaining Cover Curing

The concrete surface shall be covered with a suitable absorptive covering, such as wet
hessian.

The absorptive covering shall be overlaid with a 1000 gauge polythene sheet.

The cover shall be in the widest practical widths and shall have 100 mm side and end laps.

Any penetrations or tear in the covering shall be shall be repaired with the same material and
waterproof tape.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 5

10.2.8

Liquid Membrane Curing

Liquid membrane curing shall be in accordance with the requirements of BS 7542, ASTM
C 309 or C1315 when tested at the rate of coverage use on the job.

ASTM C 156 shall be used as a test method to evaluate water-retention capability of liquid
membrane forming compounds. ASTM C 1151 provides an alternative laboratory test for
determining the efficiency of liquid membrane-forming compounds.

Membrane forming curing compounds shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations immediately after any water sheen which may develop after finishing has
disappeared from the surface and within 2 h of stripping formwork on formed surfaces.

Membrane forming curing compounds shall not be used on surfaces against which additional
concrete or other material is to be bonded unless:
(a)

it is proven that the curing compound will not prevent bond, or

(b)

positive measures are taken to remove it completely from those areas which are to
receive bonded applications

(c)

on fair faced concrete surfaces.

Steam Curing

An enclosure shall be formed around the concrete using tarpaulin or other suitable means.

Application of steam shall not be commenced until at least 2 h after final placement of
concrete.

Steam shall be applied at a temperature between 65 C and 80 C.

Excessive rates of heating and cooling shall be prevented during steam curing and
temperatures in the enclosure shall not be allowed to increase or decrease by more than
22 C per hour.

The maximum steam temperature shall be maintained in the enclosure until concrete has
reached its specified strength.

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10.2.9

10.2.10 Pavements and other slab on ground


1

Curing shall ensure that no plastic shrinkage crack will occur, this can be done by protective
measures such as sun shields, wind breaks, evaporation reducers, or fog spraying should be
initiated immediately to reduce evaporation.

Mats used for curing can either be left in place and kept saturated for completion of the
curing, or can be subsequently replaced by a liquid membrane-forming curing compound,
plastic sheeting, reinforced paper, straw, or water

10.2.11 Buildings, bridges, and other structures


1

Additional curing shall be provided after the removal of forms

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 6

After the concrete has hardened and while the forms are still in place on vertical and other
formed surfaces, form ties may be loosened when damage to the concrete will not occur and
water applied to run down on the inside of the form to keep the concrete wet.

Care shall be taken to prevent thermal shock and cracks when using water that is
significantly cooler than the concrete surface. Curing water should not be more than about
o
11 C cooler than the concrete.

Immediately following form removal, the surfaces shall be kept continuously wet by a water
spray or water-saturated fabric or until the membrane-forming curing compound is applied.
Curing

10.2.12 Mass concrete


Mass concrete is often cured with water for the additional cooling benefit in warm weather;
however, this can be counterproductive when the temperature gradient between the warmer
interior and the cooler surface generates stress in the concrete.

Horizontal or sloping unformed surfaces of mass concrete can be maintained continuously


wet by water spraying, wet sand, or water saturated fabrics.

For vertical and other formed surfaces, after the concrete has hardened and the forms are
still in place, the form ties may be loosened and water supplied to run down the inside of the
form to keep the concrete wet

Care shall be taken to prevent thermal shock and cracks when using water that is
significantly cooler than the concrete surface. Curing water should not be more than about
o
11 C cooler than the concrete.

Curing shall start as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent surface
damage.

For unreinforced massive sections not containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag or
pozzolan, curing shall be continued for not less than 2 weeks. Where ground granulated
blast-furnace slag or pozzolan is included in the concrete, the minimum time for curing shall
be not less than 3 weeks.

For reinforced mass concrete, curing shall be continuous for a minimum of 7 days or until
70% of the specified compressive strength is obtained, if strength is the key concrete
performance criterion. For construction joints, curing shall be continued until resumption of
concrete placement or until the required curing period is completed.

Curing shall not stop until favourable differential temperature is attained and at the approval
of the Engineer.

For mass concrete, thermocouples shall be used to monitor the temperature differential of
the concrete.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 1

REINFORCEMENT ................................................................................................. 2

11.1
11.1.1
11.1.2
11.1.3
11.1.4
11.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
3
Quality Assurance
3
Delivery Storage and Handling
3

11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3

REINFORCING MATERIALS .................................................................................. 4


Reinforcing Bars
4
Welded Steel Wire Fabric
4
Tie Wire
5

11.3
11.3.2
11.3.3

INSPECTION, SAMPLING AND TESTING.............................................................. 5


Sampling
5
Testing
6

11.4

CUTTING AND BENDING OF REINFORCEMENT ................................................. 6

11.5
11.5.1
11.5.2
11.5.3
11.5.4
11.5.5
11.5.6
11.5.7
11.5.8
11.5.9
11.5.10
11.5.11

FIXING OF REINFORCEMENT ............................................................................... 6


General
6
Welding
7
Mechanical Splices
8
Bundling and Splicing of Bundled Bars
8
Examination
8
Electrolytic Action
8
Cover
8
Reinforcement
8
Forms and Linings
9
Tanking
9
Adjustment and Cleaning
9

11.6
11.6.2
11.6.3
11.6.4

PROTECTIVE COATINGS TO REINFORCEMENT ................................................ 9


Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Bars
9
Handling of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement
11
Testing of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement
11

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11

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 2

11

REINFORCEMENT

11.1

GENERAL

11.1.1

Scope

This Part includes tension, compression, and temperature reinforcing steel, including welded
wire fabric, and epoxy coated reinforcing. The work includes furnishing, fabrication, and
placement of reinforcement for cast-in-place concrete, including bars, welded wire fabric,
ties, and supports.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 16 ............. Miscellaneous
Part 17 ............. Structural Precast Concrete
References
ASTM A416/A416M....Standard Specification for Steel Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire for
Prestressed Concrete
ASTM 615/615M ........Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for
Concrete Reinforcement

TC

ASTM A706, ...............Specification for Low-allow Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement
ASTM A881/A881M ...Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Deformed, Stress-Relieved or
Low-Relaxation for Prestressed Concrete Railroad Ties

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11.1.2

ASTM A882/A882M- ..Standard Specification for


Prestressing Steel Strand

Filled

Epoxy-Coated

Seven-Wire

ASTM A955/A955M-14 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless-Steel Bars
for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A1022/A1022M-14a Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless Steel
Wire and Welded Wire for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A1035/ A1035M Deformed and Plain, Low-carbon, -Chromium, -Steel Bars for
Concrete Reinforcement:
BS 4449 : 2005...........Specification for Carbon steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete
BS 4482: 2005,...........Specification for Cold reduced steel wire for the reinforcement of
concrete
BS 4483: 2005............Steel fabric for the reinforcement of concrete
BS 5896,.....................Specification for high tensile steel wire and strand for the prestressing
of concrete.
BS 8666,.....................Specification for scheduling, dimensioning, bending and cutting of
steel reinforcement for concrete
EN 1011, ....................Welding. Recommendation for welding of metallic materials
EN 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for buildings
ISO 14654, .................Epoxy- coated steel for the reinforcement of concrete
ISO 14656, .................Epoxy powder and sealing material for the coating of steel for the
reinforcement of concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 3

ISO 3766 ...................Construction drawings -- Simplified representation of concrete


reinforcement
ISO 9000, ..................Quality management systems. Fundamentals and vocabulary
QS ISO 6935-1:2007, .Steel for the reinforcement of concrete -Part 1: Plain bars
QS ISO 6935-2:2007 ..Steel for the reinforcement of concrete Part 2: Ribbed bars
QS ISO 6935-3:2007 ..Steel for the reinforcement of concrete Part 3: Welded fabric
Submittals

Product data including the manufacturers specification and installation instructions for
proprietary materials and reinforcement accessories shall be provided.

The Contractor shall submit the manufacturers records of chemical and physical properties
of each batch of billet steel bars and a certificate that the respective material furnished meets
the requirements for the steel reinforcement specified. The manufacturers records shall
include certificates of mill as well as analysis, tensile and bend tests of the reinforcement.

Three copies of the steel test report shall be furnished with each consignment of steel
reinforcement. The steel shall be tagged and cross-referenced with mill certificates.

11.1.4

Quality Assurance

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for source approval details of the proposed
source of supply of the reinforcement. Details shall include chemical and physical tests for
the past six months production and any independent test results for this period. Details of
quality assurance procedures, including ISO 9000 certificate if held, shall also be given.

The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with a certificate of compliance for each shipment
of epoxy coated bars. The certificate of compliance shall state that representative samples of
the epoxy coated bars have been tested and that the test results comply with the
requirements herein specified. Test results shall be retained by the Contractor for seven
years. A complete set of test results shall also be handed to the client at the completion of
reinforcement works, and shall be made available to the Engineer upon request.

11.1.5

Delivery Storage and Handling

On delivery, bars in each lot shall be legibly tagged by the manufacturer. The tag shall show
the manufacturers test number and lot number and other applicable data that will identify the
material with the certificate issued for that lot of steel. The fabricator shall furnish three
copies of a certification which shows the batch number or numbers from which each size of
bar in the shipment was fabricated.

Storage of reinforcement shall be on suitable structures a minimum of 450 mm above the


ground surface to prevent damage and accumulation of dirt, rust and other deleterious
matter. Storage facilities shall be such as to permit easy access for inspection and
identification. Reinforcement bundles shall be clearly tagged with bar schedule and bar mark
reference.

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11.1.3

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 4

The reinforcement shall not be roughly handled, dropped from a height, or subjected to shock
loading or mechanical damage. Steel reinforcing bars shall be kept clean and shall be free
from pitting, loose rust, mill scale, oil, grease, earth, paint, or any other material which may
impair the bond between the concrete and the reinforcement. The reinforcement shall be
covered to ensure protection from wind blown dust, condensation and other deleterious
materials.

11.2

REINFORCING MATERIALS

11.2.1

Reinforcing Bars

Reinforcement shall be from an acceptable source. All steel reinforcement bars shall comply
with the requirements of:
(i)

QS ISO 6935 with minimum grade of B500 MPa or

(ii)

BS 4449 with minimum grades of B500 MPa ; or..

(iii)

ASTM A615 / A615M with minimum grade of 75 [520MPa]; or

(iv)

Deformed and Plain, Low-carbon-Chromium-Steel


Reinforcement: ASTM A1035/ A1035M

(v)

ASTM A1022/A1022M-14a Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain


Stainless Steel Wire and Welded Wire for Concrete Reinforcement

(vi)

ASTM A955/A955M-14 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain


Stainless-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement

(vii)

Other types of reinforcement, as approved by Qatar Standards

for

Concrete

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Bars

As per project design, other steel grades of less than B500MPa may be used only for stirrups
and secondary reinforcement of diameter of 10mm or less.

If the steel has excessive surface rust, dust or other deleterious material then the steel shall
be sand blasted. Sand for blasting shall not contain materials deleterious to the durability of
the reinforcement or concrete. Dune sand shall not be used for the sandblasting of
reinforcement.

For extreme exposure class X5; protection measures such as epoxy coated bars; Lowcarbon-chromium-steel bars; or Stainless Steel may be considered.

11.2.2

Welded Steel Wire Fabric

Steel fabric reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of QS ISO 6935-3 or BS 4483
and shall be delivered to Site in flat mats.

Welded intersections shall not be spaced more than:


(a)

300 mm for plain round bars

(b)

400 mm apart for deformed high yield bars in direction of calculated stress except
when used as stirrups.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 5

11.2.3

Tie Wire

Tie wire shall conform to the requirements of BS 4482.

1.6 mm black annealed mild steel shall be used for tie wire.

No wires smaller than size D-4 shall be used.

11.3

INSPECTION, SAMPLING AND TESTING

Inspection of reinforcing steel and the installation thereof will be conducted by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall give 24 hour notice to the Engineer before closing forms or placing
concrete.

The Engineer may instruct the Contractor to break out and remove completely all sections of
the work already constructed under any of the following circumstances:
reinforcing steel sample under test fails to meet the specification requirements at any
time

(b)

the Engineer considers that samples which were presented to him for test were not
truly representative

(c)

a previously rejected reinforcing steel has been used in the Works.

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(a)

11.3.2

Sampling

Representative samples of all reinforcing steel proposed for use in the Works must be
submitted by the Contractor, before work is commenced, to the Engineer for his written
approval.

Manufacturer's certificates stating clearly for each sample:


(a)

place of manufacture

(b)

expected date and size of deliveries to site

(c)

all relevant details of composition, manufacture, strengths and other quality of the
steel.

The Engineer reserves the right to sample and inspect reinforcement steel upon its arrival at
the work site.

Frequency of sampling and the method of quality control shall be in accordance with steel
bars manufactured standard QS ISO 6935 or BS 4449 .

Where epoxy coated steel is used, a sample of the coating material shall be supplied with
each batch in an airtight container and identified by the batch number.

Allow 14 days for Engineers review of samples.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

11.3.3

Testing

Tests shall be carried out when directed by the Engineer.

Tests shall be carried out in accordance with QS ISO 6935 or BS 4449.

The following information shall be provided with each delivery of reinforcement:


(a)

elastic limit

(b)

ultimate strength

(c)

stress/strain curve

(d)

cross-sectional area

(e)

deformation/bond characteristics of deformed bars.

Page 6

The Contractor shall allow for dimensions and weight measurements, tensile, bend and/ or
rebend tests at own cost, for each size of bar to be used in the concrete construction.

Test results for each bar size shall be submitted to the Engineer three weeks before concrete
work commences on Site.

Full testing shall be required if the source of supply of reinforcement changes, in which case
the cost of such extra testing will be borne by the Contractor.

When any test results do not conform to the relevant standard the reinforcement steel shall
be removed from the Site and all costs resulting therefrom shall be borne by the Contractor.

11.4

CUTTING AND BENDING OF REINFORCEMENT

Cutting and bending of reinforcement shall be in accordance with ISO 3766 or BS 8666 and
shall be done without the application of heat. Bends shall have a substantially constant
curvature. For epoxy coated steel the provisions of Clause 11.6.1 of this Part shall apply

Steel bars manufactured according to the approved ASTM standards shall be bent according
to the same standard.

Reinforcement shall not be straightened or rebent without the approval of the Engineer. If
permission is given to bend projecting reinforcement care shall be taken not to damage the
concrete and to ensure that the radius is not less than the minimum specified in ISO 3766 or
BS 8666.

11.5

FIXING OF REINFORCEMENT

11.5.1

General

All reinforcement shall be securely and accurately fixed in positions shown on the Drawings
to ensure that the reinforcement steel framework as a whole shall retain its shape. The
framework shall be supported to retain its correct position in the forms during the process of
placing and consolidating the concrete.

The ends of all tying wires shall be turned into the main body of the concrete and not allowed
to project towards the surface.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 7

No part of the reinforcement shall be used to support access ways, working platform or for
the conducting of an electric current.

The Contractors specific attention is drawn to the following general requirements:


(a)

lapped joints shall be as indicated on the Drawings and/or in accordance with the
requirements of EN 1992-1-1 or BS 8666

(b)

hooks shall be semicircular with a straight length of at least:


(i)

four bar diameters for mild steel

(ii)

six bar diameters for high yield steel.

Welding

Welding shall not be used unless authorised by the Engineer and recommended by the
reinforcement manufacturer.

Where welding is approved it shall be executed under controlled conditions in a factory or


workshop.

Welding shall not take place on site without the approval of the Engineer and unless suitable
safeguards and techniques are employed and the types of steel employed have the required
welding properties.

Welding if approved, may be used for:

TC

11.5.2

fixing crossing or lapping reinforcement in position

(b)

fixing bars to other steel members

(c)

structural welds involving transfer of loads between reinforcement or between bars


and other steel members.

AM

(a)

The length of run deposited in a single pass shall not exceed five times the bar diameter. If a
longer welded length is required, the weld shall be divided into sections with the space
between runs made not less than five times the bar diameter.

Butt welds shall be formed by flash butt welding or metal-arc welding. Other methods may be
approved, subject to their satisfactory performance in trial joints.

Metal-arc welding or electrical resistance welding may be used for fixing suitable steels or for
lapped joints.

Flash butt welding shall be executed with the correct combination of flashing, heating,
upsetting and annealing, using only machines which automatically control this cycle of
operations.

Metal-arc welding shall comply with EN 1011 and the recommendations of the reinforcement
manufacturer.

10

Welded joints shall not be made at bends in the reinforcement. Joints in parallel bars of
principle reinforcement shall be staggered, unless otherwise approved. The distance
between staggered joints shall be not less than the end anchorage length joints.

11

Weldable reinforcement where shown on the Drawings shall conform to ASTM A706.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 8

Mechanical Splices

Mechanical splices shall comply with EN 1992-1-1 or BS 8666, and shall be used as and
where indicated on the Drawings.

Details of mechanical splices shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

11.5.4

Bundling and Splicing of Bundled Bars

Bundling and splicing of bundled bars shall be in accordance with EN 1992-1-1 or BS 8666.

Splicing, except where indicated on the Drawings or approved shop drawings, will not be
permitted without the approval of the Engineer.

11.5.5

Examination

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer at least 24 hours before commencing the fixing of
reinforcement in order to facilitate the inspection of formwork.

The Contractor shall ensure that areas to receive reinforcement are cleaned before fixing.

11.5.6

Electrolytic Action

Reinforcement shall not be fixed or placed in contact with non-ferrous metals.

11.5.7

Cover

Correct concrete cover to reinforcement shall be maintained with the aid of approved spacer
pieces.

The cover shall not be less than given in Section 5 Part 6.

Spacers, chairs and other supports shall be provided as necessary to maintain the
reinforcement in its correct position.

In a member where the nominal cover is dimensioned to the links, spacers between the links
and formwork shall be the same dimension as the nominal cover.

Spacer bars shall be of the same diameter as longitudinal bars, but not less than 25 mm in
diameter, and shall be fixed between two layers at 1.5 m centres except where bundled bars
are detailed.

Spacers, chairs and other supports shall be made of concrete, plastic or other material to the
approval of the Engineer. Where supports are made of concrete they shall have at least the
same cube strength as the concrete in the host member.

11.5.8

Reinforcement

Placing of all reinforcement steel bars will be checked by the Engineer and in no case is
concrete to be placed around any reinforcement steel that has not been approved by the
Engineer. Insertion of bars into or the removal of bars from concrete already placed will not
be permitted.

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11.5.3

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 9

Reinforcement steel temporarily left projecting from the concrete at the joints shall not be
bent without the prior approval of the Engineer.

11.5.9

Forms and Linings

Damage to forms and linings shall be avoided.

11.5.10 Tanking
1

Reinforcement shall not be fixed until completion of placing tanking (membrane) protection.

11.5.11 Adjustment and Cleaning


1

Check position of reinforcement before and during placing concrete:


(a)

pay particular attention to the position of top reinforcement in cantilever sections

(b)

ensure that reinforcement is clean and free from corrosive pitting, loose rust, loose mill
scale, oil and other substances which may adversely affect reinforcement, concrete, or
the bond between the two.

Protect projecting reinforcement from the weather where rust staining of exposed concrete
surfaces may occur.

At the time of concreting, all reinforcement steel shall have been thoroughly cleaned and
freed from all mud, oil or any other coatings that might destroy or reduce the bond:

TC

clean all set or partially set concrete which may have been deposited thereon during
the placing of a previous lift of concrete

(b)

all uncoated rust bars shall be again sand blasted and pressure washed.

AM

(a)

Immediately before concrete placing the reinforcing steel shall be washed thoroughly with
high pressure potable water jets to remove any deposited salts.

11.6

PROTECTIVE COATINGS TO REINFORCEMENT

All the forgoing clauses of this part apply equally to epoxy coated reinforcing bars.

11.6.2

Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Bars

Reinforcing steel which are to be coated shall be free of slivers, scabs, excessive pitting,
rust, grease, oil and other surface defects detrimental to proper coating.

The surface shall be prepared in accordance with ISO 14654.

Coating shall be applied to the cleaned surface as soon as possible after cleaning and before
any visible oxidation to the surface occurs.

Reinforcing steel shall not have surface defects that would be detrimental to coating.

Coating material shall be epoxy resin powders as specified in ISO 14654 and ISO 14656 for
coating of reinforcing bars and as follows:
(a)

epoxy resin powders which do not meet the above requirements must be tested by an
approved independent testing laboratory and accepted by the Engineer before use

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

(b)

only fusion bonded epoxy-coated reinforcing steel will be accepted

(c)

no other means of epoxy coating will be approved.

Page 10

Patching material shall be:


(a)

furnished by the epoxy coating manufacturer

(b)

compatible with the coating

(c)

inert in concrete

(d)

suitable for repairs to the coated reinforcing bars to be made by the coating applicator
and the Contractor at the project site.

Fabrication shall be performed before coating except as hereinafter specified for bent bars
and straight bars less than 7.6 m long.

Bent reinforcing steel bars shall be coated after bending, unless the fabricator can show that
satisfactory results can be obtained by coating before bending.

Any visible cracks in the coating on the outside of the bend or damage to coating resulting in
debonding of the coating after bending shall be rejected.

10

Bars less than 7.6 m long may be sheared or sawn to length after coating, provided:
end damage to coating does not extend more than 12 mm back

(b)

cut end is patched before any visible oxidation appears.

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(a)

11

Flame cutting will not be permitted.

12

Epoxy coating shall be checked visually after cure for continuity of coating and shall be free
from holes, contamination, cracks and damaged areas.

13

There shall not be more than two holidays (pinholes not visually discernible) in any 300 mm
of the epoxy coated bar.

14

A holiday detector shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instruction to check
the epoxy coating for holidays. A 67.5 V detector such as the Tinker and Rasor Model M-1 or
its approved equivalent shall be used.

15

Patching of holidays is not required if there are less than three holidays per 300 mm length.
Bars having three or more holidays per 300 mm shall be cleaned and recoated or replaced
as directed by the Engineer.

16

Epoxy coating film shall be cured and/or post cured to a fully cured condition. A
representative proportion of each production lot shall be checked by the epoxy coating
applicator, using the method most effective for measuring cure to ensure that the entire
production lot of epoxy coating is supplied in the fully cured condition.

17

Contractor shall repair all coating damaged by fixtures used to handle or support the bars in
the coating process as follows:
(a)

patching shall be done as soon as possible and before visible oxidation occurs

(b)

excessive patching from other causes will not be permitted

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(c)

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 11

satisfactory correction shall consist of proper adjustment of process, and rerunning


the bars through the plant.

The Engineer reserves the right for access to the epoxy coating applicators plant to witness
epoxy coating processes for project work and to obtain specimens from test bars for any
testing desired.

19

All chairs, tie wires and other devices used in connecting, supporting, securing or fastening
epoxy coated reinforcement steel shall be made of or coated with a dielectric material.

20

Before the reinforcement is lowered into place and before placement of the concrete, the
coated bars shall be inspected by the Engineer for damage to the epoxy coating.

21

Sheared ends of bars and other areas requiring limited repair due to scars and minor defects
shall be repaired, using the specified patching or repair materials.

11.6.3

Handling of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement

Reinforcement steel bars shall be handled and stored in a manner to prevent damage to bars
or, where used, the epoxy coating.

Bars, or where used epoxy coating, damaged in handling or other operations shall be
satisfactorily repaired at no additional cost to the Employer.

Where epoxy coated bars are used all handling systems shall have plastic mandrel and
padded contact areas wherever possible.

Where epoxy coated bars are used all bundling bands shall be padded.

All bundles shall be lifted with a strongback, multiple supports or a platform bridge so as to
prevent bar to bar abrasion from sags in the bar bundle.

Bars or bundles shall not be dropped or dragged.

During vibration care shall be taken to ensure that the epoxy-coated reinforcement is not
damaged by the pokers.

11.6.4

Testing of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement

Adhesion and flexibility of the epoxy coating shall be evaluated on test bars coated with each
production lot.

At least 1 % of the length or 6 m, whichever is less, of each size of bar to be coated shall be
furnished as test bars.

Test bars may be in one length or multiple lengths as required to have one test bar of each
size with each production lot.

The production epoxy coated test bars shall be evaluated by bending 120 (after rebound)
around a mandrel of a diameter corresponding to size of bar indicated in Table 11.1.

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18

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 12

Table 11.1
Mandrel Diameter for Bar Diameter for
Evaluation Test of Epoxy Coated Test Bars
Diameter of Mandrel
(mm)

10
12
13
14
16
18
20
22
24
25
26
28
30
32
34
36

79
95
103
111
127
143
159
175
191
198
206
222
238
254
270
286

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Bar Diameter
(mm)

Bend shall be made at a uniform rate and may take up to one minute to complete.

Bend test shall be conducted at a room temperature of between 20 C and 30 C after the
specimen has been exposed to room temperature for a sufficient time to ensure that it has
reached thermal equilibrium.

No cracking of the epoxy coating shall be visible to the naked eye on the outside radius of the
bent bar.

AM

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
12: Joints

Page 1

JOINTS.................................................................................................................... 2

12.1
12.1.1
12.1.2
12.1.3
12.1.4
12.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
2
Quality Assurance
3
Definitions
3

12.2
12.2.1
12.2.2

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS ...................................................................................... 4


General
4
Construction Joints in Water Retaining Structures
4

12.3
12.3.1
12.3.2
12.3.3

MOVEMENT JOINTS .............................................................................................. 5


General
5
Joint Filler
6
Joint Sealants
6

12.4
12.4.1

SLIP BEARINGS ..................................................................................................... 7


General
7

12.5
12.5.1
12.5.2
12.5.3
12.5.4

WATERSTOPS ....................................................................................................... 7
General
7
Waterstops
7
Butyl Rubber Waterstops
8
Water Swelling Gaskets
8

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12

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
12: Joints

Page 2

12

JOINTS

12.1

GENERAL

12.1.1

Scope

This part deals with movement and construction joints, slip bearings, waterstops and
associated sealants and filler materials.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 1 ............... General
Part 10, ............ Curing
Part 15, ............ Hot Weather Concreting
Part 16, ............ Miscellaneous

12.1.2

References
ASTM D1751 ..............Standard Specification for Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for
Concrete Paving and Structural Construction (Non-extruding and
Resilient Bituminous Types)

TC

ASTM D2240 ..............Standard Test Method for Rubber PropertyDurometer Hardness

AM

ASTM D3575 ..............Standard Test Methods for Flexible Cellular Materials Made From
Olefin Polymers
BS 903........................Physical testing of rubber
BS 2571......................General purpose flexible PVC compounds for moulding and extrusion
BS 2782,.....................Methods of testing plastics
BS 6093,.....................Design of joints and joining in building construction
BS 7164,.....................Chemical tests for raw and vulcanized rubber
BS EN 1992-3 ............Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures. Liquid retaining and
containing structures
BS EN ISO 7214 ........Cellular plastics. Polyethylene. Methods of test
CRD-C572 ..................Corps of Engineers Specifications for Polyvinylchloride Waterstop
ISO 9001 ....................Quality management systems. Requirements

12.1.3

Submittals

The Contractor shall submit for approval by the Engineer as soon as practicable after
acceptance of his Tender and not less than three weeks before commencement of
concreting, drawings showing his proposals for the position of construction joints having due
regard to any that may be shown on the Contract Drawings.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
12: Joints

Page 3

For slide bearings the Contractor shall provide at least three samples of the proposed
material, together with the manufacturer's technical specifications and recommendations in
respect of application and performance.

For slip joints the Contractor shall provide at least three samples of materials proposed,
together with manufacturer's technical specifications and recommendations in respect of
application and performance.

For waterstops the Contractor shall provide at least three samples of proposed types,
including prefabricated joints and junctions, if applicable. If joints are to be made up on site,
provide worked samples, including samples for each make of waterstop, where samples
from different manufacturers are provided.

The Contractor must supply a certificate of compliance for the joint sealant, stating that it
meets the requirements of the specification. The Contractor shall also supply the
Manufacturers technical and installation data for the proposed material. The Contractor shall
provide details of previous installations of the product, with the client name, structure name,
type of joint and value of contract.

The Contractor shall prepare shop drawings that show the layout of the waterstops, specials
and joints.

12.1.4

Quality Assurance

The joint sealant, including primers and debonding materials shall be compatible with each
other and shall be supplied from a manufacturer operating the ISO 9001 or 9002 Quality
Assurance Scheme.

12.1.5

Definitions

Construction Joint: The surface where two successive placements of concrete meet, across
which it is desirable to develop and maintain bond between the two concrete placements, and
through which any reinforcement which may be present is not interrupted.

Contraction Joint: Formed, sawed, or tooled groove in a concrete structure to create a


weakened plane and regulate the location of cracking resulting from the dimensional change
of different parts of the structure. (See also Isolation Joint.)

Expansion Joint: A separation between adjoining parts of a concrete structure which is


provided to allow small relative movements such as those caused by thermal changes to
occur independently.

Isolation Joint: A separation between adjoining parts of a concrete structure provided to


isolate and element and thus allow independent movement.

Joints Fillers: Materials that are used to fill space within movement joints during construction.
They may provide support to a sealant applied subsequently.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
12: Joints

Page 4

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

12.2.1

General

Where construction joints are required in slabs or beams (designed by Direct Design Method
DDM) they shall be located within the middle third of their spans, and at one-third to onequarter of span in slabs and beams subject to a maximum spacing of approximately 9
metres. Where slabs are supported by beams then the beams and slabs shall be constructed
in one operation.

In all cases vertical stop boards of a form to be approved by the Engineer shall be provided
by at the end of each section of work which is to be concreted in one operation and the
concrete shall be thoroughly compacted against these stop boards.

Where slabs, beams and walls incorporate construction joints, panels shall generally be
constructed consecutively. Where this is not possible a gap not exceeding one metre shall be
formed between adjacent panels. This gap shall not be concreted until a minimum interval of
7 d has expired since the casting of the most recent panel.

The size of bays for reinforced floors, walls and roofs shall be as shown on the drawings but
in no event shall they exceed 7.5 m in either direction and 6 m when unreinforced or with
nominal reinforcement.

Horizontal construction joints in walls will only be permitted when the wall is continuous with
the floor slab. Walls shall be keyed on cast kickers 150 mm high or on the tops of walls
meeting the soffits of suspended members.

Construction joints in monolithic structures shall be aligned with each other whenever
practicable.

Before placing new concrete against concrete which has already set the latter shall be
treated to expose the aggregate over the full section and leave a sound irregular surface.
This shall be done while the concrete is still fresh by means of water spray and light brushing
or other means approved by the Engineer.

Immediately before the new concrete is placed all foreign matter shall be cleaned away and
the surface moistened.

If during the course of the Contract it should become apparent that the Contractors methods
of forming construction joints are not proving effective the Engineer may order the Contractor
to execute at the Contractors expense such preventative measures as the Engineer may
consider necessary to ensure the watertightness of the construction joints in further work.

12.2.2

Construction Joints in Water Retaining Structures

The floor may be designed as fully restrained against shrinkage and thermal contraction and
should be cast directly onto the blinding concrete.

In large structures, the floor shall be designed as a series of continuous strips with transverse
induced contraction joints provided to ensure that cracking occurs in predetermined
positions. Longitudinal joints between the strips should form contraction joints.

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12.2

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
12: Joints

Page 5

Waterstops shall be incorporated into construction joints, crack induced joints, contraction
joints and expansion joints in water retaining structures. The Contractor shall ensure that all
such joints are watertight and any joints which may leak or weep shall be rectified by the
Contractor to the Engineers satisfaction.

The spacing of construction joints, crack induced joints, contraction joints and expansion
joints in water retaining structures shall be shown on the design drawings.

Where the positions or type of joints are not indicated on the drawings, the spacing of
construction joints or crack induced joints in water retaining structures shall not exceed 5 m.

Where the positions or type of joints are not indicated on the drawings in the ground floor
slab, construction joints, crack induced joints, contraction joints and expansion joints shall be
incorporated into the works as appropriate. for slabs on grade, construction joints or crack
induced joints should be provided at areas where differences in subgrade and slab support
may cause cracks. The slab shall be cast in strips not more than 15 metres wide across the
width of the building. Within each strip for both directions, crack induced joints shall be
provided at areas where cracks are expected and not more than 5.0 metre spacing, and
construction or contraction joints shall be provided at not more than 15.0m spacing.

Construction or contraction joints shall be provided between adjacent strips.

Waterstops of a type acceptable to the Engineer shall be embedded in the concrete. The
waterstop should be made of a high quality material, which must retain its resilience through
the service life of the structure for the double function of movement and sealing. The surface
of waterstops should be carefully rounded to ensure tightness of the joint even under heavy
water pressure. To ensure a good tightness with or without movement of the joints, the
waterstop should be provided with anchor parts. The cross-section of the waterstops should
be determined in accordance with the presumed maximum water pressure and joint
movements. The complete works of fixed and welded connections must be carried out
strictly in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

Engineers acceptance shall be obtained by the Contractor, prior to start of work, on the
casting sequence and the layout of joints.

12.3

MOVEMENT JOINTS

12.3.1

General

Movement joints for expansion and contraction shall be constructed in accordance with the
details and to the dimension shown on the Drawings or where otherwise ordered by the
Engineer and shall be formed of the elements specified.

Movement Joints in Water Retaining Structures shall be in accordance with the details and to
the dimension shown on the Drawings and EN 1992-3.

The Contractor shall pay particular attention to the effects of climatic extremes on any
material which he may desire to use on any movement joint and shall submit for approval by
the Engineer his proposals for the proper storage, handling and use of the said materials
having due regard for any recommendations made by the manufacturer in this connection.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
12: Joints

Page 6

Joint Filler

Joint fillers shall conform to the requirements of BS 6093 or ASTM D1751 or equivalent if
they are bituminous type or to the requirements of ASTM D3575 or BS EN ISO 7214 or
equivalent if they are polymer foam type.

The joint filler shall be fixed to the required dimensions of the joint cross-section and shall
provide a firm base for the joint sealer.

When required between two concrete surfaces as a resilient movement joint, the filler shall
be an approved granulated cork bound with insoluble synthetic resin.

When required between blockwork and concrete as a low density movement joint filler or for
building details it shall be an approved bitumen impregnated fibreboard or preformed closed
cell polyethylene.

12.3.3

Joint Sealants

All joints to be sealed shall be formed and the groove grit blasted to remove all traces of
deleterious materials such as form oil or curing compounds and also to remove any surface
laitance from the sides of the joint. The joint shall be dry prior the application of priming.
Where the use of grit blasting is not possible the Contractor may propose alternative
methods subject to the approval of the Engineer.

The back of the joint shall receive a debonding tape or polyethylene foam backer cord in
order to provide the correct depth to width ratio and prevent three sided adhesion.

The areas adjacent to the joint shall be protected using masking tape.

The sides of the joint shall be primed with the relevant primer as recommended by the
sealant manufacturer and the sealant material applied in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions.

The sealant material shall be a non-biodegradable multicomponent pitch polyurethane


elastomeric joint sealant, carefully selected as appropriate for the specific climatic and
environmental exposure conditions expected. Alternative types of sealant will be considered,
including epoxy-polyurethane, rubber bitumen and acrylic, subject to the requirements of the
specification and the approval of the Engineer.

Where the joint sealant is to be in contact with a protective coating the Contractor shall
satisfy the Engineer that the sealant and protective coating are compatible

Sealants shall exhibit the following properties:

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12.3.2

(a)

Movement accommodation factor

25 %

(b)

Shore A hardness

(c)

Solids content

(d)

Service temperature range

(e)

Chemical resistance to Sewage, Sabkha, Mineral acids and Alkalis

(f)

Width to depth ratio

20 - 25

100 %

2:1

0 C to 90 C

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
12: Joints

Page 7

Where shown on the Drawings sealants shall also be suitable for use with potable water.

All surface preparation, priming, mixing and application shall be carried out in strict
accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

10

The sealant shall have a proven track record of no less than ten years under similar local
conditions.

12.4

SLIP BEARINGS

12.4.1

General

Slip bearings shall be preformed low friction bearing strips to form a thin sliding joint.

They shall be extruded from specially formulated polyethylene to form a durable lamina
resistant to sewage, mineral acids and alkalis, solvents and weathering.

Slip bearings shall be applied in two layers with the bottom layer bonded to the substrate with
a high quality solvent borne adhesive based on polychloroprene rubber. The substrate shall
be clean and free from deleterious materials such as form oil or curing compounds and
surface laitance. The surface shall be level and even along the full length of the joint

The applied loads for slip bearings shall not exceed 0.7 MPa.

Operating temperatures shall be up to 80 C

The coefficient of friction shall not exceed 0.15

12.5

WATERSTOPS

12.5.1

General

Waterstops and associated materials shall be by a manufacturer with a minimum of ten years
experience in the field of engineering waterproof products.

PVC waterstops shall be suitable for storage, handling, installation and service within a range
of 15 C to 65 C.

12.5.2

Waterstops

The waterstop shall be a high performance system forming a continuous network as shown
on the Drawings.

Site jointing is to be limited to butt joints and shall be performed strictly in accordance with
the manufacturers instructions.

Centrally placed waterstops shall employ centre bulbs/shutter stop with ribs on the web
sections.

Externally placed waterstops shall have ribs on either side of the centre of the waterstop. The
water bar used at the location of expansion joints shall have a bulb in the centre to
accommodate the movements.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
12: Joints

Page 8

Waterstops shall have a minimum thickness of 3 mm.

The minimum test performance data for PVC waterstops shall be as follows:
Tensile strength
Elongation at break
Hardness

>12 MPa
300 %
Shore A 80 to 90

The materials shall be tested in accordance with BS 2571 or BS 2782 or CRDC572 or


ASTM D2240.

12.5.3

Butyl Rubber Waterstops

Butyl rubber waterstops shall have the properties stated in Table 12.1 when tested in
accordance with BS 903.
Table 12.1
Properties Requirements of Butyl Rubber Waterstops
BS 903

Property

Requirements
3

Density

1100 kg/m ( 5 %)

Part A26

Handness

60-70 IRHD

Part A2

Tensile Strength

Not less than 17.5 N/mm

Part A2

Elongation at break point

Not less than 450 %

Part A/6

Water Absosption (48 hours immersion)

Not exceeding 5 %

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TC

Part A1

Butyl rubber waterstops shall be suitable for storage, handling, installation and service within
a temperature of 0 C to 40 C

12.5.4

Water Swelling Gaskets

Where active sealing is required for critical areas, waterstops shall be hydrophilic polymer
modified chloroprene rubber strips. The rubber strips shall conform to the following properties
as applicable:
(a)

Water pressure resistance

(b)

Expansion in contact with water :

(c)

Reversible

- 30 to + 70 C

(d)

Application Temperatures

5 Bar (50 m)
2 x original SRE

The selected rubber strips shall be available for three exposures:


(a)

Fresh Water

(b)

Seawater

(c)

Chemicals (if the condition demands or upon the Engineers request)

The supplier shall furnish references upon request of the Engineer.


END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 1

INSPECTION AND TESTING OF HARDENED CONCRETE .................................. 2

13.1
13.1.1
13.1.2
13.1.3
13.1.4
13.1.5
13.1.6

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
2
Quality Assurance
3
Non-Compliance of Work
3
General Fieldwork Requirements
4

13.2
13.2.1
13.2.2
13.2.3
13.2.4

CONCRETE CORES ............................................................................................... 4


General
4
Drilling Cores
5
Testing for Strength
6
Assessment of Strength
7

13.3

REINFORCEMENT COVER MEASUREMENTS ..................................................... 7

13.4
13.4.1
13.4.2
13.4.3
13.4.4

ULTRASONIC PULSE MEASUREMENTS .............................................................. 8


General
8
Selection of Test Locations
8
Execution of Tests
8
Estimated In-Situ Cube Strength
9

13.5

RADIOGRAPHY OF CONCRETE ........................................................................... 9

13.6
13.6.1
13.6.2
13.6.3
13.6.4

SURFACE HARDNESS ........................................................................................... 9


General
9
Method of Test
9
Equipment
10
Reporting
10

13.7
13.7.1
13.7.2

CHEMICAL CONTENT .......................................................................................... 10


Sampling
10
Laboratory Testing
11

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 2

13

INSPECTION AND TESTING OF HARDENED CONCRETE

13.1

GENERAL

13.1.1

Scope

This Part of the specification covers the inspection, sampling and testing of hardened
concrete.

Related Section and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 6 ............... Property Requirements

13.1.2

References

The following standards are referred to in this part of the specification:


ACI 214.4R .................Guide for Obtaining Cores and Interpreting Compressive Strength
Results
ACI 318 ERTA ............Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and
Commentary

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ASTM C42 ..................Standard Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and
Sawed Beams of Concrete

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ASTM C823 ................Standard Practice for Examination and Sampling of Hardened


Concrete in Constructions
BS 1881-124 ..............Testing concrete. Methods for analysis of hardened concrete
BS 1881-204, .............Testing concrete. Recommendations on the use of electromagnetic
covermeters
BS EN 12350..............Testing fresh concrete
BS EN 12504-1 ..........Testing concrete in structures cored specimens taking, examining and
testing in compression
BS EN 12504-2 ..........Non-destructive testing. Determination of rebound number
BS EN 12504-3:2005 Testing concrete in structures. Determination of pull-out force
BS EN 12504-4 ..........Determination of ultrasonic pulse velocity
BS EN 13791..............Assessment of in-situ compressive strength in structures and precast
concrete components
GSO ISO 1920-6 ........ Testing of concrete part 6: sampling, preparing and testing of
concrete core .
13.1.3

Submittals

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer his quality assurance procedures for the
particular parts of the testing work that will be carried out.

The Contractor shall submit for the Engineers approval the curriculum vitae (CV) of the
supervisor proposed for the work.

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Page 3

The Contractor shall through testing agency prepare a factual report that identifies the test
methods used and the test results. The report shall also identify any unusual results or
pertinent information relating to the testing. The report shall be presented in hard and
electronic copies.

For each of the test results the Contractor shall identify the precision or repeatability of the
particular sampling and testing method. This shall be as given from experience of the
particular test by the laboratory or as expected from information in the particular test
standard.

In-place tests will be valid only if the tests have been conducted using properly calibrated
equipment in accordance with recognized standard procedures and acceptable correlation
between test results and concrete compressive strength has been established and is
submitted.

Non-destructive tests shall not be used as the sole basis for accepting or rejecting concrete,
but they may be used to evaluate concrete when the standard-cured strengths fail to meet
the specified strength criteria

13.1.4

Quality Assurance

All field and laboratory testing of concrete shall be carried out by an independent laboratory
approved by the Engineer.

The evaluation of concrete in structure is needed when an existing structure is to be modified


or redesigned; to assess structural adequacy when doubt arises about the compressive
strength in the structure due to defective workmanship, deterioration of concrete due to fire or
other causes;when an assessment of the in-situ concrete strength is needed during
construction; to assess structural adequacy in the case of non-conformity of the compressive
strength obtained from standard test specimens; assessment of conformity of the in-situ
concrete compressive strength when specified in a specification or product standard.

13.1.5

Non-Compliance of Work

If the 28 d works test cubes as defined in clause 6.6 of this Section fail to meet the minimum
criteria, the Engineer shall direct the Contractor to carry out in-place methods to estimate the
concrete strength by non-destructive testing, in-situ drilling of concrete cores or load testing.

The parts or elements of the structure made from the defective batch or batches of concrete
as represented by the works test cubes shall be identified by the Engineer and based on this
information the Engineer shall instruct the Contractor on the required number and position of
concrete cores.

The Engineer shall review the concrete core test results in conjunction with BS EN 13791 or
ACI 318 whichever is applicable to the structural design.

Based on this assessment the Engineer shall decide the acceptability of the concrete in the
structural element and may either:

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(a)

accept the concrete

(b)

instruct that certain remedial works are carried out

(c)

instruct that the element is replaced.

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 4

General Fieldwork Requirements

The Contractor shall make all arrangements to provide safe stable access to testing
locations.

When gaining access to testing locations and whilst testing the Contractor shall take care not
to damage the structure or leave it in an untidy or unclean state.

The Contractor shall take precautions to ensure that cooling water from concrete coring/other
operations is discharged such as not to cause a mess or damage the interior or exterior parts
of the structure.

The Contractor shall be responsible for arranging the water supply required for testing.

The Contractor shall arrange for a suitable power supplies. Where testing is being carried out
on an occupied structure a power supply from the building services may not available and the
Contractor shall make arrangements for power supply and extension leads of adequate
length.

The Contractor shall appoint a qualified field supervisor to co-ordinate and manage the field
work. The supervisor shall have not less than five years experience of such work.

Before starting the work, the Engineer with the Contractors supervisor will mark the positions
where field testing is to be carried out. A unique referencing system to identify each sample
or testing location will be adopted, and this will either be referenced on sketch plans or
drawings or by a detailed description used throughout the report to identify test locations.

If testing is being carried out on an occupied structure the Contractor shall co-ordinate with
the owner or operator of the structure to arrange the detailed programme for the works and
gain access to the various parts of the structure.

As soon as laboratory test results are available these shall be submitted by hand or faxed to
the Engineer in draft form. The testing laboratory, or technical bureau assigned by the testing
agency, assigned by the contractor shall provide a technical report providing visual
information and analysing the tests conducted.

10

All core holes, dust sample holes and exploratory investigation areas shall be reinstated with
a proprietary non shrink cementitious repair mortar. The preparation of the hole or area
before reinstatement shall be carried out as per the recommendation of the repair mortar
supplier.

11

Before filling any core holes, dust sample holes or exploratory investigation areas, the
Contractor shall allow the Engineer time to inspect these areas and obtain written
confirmation from the Engineer before filling.

13.2

CONCRETE CORES

13.2.1

General

The drilling and testing of cores shall be carried out in accordance with BS EN 13791 & BS
EN 12504-1, or GSO ISO 1920-6 or ASTM C42 and ACI 214.4 whichever is applicable to the
structural design.

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13.1.6

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Part
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Page 5

All of the supplementary information listed by the relevant standards shall be included in the
test report with photographs of the cores.

An assessment of in-situ compressive strength for a particular test region shall be based on
at least 3 cores. Consideration shall be given to any structural implications resulting from
taking cores. The diameter of concrete core shall be at least 100 mm for strength evaluation
unless clear spacing of reinforcement is less than 100 mm and approved by Engineer.

The preferred minimum core diameter is three times the nominal maximum size of the
coarse aggregate, but it shall be at least two times the nominal maximum size of the coarse
aggregate

The Engineer will advise the required number and locations of cores. If the results of the
initial coring are inconclusive, the Engineer may instruct that further cores be taken at certain
locations.

Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall ensure that coring does not
cut through any reinforcing steel. The required diameter and depth of concrete cores shall be
as stated in table 13.1
Table 13.1
1

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Types of Construction

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Minimum Depth of Sampling of Concrete for Testing Purposes (ASTM C823)

Slabs, pavements, walls, linings, foundations,


structural elements accessible from one side
only
2
Suspended slabs , walls, conduits,
foundations, structural elements exposed to
the atmosphere at two or more sides;
concrete products
Massive sections

Thickness of
Section, m

Minimum Depth to Be
Sampled, m

0.3 or less
0.3 or greater

entire depth
0.3

0.15 or less

entire depth

0.15 0.6

one half the thickness or


0.15 whichever is greater

0.6 or greater

0.6

1 The requirements of table 13.2.1 may not provide the quantities or dimensions of samples
that are required for all tests, in that case, the necessary additional quantity of concrete in
pieces of appropriate minimum size should be taken at each sampling location.
2 When suspended slabs are cored, it is desirable to leave the lower 25 mm uncored, so as
not to lose the core by its falling from the barrel and to make it easier to patch the core hole.
13.2.2

Drilling Cores

Before beginning coring operations the Contractor shall use a proprietary cover meter to
identify the position of steel reinforcing bars at the testing location.

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 6

The Engineer may instruct that the core is taken through the concrete without hitting any
reinforcement or the Engineer may instruct that the core is taken in a position where it is
expected reinforcement will be cut in order to provide a sample of the reinforcement to check
its condition. The locations of all drilling points shall be chosen so that the core contains no
steel parallel to its length.

Before capping, the core shall have a length of at least 95 % of its diameter. Once prepared
for test the core shall have a length at least equal to the diameter and not more than 1.2
times its diameter.

Cores of both 100 mm and 150 mm nominal diameters may be tested provided that the
aggregate size does not exceed 20 mm and 40 mm respectively. Where possible 150 mm
cores should be taken to reduce the variability due to drilling and increase the reliability of the
testing, unless reinforcement is congested and the use of 100 mm cores will reduce the
possibility that the core will contain steel or it is necessary to restrict the sampling to a length
of less than 150 mm.

Where the size of the section precludes the use of 100 mm or 150 mm cores, smaller cores
may be used with the permission of the Engineer.

During drilling operations, a log of observations that may affect the interpretation of core
samples shall be prepared.

If instructed by the Engineer, immediately after the core has been cut and removed and the
structure a carbonation test will be carried out by using a 1 or 2 % solution of phenolphthalein
poured over the cut surface. A photograph shall be taken of the cut core with the
phenolphthalein solution applied to provide a record of the test.

If during the drilling of the core, the core collapses due to weak honeycombed or defective
concrete, the Contractor shall stop the drilling operation and carry out testing at an adjacent
location as advised by the Engineer. If when testing at the second location, the core again
breaks due to honeycombed or defective concrete the freshly cut core shall be retained for
reference and a note made of the condition.

13.2.3

Testing for Strength

The compressive strength of field concrete cores shall be assessed in accordance with BS
EN 13791.

The details of the concrete core in accordance with BS EN 13791 shall be recorded and two
photographs on either side of the core taken.

Where there is reinforcement in the core, the size and the type of bar shall be noted along
with its cover to the concrete surface, the condition of reinforcing bars shall be noted with a
detailed description of any corrosion of the reinforcement.

Before carrying out the compressive strength testing of the cores, the Contractor shall inform
the Engineer to allow him to witness the testing if required.

Crushed core samples shall be retained by the laboratory and only disposed of after written
approval by the Engineer.

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Part
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Page 7

Assessment of Strength

The estimated in-situ strength of the concrete shall be calculated from the core result using
BS EN 13791, ACI 214.4 or ACI 318 whichever is applicable by the structural design.

13.3

REINFORCEMENT COVER MEASUREMENTS

The measurement of cover to reinforcing steel and other metallic items in concrete shall be
carried out in accordance with BS 1881 Part 204 using an electromagnetic device that
estimates the position depth and size of the reinforcement.

The locations for checking cover and the spacing between measurements shall be advised
by the Engineer based on the objective of the investigation. The Contractor shall carry out
calibrations of the electric magnetic device for a particular bar size to allow the bar diameter
to be measured.

While testing, the orientation of steel bars shall be checked.

The electromagnetic device shall incorporate scale or digital display range and shall be
calibrated in accordance with BS 1881 Part 204. When calibrated in this manner the
indicated cover to steel reinforcement shall be accurate to within 5 % or 2 mm which ever
is the greater over the working range given by the manufacturer.

The cover meter shall be used in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and checks
on the zero carried out as specified.

The search head shall be traversed systematically across the concrete, and, where
reinforcement is located, rotated until the maximum disturbance with electromagnetic field is
indicated by the meter.

The cover to the reinforcement shall be noted along with the axis of the reinforcement. The
cover shall also be recorded on the concrete surface with chalk or a suitable non-permanent
marking pen.

Care should be taken to avoid interference from other metallic sources or magnetic material.

The cover meter checks shall be carried out by an operator with five years experience.

10

The test report on cover shall include the following information:

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13.2.4

(a)

date

(b)

time and place of test

(c)

description of the structure or component under investigation

(d)

location of test areas

(e)

make and type of cover meter used

(f)

date of last laboratory calibration of cover meter

(g)

details of site calibration of cover meter, indicated values of cover

(h)

estimated accuracy of quantitative measurements

(i)

configuration of steel reinforcement

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 8

ULTRASONIC PULSE MEASUREMENTS

13.4.1

General

The ultrasonic velocity test equipment shall be capable of measuring the transit time of a
pulse vibration through concrete. The length of the pulse part between the transducer
equipment shall be measured, and the pulse velocity calculated.

Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of BS
EN 12504-4.

Velocities shall be measured at a number of locations around a structure and a velocity


contour of the structure established. A minimum of 40 velocities shall be measured for each
structural element.

13.4.2

Selection of Test Locations

Wherever possible direct transmission arrangements shall be used. The transducers shall be
mounted on a specially formed moulded surface.

The minimum path length shall be 100 mm for concrete in which the nominal maximum size
of aggregate is 20 mm or less and 150 mm for concrete in which the nominal maximum size
of aggregate is between 20 mm and 40 mm. but the path length shall not be longer than
required to detect small regions of bad concrete.

Where concrete contains steel the pulse velocity shall be adjusted in accordance with the
requirement of BS EN 12504-4.

Locations that contain reinforcement directly along or close to the pulse paths shall be
avoided.

Where repositioning is not possible the semi-direct transmission measurement, where


transducers are placed on adjacent faces of the concrete, may be used.

13.4.3

Execution of Tests

Positions chosen for the test locations shall be clearly and accurately marked on the surface
of the concrete.

The surface of the concrete shall be shall be cleaned and free from grit and dust. Path
lengths shall be determined to an accuracy of 1 % and a suitable couplant (such as grease)
applied to each of the test points.

Pulse transit times shall be measured by a skilled operator, with a minimum of five years
experience in the use of the equipment.

Pulse velocity measurement equipment shall be in accordance with the requirements of BS


EN 12504-4.

Test results shall be examined and any unusual readings repeated carefully for verification or
amendment.

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13.4

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 9

Estimated In-Situ Cube Strength

A correlation shall be established between the cube crushing strength of the particular mix
used in the structure and the pulse velocity.

Where it is not possible to obtain cubes with the same mix design as the original structure a
combination of coring and ultrasonic pulse velocity testing may be carried out at the direction
of the Engineer, where the cores are used to provide the correlation information required for
the interpretation of the ultrasonic pulse velocity tests.

13.5

RADIOGRAPHY OF CONCRETE

Gamma rays and high energy X-rays, which illustrate by radiographs the concrete defects:
The testing shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of BS 1881-205 or
equivalent.

13.6

SURFACE HARDNESS

13.6.1

General

Testing of concrete surfaces for hardness using rebound hammers shall be carried out in
accordance with BS EN 12504-2.

The rebound hammer shall only be used for estimation of concrete strength where a specific
correlation is carried out of the concrete from the structure being tested; this shall be from
works test cubes or cores taken from the structure.

The correlation between concrete strength and the rebound number shall be carried out in
accordance with BS EN 12504-2. The precision of the correlation curve between the mean
rebound number and strength shall be stated and this shall be used when reporting any
strength interpretations from surface hardness readings. The use of general manufacturers
correlation or calibration curve for strength shall not be used.

It should be noted that the rebound hammer number only provides information on a surface
layer of approximately 30 mm in depth of the concrete and that this should be quoted in the
test report.

The rebound hammer maybe used to establish the uniformity of the finish products or similar
elements in a structure at a constant age, temperature, maturity and moisture condition.

13.6.2

Method of Test

A minimum of 12 readings shall be taken to establish a single surface hardness at a


particular location.

The reading shall be on a regular grid between 20 mm to 50 mm spacing over an area not
exceeding 300 mm by 300 mm.

The mean of each set of readings shall be calculated including abnormally high and
abnormally low results unless there is good reason to doubt the validity of a particular
reading.

The coefficient of variation and the standard deviation of the readings shall be reported.

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13.4.4

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 10

13.6.3

Equipment

The rebound hammer shall be a proprietary type that has been used successfully and
serviced for a minimum of five years.

The hammer shall comprise of a mass propelled by a spring that strikes a plunger in contact
with the surface.

The manufacturers literature shall identify the impact energy and contact area of the plunger
for the hammer.

13.6.4

Reporting

The test report shall affirm that the hardness was determined in accordance with BS EN
12504-2 and shall provide the following information:
date time and place of test

(b)

description of structure and location of test

(c)

details of concrete

(d)

type of cement

(e)

cement content

(f)

type of aggregate

(g)

type of curing

(h)

age of concrete

(i)

type of compaction of concrete

(j)

forming of surface

(k)

moisture condition of the surface

(l)

carbonation state of surface

(m)

any suspected movement of the concrete under test

(n)

direction of test

(o)

any other factors that are considered significant in influencing the hardness readings.

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(a)

The details of the rebound hammer correlation with strength including the mean, range,
standard deviation and coefficient and variation of each reading shall also be included.

13.7

CHEMICAL CONTENT

13.7.1

Sampling

The Engineer shall instruct the depth increments over which the dust samples are to be
taken, the types of chemical testing to be carried out and the quantity of sample required.

The depth of sample shall not be less than the concrete cover to the reinforcement and at
least 50 mm from the surface of concrete. In presence of reinforcement, the chemical
content shall be tested at least at two levels before and after the depth of reinforcement from
the surface of concrete.

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 11

To provide uniform samples of cement matrix and aggregate, three separate holes shall be
drilled at one location. The diameter of the holes shall be between 12 and 20 mm.

Care shall be taken to discard the material from any render or finish unless this is specifically
required under the investigation.

Care shall be taken to ensure that dust increments are accurately measured by marking the
drill bit.

The dust samples increments shall be carefully transferred to plastic bags and sealed to
avoid contamination. Each sealed bag shall be uniquely identified by the sample identification
and depth increment.

13.7.2

Laboratory Testing

Residual split samples of dust from the field investigation shall be retained until the Engineer
has reviewed the chloride test results. The Engineer may instruct that repeat tests are carried
out on certain samples.

Chloride testing of concrete dust samples shall be by an acid soluble method in accordance
with BS 1881 Part 124. The results shall be reported to two decimal places.

Sulphate testing of concrete dust samples shall be in accordance with BS 1881 Part 124,
using an acid soluble method.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 1

PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR CONCRETE ................................................... 2

14.1
14.1.1
14.1.2
14.1.3
14.1.4
14.1.5
14.1.6
14.1.7
14.1.8
14.1.9

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
2
Quality Assurance
3
Preinstallation and Co-ordination
4
Delivery, Storage and Handling
4
Protection
4
General Requirements for all Treatments
5
Final Inspection
5

14.2
14.2.1
14.2.2
14.2.3
14.2.4

EPOXY COATING ................................................................................................... 5


General
5
Surface Preparation
5
Materials
6
Application
6

14.3
14.3.1
14.3.2
14.3.3
14.3.4

WATERPROOF MEMBRANE ................................................................................. 6


General
6
Materials
7
Waterproof Membrane
7
Application
7

14.4
14.4.1
14.4.2
14.4.3
14.4.4

PENETRATIVE PRIMER ......................................................................................... 8


General
8
Material
8
Surface Preparation
8
Application
8

14.5
14.5.1
14.5.2
14.5.3
14.5.4

PROTECTIVE COATING ........................................................................................ 9


General
9
Surface Preparation
9
Material
10
Application
10

14.6
14.6.1
14.6.2
14.6.3
14.6.4
14.6.5
14.6.6
14.6.7
14.6.8
14.6.9
14.6.10
14.6.11

PLASTIC SHEET LINER FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURES ................................. 11


General
11
Shop Drawings and Submittals
11
Liner Material Requirements
11
Plastic Sheet Liner Strip Properties
12
Basic Sheet Dimensions
12
Liner Details
12
Installation
13
Testing Requirements
13
Special Requirements
14
Joints in Lining for In-Situ Concrete Structures
15
Testing and repairing damaged surfaces
15

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14

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 2

14

PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR CONCRETE

14.1

GENERAL

14.1.1

Scope

This Part covers the materials and application requirements for coatings for concrete
surfaces including epoxy coatings, waterproof membranes, penetrative primers, protective
coatings, and coatings and treatments for specialist applications where there is a harsh
environment.

Related Section and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 1, ............. General

14.1.2

References

The following standards are referred to in this Part:


ASTM D412 ................Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubbers and Thermoplastic Elastomers
Tension
ASTM D543 ................Test Method for Resistance of Plastics to Chemical Reagents

TC

ASTM D570 ................Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics


ASTM D638 ................Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics (Metric)

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ASTM D746 ................Test Method for Brittleness Temperature of Plastics and Elastomers
by Impact
ASTM D882 ................Test Methods for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting
ASTM D1000 ..............Test Method for Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Coated Tapes Used for
Electrical and Electronic Applications
ASTM D1004 ..............Test Method for Initial Tear Resistance of Plastic Film and Sheeting
ASTM D4541 ..............Test Method for Pull Off Strength of Coatings Using Portable Adhesion
Testers
ASTM E 96 .................Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials
ASTM E154 ................Test Methods for Water Vapor Retarders Used in Contact with Earth
Under Concrete Slabs, on Walls, or as Ground Cover
BS 1881......................Testing Concrete
BS EN 12350..............Testing fresh concrete
CIRIA Technical Note 130, Protection of Reinforced Concrete by Surface Treatments.
ISO 9000 ....................Quality management and quality assurance standards
ISO 9001 ....................Quality systems - Model for quality assurance in design, development,
production, installation and servicing
14.1.3

Submittals

The Contractor shall submit manufacturers' specifications, installation instructions and other
data to show compliance with the requirements of this part of the specification and the
Contract Documents.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 3

The Contractor shall submit samples of all materials to be used in the works before delivery
of material to Site. Samples of membrane waterproofing shall be 300 mm square. Samples
of liquid components shall be a minimum of one litre.

The Contractor shall submit comprehensive test results for the protective coating system as
per the tests in the specification which shall clearly indicate whether the values are mean
values measured in current production or minimum values which the property does not fall
below.

The Contractor shall clearly state the chemical composition of the material and the process
by which protection is given to the concrete.

In addition to the test methods identified in this clause of this specification, the Engineer may
require the Contractor to carry out further tests to different standards.

If the Contractor wishes to propose a material which has been tested to alternative
standards, the Contractor shall submit correlation tests showing the comparable values of the
two test methods. These test results shall be comprehensive giving full details of the sample
conditioning, preparation, method of test, criteria for assessment etc.

The Contractor shall submit comprehensive information of previous applications of the


material in similar conditions and environments. This information shall include: project name,
type/grade of material used, quantity of material used, name of client, name of consultant,
name of Contractor. If requested by the Engineer, the Contractor shall supply the contact
details of the client, consultant or Contractor where the material was previously installed.

The Contractor shall submit a guaranty for the protective coating system and the
workmanship. The guaranty shall be worded to reflect the required performance of the
material and shall be approved by the Engineer. The guaranty shall be worded to include the
phrase the Contractor shall, at the convenience of the Employer, effect all repairs and
replacements necessary to remedy defects all to the complete satisfaction of the Engineer.
Unless stated otherwise in the contract specific documentation, the performance guaranty
shall be for a period of ten years except for the penetrative primer which shall be for a period
of five years.

The use of alternatives may be considered by the Engineer. If the Contractor wishes to
propose such systems, a technical submission shall be made which shall include a
comprehensive justification giving an explanation of why the proposed system is equivalent
or superior to the one designated.

14.1.4

Quality Assurance

The protective coating system shall be supplied by a manufacturer who is certified to the
ISO 9000 series of quality standards. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a copy of
the ISO 9000 series certificate that clearly states the scope of the certification.

The protective coating system shall be supplied by a manufacturer who provides technical
assistance on the suitability for the application and installation for the material. For the initial
use of the material on Site, the Contractor shall arrange for the technical representative of
the manufacturer to be present to demonstrate the correct use of the material.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 4

The protective coating system shall be applied by a contractor or subcontractor who is


certified to the ISO 9000 series of quality standards. The Contractor shall submit to the
Engineer a copy of the ISO 9000 certificate that clearly states the scope of the certification.
the Engineer may permit the use of an applicator who is not certified to ISO 9000 if the
applicator works to a quality system that is approved by the Engineer.

The works shall be executed by an approved specialist subcontractor having a minimum of 5


years successful experience in the installation of the specified material. Only tradesmen
experienced with the installation of the materials specified shall be used.

14.1.5

Preinstallation and Co-ordination

After approval of all materials and before installation, a prework conference with the Engineer
shall be held at the Site. The meeting shall be attended by representatives of the Engineer,
Contractor, subcontractor, and manufacturer.

The parties shall:


review drawings, specifications and approved materials

(b)

correct conflicts, if any, between approvals and specification requirements

(c)

examine Site conditions, including inspection of substrate, material labels and


methods of storing materials

(d)

review installation procedures and scheduling

(e)

review protection methods for finished work from other trades.

AM

TC

(a)

Before applying the coating system to the permanent works the Contractor shall carry out a
small trial of the coating system for the review and approval of the Engineer.

14.1.6

Delivery, Storage and Handling

Materials shall be delivered in their original, tightly sealed containers or unopened packages,
all clearly labelled with the manufacturer's name, brand name, and number and batch
number of the material where appropriate. Materials and equipment shall be stored as
directed in a neat and safe manner.

Storage areas shall comply with the manufacturers requirements with regard to shade,
ventilation and temperature limits and shall be located away from all sources of excess heat,
sparks or open flame. Containers of liquid material shall not be left open at any time in the
storage area.

Materials not conforming to these requirements will be rejected by the Engineer and shall be
removed from the Site and replaced with approved materials.

The Contractor shall deliver materials to Site in ample time to avoid delay in job progress and
at such times as to permit proper co-ordination of the various parts.

14.1.7

Protection

The Contractor shall protect the protection system installation from damage during the
construction period so that it will be without any indication of abuse, defects or damage at the
time of completion.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 5

The Contractor shall protect the building/structure from damage resulting from spillage,
dripping and dropping of materials.

The Contractor shall prevent any materials from running into and clogging drains.

Materials and plant shall not be stored on any newly constructed floor without the permission
of the Engineer.

Impervious membranes shall be laid as protection to all concrete surfaces in contact with the
soil and shall consist of tanking or similar accepted material, based on soil investigation
report.

All foundations shall be provided with protection such as epoxy coatings or similar other
accepted equivalents so that concrete is not exposed to harmful effects of soil, chlorides etc.

14.1.8

General Requirements for all Treatments

Protective treatments shall be applied where designated in the contract specific


documentation.

All protective coating systems to be used shall be applied strictly in accordance with the
manufacturers recommendations.

The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions against fire and other hazards during
delivery, storage and installation of flammable materials specified herein and comply any
regulations imposed by the Civil Defence Department of the Ministry of the Interior in respect
of the storage and use of hazardous materials required under this section.

The Engineer shall specify the required final colour of the coating and the Contractor shall
submit samples showing the colour before ordering the materials.

14.1.9

Final Inspection

Upon completion of the installation, an inspection shall be made by a representative of the


material manufacturer in order to ascertain that the system has been properly installed.

14.2

EPOXY COATING

14.2.1

General

The coating shall be a decorative flexible high solids, epoxy polyurethane coating applied in
two coats to a dry film thickness of 200 m minimum.

14.2.2

Surface Preparation

The surface of the concrete shall be free from oil, grease, loose particles, decayed matter,
moss or algae growth and general curing compounds. All surface contamination and surface
laitance shall be removed by high pressure water jetting or sweep blasting.

Blow holes and areas of substantial pitting shall then be filled with a solvent free thixotropic
epoxy resin fairing coat. The mixing and application of this coat shall be in accordance with
the product manufacturers recommendations.

AM

TC

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 6

Where surface cracking is apparent these cracks shall be chased, by an approved


mechanical means, to the depth of the crack. A thixotropic epoxy resin shall be applied using
a trowel, scraper or filling knife ensuring that full compaction is achieved into the chased
section and providing a flush finish with the concrete surface. A minimum period of 24 h shall
be allowed before applying any subsequent protective coating systems.

14.2.3

Materials

External above ground coating materials shall provide protection against chlorides and
carbonation, and be UV and abrasion resistant.

The above ground coating shall be applied over the below ground coating and shall continue
for a minimum of 150 mm above the ground level.

The epoxy coating shall be UV stable.

The finished coating shall be pinhole free and have a total minimum dry film thickness of
200 m.

The materials used in the coating system shall comply with the following requirements:

AM

TC

Solids content
Service temperature
Tensile strength (DIN 53504)
Resistance against crack (DIN 53515)
Adhesion to concrete (ASTM D-4541)
Compressive strength (ASTM D-695)
Tensile elongation (ASTM D-638)
Water absorption (MIL D-24613)
Abrasion resistance (ASTM C-501)
Compressive strength (ASTM C-579)
Thermal coefficient of expansion (ASTM C-531)

> 85 %
-20 C to 70 C
4 MPa
6 MPa
greater than 3.5 MPa
90 MPa (neat resin)
6-8 % (neat resin)
Nil
50 mg
97 MPa @ 7 days
-6
46.8 x 10 mm/mm/degree C

14.2.4

Application

Where required by the Engineer, trial areas not exposed in the finished work shall first be
treated using the selected materials.

The exposed concrete surfaces as defined in the documents or as agreed with the Engineer
shall be treated with the material.

The coating shall be applied by spray, roller or brush to achieve a finish acceptable to the
Engineer.

In all operations of storage, mixing and application, the Contractor is to comply with the
health and safety recommendations of the manufacturer and governing authorities.

14.3

WATERPROOF MEMBRANE

14.3.1

General

This Subpart covers the use of waterproof membrane for general protection to buried
concrete.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 7

Where indicated on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, concrete in contact with the
ground shall be protected by a preformed flexible self-adhesive bituminous type membrane.

The laying, lapping and sealing of the membrane shall be in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.

14.3.2

Materials

The material shall be an externally applied waterproof membrane shall be an impervious,


cold applied flexible laminated sheet, consisting of multilayer high density cross-laminated
polyethylene film with a backing of self-adhesive rubber bitumen compound, protected with
silicone coated release paper.

Primer for Sheet Membrane: As recommended by the manufacture of the sheet membrane.

Protection Board: Provide a minimum 6 mm thick asphalt protection board manufactured


from selected aggregates, bound in modified bitumen encased between two layers of
strengthened asphalt paper. The bituminous material shall be a minimum of 1.0 mm thick
and the membrane shall be capable of bridging crack widths in the substrate up to 0.6 mm
wide.

14.3.3

Waterproof Membrane

The material shall be suitable for use in the Gulf region the compound shall be specially
formulated for hot climates and shall have proven experience in the Middle East.

The waterproofing material shall conform to the standards detailed in Table 14.1

AM

TC

Table 14.1
Waterproof Membrane Property Requirements
Property

Standard

Value
Longituduial 210 %
Transverse 160 %
Longitudinal 340 MPa
Transverse 310 MPa

Elongation Film

ASTM D638

Tear resistance

ASTM D1004

Adhesion to primed concrete

ASTM D1000

1.8 MPa

Elongation compound

ASTM D1000

1.8 MPa

Puncture resistance

ASTM E154

220 N over 65 mm

Water resistance

ASTM D570

After 24 h. 0.14 %
After 35 d 0.95 %

Environmental resistance
Moisture vapour transmission rate

ASTM D543
ASTM E96

Minimum thickness

0.3g/M 24 h
1.0 mm.

14.3.4

Application

Waterproofing membranes placed on vertical concrete faces shall be protected by preformed


asphalt board.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 8

Boards shall be bonded onto position with high quality solvent borne contact adhesive based
on polychloroprene rubber.

The Contractor shall co-ordinate the installation of waterproofing membrane with floor drains,
equipment bases and other adjacent work and mask adjacent work to prevent soil marks.

Areas where waterproofing is applied shall be protected from all traffic and where necessary
backfilling. All damage to finished portions of the waterproofing membrane shall be either
repaired or replaced, or both, in a manner acceptable to the Engineer.

14.4

PENETRATIVE PRIMER

14.4.1

General

The system shall be a penetrating hydrophobic treatment that protects concrete from both
water and chloride intrusion, while permitting water vapour transmission.

The treatment shall significantly reduce the absorption of water and water borne salts but
allow the transmission of water vapour from the substrate.

The treatment shall not produce any discoloration of the substrate and shall have excellent
resistance to weathering.

14.4.2

Material

The material shall be a low viscosity silane-siloxane system which penetrates deeply into a
porous substrate and reacts to produce a bonded hydrophobic lining to the pores.

The material shall be resistant to petrol, oil, and atmospheric contaminants such as car
exhaust fumes and industrial exhausts.

14.4.3

Surface Preparation

The surface shall be dry, free from oil and grease, loose particles, decayed matter, algae
growth and curing compounds.

If the concrete surface is newly cast and has a very smooth finish, the surface shall be
roughened by sand or grit blasting, water blasting or some mechanical means. The Engineer
shall decide if this means of preparation is required.

Moss or algae growth on the surface shall be removed using a proprietary fungicidal wash in
accordance with the manufacturers recommendations.

Concrete finishing required shall be completed before the application of the treatment.

Cracks of width greater than 0.2 mm shall be filled in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations.

14.4.4

Application

Unless directed otherwise by the Engineer the treatment shall be applied a minimum period
of 24 h after the wet curing period, and shall be surface dry.

AM

TC

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 9

The Contractor shall carry out tests to verify the depth of penetration of the material. These
tests shall be carried out on specimens of the actual mix design and shall use coloured dyes
to trace the penetration of the material.

Where fine cracking has occurred in the concrete (at a width not greater than 0.3 mm for
reinforced concrete and 0.2 mm for water retaining structures) an additional four 'stripe coats'
of the treatment shall be applied before the main treatment.

The application of the material on surfaces shall be by a low pressure spray direct from the
can. Under no circumstances should thinning of the material be carried out.

The rate of application shall ensure that the surface is completely saturated. The
impregnated coating shall be applied to two or more flood coats each flood coat shall be a
2
minimum of 0.4 l/m .

The material shall be applied strictly in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and
as follows:
the material shall be applied by a fine nozzle spray

(b)

application will not be permitted when the ambient air temperature is above 35 C or
in windy conditions

(c)

the surface shall be cleaned by a stiff brush or compressed air to remove all loose
deposits

(d)

concrete to be treated shall be surface dry for a minimum period of 24 h before


impregnation

(e)

membranes, joint sealers and cast in concrete ancillaries shall be masked off before
treatment

(f)

application shall be made by saturation flooding

(g)

the interval between application shall be at least 6 h

(h)

treated areas shall be protected from sea water and rain for 6 h after treatment.

AM

TC

(a)

14.5

PROTECTIVE COATING

14.5.1

General

The coating system shall be used for the protection of new or existing reinforced concrete
structures against carbonation or chloride induced corrosion.

The system shall comprise of a penetrating, reactive primer and an acrylic polymer top coat
system to minimise ingress of acidic gases, chlorides and water.

14.5.2

Surface Preparation

Before application, all surfaces must be dry and free from oil, grease, loose particles,
decayed matter, moss or algae growth and general curing compounds.

All such contamination and laitence must be removed by the use of grit blasting, high
pressure water jetting or equivalent mechanical means.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 10

Before proceeding to apply the protective coatings, all surfaces which are not to be coated
but which may be affected by the application of the coating shall be fully masked and, in
particular, flora and fauna shall be protected.

Blow holes and areas of pitting shall be made good with a one part modified cementitious
material and allowed to cure in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. In
particular, the application shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations,
with respect to the maximum application thickness.

14.5.3

Material

The materials are required to provide in-depth protection against carbonation and chloride
penetration whilst permitting water vapour transmission from the concrete.

The primer shall be a low viscosity silane-siloxane system which penetrates deeply into a
porous substrate and reacts to produce a bonded hydrophobic lining to the pores.

The material employed for the coating shall comply with the following requirements:

AM

TC

Wet film thickness


Dry film thickness
Carbon Dioxide diffusion resistance
(Taywood Engineering Laboratories)
Water vapour transmission
(Taywood Engineering Laboratories)
Reduction in chloride ion penetration
(BS 1881 : Part 124)
Tear Resistance (ASTM D624)
Crack bridging (BRE Method)
Chloride Ion Diffusion
(Taywood Engineering Labororatories)

400 m
200 m
R Value at 325 microns > 161 metres.
2

Shall be more than 13 g/m .d


94 % minimum at 28 d
7.3 kN/mm
5.1 mm

-10

3.63 x 10

cm /sec.

Where test methods are not specified, the procedure for establishing compliance with the
above criteria shall be agreed with the Engineer.

The Contractor is required to adhere strictly to the manufacturer's recommendations


regarding the use, storage, application and safety rules in respect of the approved materials.

14.5.4

Application

Where required by the Engineer, trial areas not exposed in the finished work shall first be
treated using the selected materials. These trial areas shall be noted on the Drawings and
shall be carried out using the type of materials, mixing procedures and applications that will
be used on the contract and shall be approved by the Engineer before the Contractor
commences with the general work.

The exposed concrete surfaces as defined in the documents or as agreed with the Engineer
shall be conditioned by the application of a penetrating hydrophobic treatment. The primer
shall be allowed to dry in accordance with the manufacturer's requirements.

The Contractor shall then apply two coats of pigmented topcoat in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions. The finished coating shall be pinhole free and have a total
minimum dry film thickness of 150 m. The colour and finish is to be as agreed with the
Engineer.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 11

The coating shall be applied by spray, roller or brush to achieve a finish acceptable to the
Engineer.

In all operations of storage, mixing and application the Contractor shall comply with the health
and safety recommendations of the manufacturer and governing authorities.

14.6

PLASTIC SHEET LINER FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURES

14.6.1

General

This Subpart covers the supply and installation of sheet liners in reinforced concrete
structures.

The liner must be continuous and free of pinholes both across the joints and in the liner itself.

All work for and in connection with the installation of the lining in concrete pipe and structure,
and the field sealing and welding of joints, will be done in strict conformity with all applicable
specifications, instructions, and recommendations of the lining manufacturer.

14.6.2

Shop Drawings and Submittals

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval the following:
liner schedule

(b)

material certifications

(c)

test results

(d)

material samples

(e)

the manufacturer of the lining will submit an affidavit attesting to the successful use
of its material as a lining for sewer pipes and structures for a minimum period of
five years in service conditions recognised as corrosive or otherwise detrimental to
concrete.

AM

TC

(a)

14.6.3

Liner Material Requirements

The sheet liner shall be manufactured from, high molecular weight PVC or PE resin and
other components necessary to make a material of permanent flexibility suitable for a liner in
concrete pipes and structures in sewerage service. The weld strips and the joint strips shall
be made from like material. For PVC and PE sheet liners, the actual resin used in
manufacture must constitute not less than 99 % of the resin used in the formulation.

Copolymer resins will not be permitted.

All plastic sheets including locking extensions, all joints and welding strips shall be free of
cracks, asperities and other defects that may affect the protective properties of the material.

The properties of PVC and PE sheet are shown in Table 14.2

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 12

Table 14.2
Properties of PVC and PE Sheet Liners
Property

Test Method

PVC
Elongation at break
Tensile Strength
Low Temp. Brittleness
PE
Elongation at break
Tensile Strength
Low Temp. Brittleness

Requirement

ASTM D638/882
ASTM D638/412
ASTM D746

300 %
15 MPa
0C

ASTM D638/882
ASTM D638/412
ASTM D746

Exceeds 600 %
10-20 MPa
-75 C

14.6.4

Plastic Sheet Liner Strip Properties

Except at shop welds, all plastic sheet liners and strips shall have the properties shown in
Table 14.3 when tested at 25 C.
Table 14.3
Properties of Plastic Sheet Liner Strips
Property

AM

Shore Durometer
Weight change

15 MPa
200 %
1 s 50 - 60 5 (with respect to 10 s
35 - 50 5)
1.5 %

TC

Tensile strength
Elongation at break

Requirement

14.6.5

Basic Sheet Dimensions

The minimum thickness of the material shall be as shown in Table 14.4


Table 14.4
Plastic Sheet Liner Minimum Dimensions
Material Thickness
Sheet with locking extensions
Sheet, plain
Joint strip
Weld strip

Structures
4.0 mm
2.3 mm
1.9 mm
2.4 mm

14.6.6

Liner Details

Locking extensions (T-shaped) shall be of the same materials as that of the liner and shall be
integrally extruded with the sheet.

Locking extensions shall be approximately 65 mm apart and shall be at least 10 mm high.

Sheets not used for shop fabrication into larger sheets shall be shop tested for pinholes using
an electrical spark tester set at 9000 V per 1.0 mm thickness of lining minimum. Holes shall
be repaired and retested.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 13

14.6.7

Installation

Installation of the lining, including preheating of sheets in cold weather and the welding of all
joints, shall be performed in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer.

The lining to be held snugly in place against inner forms by means of steel banding straps or
other means recommended by the manufacturer.

Concrete that is to be poured against the lining shall be vibrated, spaded, or compacted in a
careful manner to protect the lining and produce a dense, homogenous concrete, securely
anchoring the locking extensions into the concrete.

In removing forms care shall be taken to protect the lining from damage. In particular:
sharp instruments not to be used to pry forms from lined surfaces.

(b)

when forms are removed, any nails that remain in the lining to be pulled, without
tearing the lining, and the resulting holes clearly marked.

(c)

form tie holes to be marked before ties are broken off and all areas of serious
abrasion or damage shall be marked.

All nail and tie holes and all cut, torn, and seriously abraded areas in the lining shall be
patched as follows:
patches made entirely with welding strip to be fused to the liner over the entire patch
area

(b)

larger patches may consist of smooth liner sheet applied over the damaged area with
adhesive

(c)

all edges must be covered with welding strip fused to the patch and the sound lining
adjoining the damaged area.

TC

(a)

AM

(a)

Hot joint compounds, such as coal tar, shall not be poured or applied to the lining.

The Contractor shall take all necessary measures to prevent damage to the installed lining
from equipment and materials used in or taken through the work.

14.6.8

Testing Requirements

Samples taken from sheets, joints or weld strips shall be tested to determine material
properties. Determination of tensile strength and elongation shall be in accordance with
ASTM D 412 using Die B. Determination of indentation hardness shall be in accordance with
ASTM D 2240 using a Type D Durometer, except that a single thickness of material and
indentation hardness shall be made on 25 mm by 75 mm specimens. Thickness of
specimens shall be the thickness of the sheet or strip.

The measurement of initial physical properties for tensile strength, weight, elongation and
indentation hardness shall be determined before chemical resistance tests.

Chemical resistance tests shall be carried out to determine the physical properties of the
specimens after exposure to chemical solutions. Test specimens shall be conditioned to
constant weight at 43 C before and after submersion in the solutions detailed in Table 14.5
for a period of 112 d at 25 3 C.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
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Page 14

Volumetric percentages of concentrated reagents of CP grade: At 28 day intervals,


specimens shall be removed from each chemical solution and tested. If any specimen fails to
meet the 112 day exposure, the material will be subject to rejection.

Pull test for locking extensions: Liner locking extensions embedded in concrete shall
withstand a test pull of at least 18 kN/m, applied perpendicularly to the concrete surface for a
period of 1 min, without rupture of the locking extensions or withdrawal from embedment.
This test shall be made at a temperature between 21 C to 27 C inclusive.

Shop-welded joints: Shop-welded joints, used to fuse individual sections of liner together,
shall be a least equal to the minimum requirements of the liner for thickness, corrosion
resistance and impermeability. Welds shall show no cracks or separations and shall be
tested for tensile strength. Tensile strength measured across the welded joint in accordance
with ASTM D 412 using Die B shall be at least 15 MPa. Test temperature shall be 25 3 C
and the measured minimum width and thickness of the reduced section shall be used.

Spark test: All liner shall be shop tested for holes with a spark tester set to provide from
15 000 to 20 000 V. Sheets having holes shall be satisfactorily repaired in the shop before
shipment from the manufacturers plant.

The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with certified copies of test reports before the
shipment of the product to the Site.

TC

Table 14.5
Chemical Resistance Tests

Sulphuric Acid
Sodium Hydroxide

AM

Chemical Solutions

Concentration
20 %
5%

Ammonium Hydroxide

5%

Nitric Acid

1%

Ferric Chloride

1%

Soap

0.1 %

Detergent (Linear alkyl benzyl sulphonate or LAS)


Bacteriological

0.1 %
BOD not less than 700 mg/l

Phosphoric Acid
14.6.9

Special Requirements

Liner sheets to be closely fitted and properly secured to the inner forms.

50 %

(a)

sheets that are to be cut to fit curved and warped surfaces shall use a minimum
number of separate pieces

(b)

a 50 mm wide water resistant tape or welding strip shall be welded on the back of butt
joints to prevent wet concrete from flowing around the edges.

Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, the lining will be returned at least 75 mm at the
surfaces of contact between the concrete structure and items not of concrete and
(a)

the same procedure will be followed at joints where the type of protective lining is
changed or the new work is built to join existing unlined concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
14: Protective Treatments for Concrete

Page 15

(b)

at each return, the returned liner will be sealed to the item in contact with the plastic
lined concrete with an adhesive system

(c)

if the liner cannot be sealed with this adhesive because of the joint at the return being
too wide or rough or because of safety regulations, the joint space shall be densely
caulked with lead wool or other approved caulking material to a depth of 50 mm and
finish with a minimum of 25 mm of an approved corrosion resistant material.

14.6.10 Joints in Lining for In-Situ Concrete Structures


1

Field joints and Lining at joints shall be free of all mortar and other foreign material and shall
be clean and dry before joints are made.

All welding is to be in strict conformance with the specifications of the lining manufacturer.

14.6.11 Testing and repairing damaged surfaces

(a)

all welds shall be physically tested by a non-destructive probing method

(b)

all patches over holes, or repairs to the liner wherever damage has occurred.

Each transverse welding strip which extends to a lower edge of the liner will be tested by an
approved testing agency at the cost of the Contractor.

TC

All surfaces covered with lining, including welds, will be tested with an approved electrical
holiday detector with the instrument set at 9000 V per 1.0 mm of lining minimum:

(a)

the welding strips will extend 50 mm below the liner to provide a tab.

(b)

a 5 kg pull will be applied to each tab. The force will be applied normal to the face of
the structure by means of a spring balance

(c)

liner adjoining the welding strip will be held against the concrete during application of
the force

(d)

the 5 kg pull will be maintained if a weld failure develops until no further separation
occurs.

(e)

defective welds will be retested after repairs have been made

(f)

tabs shall be trimmed away neatly by the installer of the liner after the welding strip has
passed inspection.

(g)

inspection will be made within two days after joints has been completed in order to
prevent tearing the projecting weld strip and consequent damage to the liner from
equipment and materials used in or taken through the work.

AM

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
15: Hot Weather Concreting

Page 1

HOT WEATHER CONCRETING ............................................................................. 2

15.1
15.1.1
15.1.2
15.1.3
15.1.4
15.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Definition of Hot Weather
2
System Description
3
Submittals
3

15.2

PLACING TEMPERATURE ..................................................................................... 3

15.3

PLANNING CONCRETING ..................................................................................... 4

15.4

MIX DESIGN ........................................................................................................... 4

15.5
15.5.1
15.5.2
15.5.3
15.5.4
15.5.5
15.5.6

TEMPERATURE CONTROL ................................................................................... 4


General
4
Aggregates
4
Water
5
Cement
5
Addition of Ice
5
Liquid Nitrogen
6

15.6

BATCHING AND MIXING ........................................................................................ 6

15.7

TRANSPORTATION ............................................................................................... 6

15.8

PLACING AND FINISHING ..................................................................................... 6

15.9

CURING AND PROTECTION.................................................................................. 7

15.10

INSPECTION AND TESTING .................................................................................. 7

AM

TC

15

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
15: Hot Weather Concreting

Page 2

15

HOT WEATHER CONCRETING

15.1

GENERAL

15.1.1

Scope

This Part covers the precautions to be taken for hot weather concreting for all structural
concrete except blinding concrete, where a minimum compressive strength is specified.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 6, .............. Property Requirements
Part 7, .............. Concrete Plants
Part 8 .............. Transportation and Placing of Concrete
Part 10 ............. Curing

15.1.2

References
ACI 305R-91...............American Concrete Institute , Hot Weather Concreting
ASTM C1064 ..............Measuring the Temperature of Concrete

TC

BS EN 1992-1-1 .........Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for
buildings

AM

BS EN 480..................Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods


BS EN 934..................Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout
15.1.3

Definition of Hot Weather

The requirements of the following clauses of the specification are applicable during the hot
weather period in Qatar.

The hot weather period shall be defined as starting when the maximum ambient air shade
temperature on the Site exceeds 35 C for three consecutive days. The end of the hot
weather period shall be defined as the period when the maximum air shade temperature is
below 35 C on three consecutive days.

The Contractor shall establish a thermometer on Site that records the ambient air shade
temperature. The thermometer shall be established at a position to provide representative air
temperature for the Site conditions. If requested by the Engineer the Contractor shall arrange
for the calibration of the Site thermometer.

Hot Weather shall mean any combination of the following conditions that tends to impair the
quality of freshly mixed or hardened concrete by accelerating the rate of moisture loss and
rate of cement hydration, or otherwise causing detrimental results such as:
(a)

High ambient temperature (when the shade temperature is above 40 deg C on a rising
thermometer, 43 deg C on a falling thermometer),

(b)

High concrete temperature,

(c)

Low relative humidity,

(d)

High wind speed

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
15: Hot Weather Concreting

(e)

the rate of evaporation exceeds 0.75 kg/m /h

Page 3

15.1.4

System Description

The Contractor shall undertake hot weather concreting procedures that are effective in
controlling the following potential problems associated with concreting in hot weather:
(a)

increased water demand of the mix

(b)

increased rate of slump loss

(c)

increased rate of setting

(d)

increased tendency for plastic shrinkage cracking

(e)

decreased long-term strength

(f)

increase tendency for drying shrinkage and cracking

(g)

increased tendency for differential thermal effects with consequent cracking

(h)

decreased durability from cracking where there is increased permeability.

Submittals

The Contractor shall prepare weekly in advance his proposed concreting programme
showing the quantities to be placed and the anticipated placing hours.

At least one month before the start of the hot weather period the Contractor shall submit his
specific proposals for the control of the concrete temperature for the constituent materials;
cement, water aggregates.

Where required the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer his proposals for the use of liquid
nitrogen for cooling which shall include details of previous project application and the
intended methods to be used and quantities of liquid nitrogen.

15.2

PLACING TEMPERATURE

This Subpart of the specification applies at all times of the year and at all times of the day.

Maximum fresh concrete temperature (at placement) shall not exceed 32C unless
construction testing to verify a proposed concrete mixture will function satisfactorily at a
concrete temperature greater than 32C. No concrete shall be placed if the concrete
temperature is above 35C

Concrete shall not be placed if the shade temperature exceeds 40C.

The temperature of each truck of concrete shall be measured using either a glass, dial type
or electronic thermometer, just before the placing of the concrete and the temperature
recorded on the delivery ticket. The maximum temperature at placing shall apply to the entire
load of concrete in the truck or conveyer.

The Contractor shall allow for the increase in concrete temperature in the period from
dispatch from the plant while in transportation or whilst awaiting placement on Site and take
adequate measures to ensure the maximum temperature is not exceeded.

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15.1.5

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Part
15: Hot Weather Concreting

Page 4

PLANNING CONCRETING

During the hot weather period as defined in Clause 15.1.3 of this Part, the Contractor shall
plan concreting operations such that no concreting takes place between the hours of
10:00 hours and 17:00 hours.

The Contractor shall arrange concrete pours such that the programme of works can be
achieved without concreting during the period from 10:00 hours to 17:00 hours.

The Contractor shall nominate one member of his staff to be the co-ordinator for the supply
of concrete. The co-ordinators responsibilities shall include ensuring the batched rate
matches that of delivery and placement and the preparations needed before commencing a
concrete pour.

15.4

MIX DESIGN

In the hot weather period, the Contractor shall review all concrete mix designs to ensure that
the design slump or workability specified is achieved without increase in the mix water
content. The Contractor shall make modifications to the mix design to allow for increased
slump loss during transportation in hot weather.

This shall be achieved by adjusting the proportion of admixture, plasticiser or super


plasticiser. The permitted range of admixture shall be clearly stated on the concrete mix
design with nominal values for cold weather and hot weather use.

Under no circumstances will the addition of extra water that increases the water cement ratio
be permitted during hotter weather.

All concrete materials and proportions used in periods of hot weather shall be those that have
a satisfactory record of use in such conditions.

15.5

TEMPERATURE CONTROL

15.5.1

General

The Contractors specific proposals for the control of the concrete temperature shall include
extent and type of shading of aggregates, method of chilling mix water and procedures for
batching and mixing, transportation, placing and finishing, curing and protection.

These shall include calculations in accordance with ACI 305R, clause 3.1 estimating
concrete temperature. The Contractor shall calculate the temperature of freshly produced
concrete based on the input temperatures of the constituent materials and the weights from
particular mix designs. The calculations shall make allowance for the rise in temperature
between mixing and placing due to the transportation and waiting period. The calculations
shall successfully demonstrate that the temperature can be maintained below 32 C at the
point of placing.

15.5.2

Aggregates

All practical means shall be employed to keep the aggregates as cool as possible.

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15.3

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Part
15: Hot Weather Concreting

Page 5

Stockpiles of aggregates shall be shaded from direct sunlight. Shades shall extend beyond
the edge of aggregate storage areas and stockpile layouts shall be such that direct sunlight is
not incident on the aggregates. Shades shall be constructed to allow access for mechanical
shovels or means of conveyance. Shades and stockpiles shall be constructed so as to permit
the free flow of air over the aggregates. Embedded cooling pipes may also be used to cool
the aggregate.

Sprinkling of coarse aggregates to reduce temperature by evaporation or direct cooling shall


not be permitted.

15.5.3

Water

Mix Water shall be cooled by storing in underground tanks or insulated tanks above ground.

The water shall be chilled by the use of proprietary chillers or the addition of ice to the water
tank. Measures shall be taken to ensure that ice pieces are not inadvertently deposited
directly into the mixer.

Water shall not be chilled below a temperature of 5 C.

Tanks, pipes or trucks used for the storage or transportation of water shall be insulated and
painted white.

The mechanical refrigeration equipment and insulated water storage shall be adequate for
the anticipated hourly and daily production rates of concrete during the hot weather period.

Mixing water may also be chilled by injection of liquid nitrogen into an insulated holding tank,
such procedures shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

Ice shall be completely melted in mixing water prior to adding water to the mixer.

15.5.4

Cement

The use of freshly ground cement at very high temperatures is not permitted.

The cement shall be kept below the temperature which there is a tendency of false set.

Under no conditions shall the temperature of the cement exceed 75 C when it enters the
mixture.

The Contractor shall make arrangements for storage on Site to allow cooling of freshly
ground and delivered cement.

15.5.5

Addition of Ice

Crushed shaved or chipped ice can be used as part of the mixing water for reducing the
concrete temperature.

The maximum nominal size of ice particles shall be 10 mm and all the ice must be melted
before the completion of mixing of the concrete in the pan.

To ensure proper concrete mixing the maximum proportion by substitution shall be 75 % of


the batch water requirement.

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Page 6

Crushed ice shall be stored at a temperature that will prevent lumps from forming by
refreezing of particles.

The batching plant shall incorporate a mechanical system for correctly proportioning and
weighing the ice to be added to the mixture.

The quantity of ice shall be deducted from the total batch water.

The Contractor shall ensure there are adequate quantities of ice in suitable refrigerated
storage on the Site at the plant to meet the anticipated daily and hourly production rates of
concrete during the hot weather period.

15.5.6

Liquid Nitrogen

Freshly mixed concrete maybe cooled by the injection of liquid nitrogen.

Care shall be taken to ensure that the concrete directly adjacent the injection nozzle is not
frozen.

The use of liquid nitrogen for cooling concrete shall include a nitrogen supply vessel and
injection facility for the batching plant or one or more injection stations for truck mixers.

The system may be set up at the Site for injection just before placing.

Proper safety precautions as advised by the supplier of the liquid nitrogen shall be used.

15.6

BATCHING AND MIXING

The drums of concrete mixer trucks shall be painted white to minimise solar heat gain.

Where a truck mixer has been left standing in the sun, the empty drum shall be sprayed with
water and the drum flushed out with cold water before batching. Care shall be taken to
ensure all water is removed from the drum before batching.

The temperature of the concrete shall be checked after discharge from the mixer and written
on the delivery ticket. Temperature check shall be carried out at the plant on the concrete
3
floor for every 50 m produced or every hour which ever is the minimum.

A water-reducing, set-retarding chemical admixture conforming to the requirements of BS EN


480 Parts 1, 2 and 4 may be used in varying proportions under different air temperature
conditions.

15.7

TRANSPORTATION

The transportation, placing, compaction and finishing of concrete shall be at the fastest
possible rate. Delivery of concrete to the Site shall be properly scheduled to match the rate of
placement and compaction.

15.8

PLACING AND FINISHING

If the temperature of the first truck of concrete of a particular pour is above the specification
maximum temperature limit then placing shall not commence.

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If a pour is in progress and the temperature of a particular truck exceeds the maximum
permitted temperature the placing may be allowed to continue at the discretion of the
Engineer in order to avoid the possible development of a cold joint.

However, no further concreting pours shall take place until the Contractor has submitted
revised calculations, in accordance with ACI 305R clause 3.1 to demonstrate that the
maximum temperature will not be exceeded in the future. Before beginning new pours the
temperature of the concrete constituent materials shall be monitored to verify that they meet
the assumptions of the calculations.

15.9

CURING AND PROTECTION

Curing and protection shall conform to the requirements of Part 10 of this Section.

Evaporation shall be minimised, particularly during the first few hours subsequent to placing
concrete, by suitable means such as applying moisture by fog spraying or any other means
acceptable to the Engineer.

15.10

INSPECTION AND TESTING

All thermometers used for the measurement of concrete temperature shall be calibrated
weekly against a glass mercury thermometer. Calibration shall be carried out over the
temperature range of 10 C to 100 C using a water bath with ice or heating.

The method used to determine acceptance of temperature controlled concrete should be in


accordance with ASTM C1064.

All concrete test specimens for strength or other purposes shall be carefully protected and
cured.

Specimens shall be protected from accidental damage by plant personnel or equipment on


Site.

Specimens shall be kept moist by the addition of water or covering by suitable curing
materials.

The exact time of preparation of the specimen on Site shall be noted and the time when it is
transferred to the laboratory. These times shall be written on the test report.

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END OF PART

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
16: Miscellaneous

Page 1

MISCELLANEOUS .................................................................................................. 2

16.1
16.1.1
16.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2

16.2
16.2.1
16.2.2
16.2.3
16.2.4
16.2.5
16.2.6
16.2.7
16.2.8

PAVEMENT QUALITY CONCRETE ........................................................................ 3


Scope
3
Mix Designs
3
Cement
4
Water
4
Aggregates
5
Admixtures
5
Air content
5
Density
5

16.3
16.3.1
16.3.2
16.3.3

CEMENTITIOUS GROUT ........................................................................................ 6


General
6
Material
6
Workmanship
6

16.4
16.4.1
16.4.2

SCREEDS ............................................................................................................... 7
Scope
7
General
7

16.5

CELLULAR CONCRETE ......................................................................................... 9

16.6
16.6.1
16.6.2
16.6.3

REPAIR OF CONCRETE ........................................................................................ 9


General
9
Honeycombing or Spalling
9
Crack injection
11

16.7

POLYESTER RESIN CONCRETE (PRC) - PIPING SYSTEMS FOR NONPRESSURE DRAINAGE AND SEWERAGE ......................................................... 13
General
13
Resin
13
Minimum strength
14

16.7.1
16.7.2
16.7.3

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Part
16: Miscellaneous

Page 2

16

MISCELLANEOUS

16.1

GENERAL

16.1.1

Scope

This Part deals with miscellaneous items related to concrete works including pavement
quality concrete, no fines concrete, lightweight concrete, cementitious grout, screeds, repair
of concrete and guniting.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section

TC

Part 2, .............. Aggregate


Part 3, .............. Cementitious Material
Part 4, .............. Water
Part 5, .............. Admixture
Part 6, .............. Property Requirements
Part 7, .............. Concrete Plants
Part 8, .............. Transportation and Placing of Concrete
Part 9, .............. Formwork
Part 10, ............ Curing
Part 15, ............ Hot Weather Concreting.
References

The following standards are referred to in this Part:

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16.1.2

ACI 506, .....................Guide to Shotcrete


ASTM C989 10, ........Standard Specification for Slag Cement for Use in Concrete and
Mortars
BS 146,.......................Portland-blast furnace cement
BS 812,.......................Testing aggregates
BS 1881,.....................Testing concrete
BS 2782,.....................Methods of testing plastics
BS 3892,.....................Pulverised fuel ash
BS 4551,.....................Methods of testing mortars, screeds and plasters
BS 5075,.....................Concrete admixtures
BS 6319,.....................Testing of resin and polymer / cement compositions for use in
construction
BS 6610,.....................Specification for pozzolanic pulverised-fuel ash cement.
BS 8203,.....................Code of practice for installation of resilient floor coverings.
BS 8500,.....................Concrete
BS EN 197-1, .............Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for
common cements
BS EN 480,.................Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods (parts: 1, 2,
4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, and 12)
BS EN 934,.................Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout (parts: 2, 6)
BS EN 998,.................Specification for mortar for masonry

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Part
16: Miscellaneous

Page 3

BS EN 1744-1, ...........Tests for chemical properties of aggregates. Chemical analysis


BS EN 12350,.............Testing fresh concrete
BS EN 12390-5, .........Flexural strength of test specimens
BS EN 12620,............. Aggregates for concrete
EN 197-4:2004 ...........Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for low
early strength blastfurnace cements
EN 197-4, ...................Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for low
early strength blastfurnace cements
EN 12350, ..................Testing fresh concrete
EN 1744-1, .................Tests for chemical properties of aggregates. Chemical analysis
GSO EN 206-1, ..........Concrete Specification, performance, production and conformity
SHW 1000 ..................Specification for Highway Works UK ROAD PAVEMENTS
CONCRETE MATERIALS

PAVEMENT QUALITY CONCRETE

16.2.1

Scope

This Subpart covers the mix design for concrete used for aircraft aprons and roadworks as
surface slabs, continuously reinforced concrete roadbase, and wet lean mix except cement
bound granular material used as a roadbase or sub-base or as a backfill material for
excavations.

16.2.2

Mix Designs

Concrete in rigid or composite pavements shall be one of the grades given in Table 16.1
below, in accordance, with the pavement design shown on the Drawings or as directed by the
Engineer.

All concrete for use in pavements shall be designed mixes or equivalent standard mixes in
accordance with the relevant clauses of BS 8500 and GSO EN 206-1, except where
otherwise specified.

Prescribed mixes may be used for rapid construction with the approval of the Engineer.

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16.2

Table 16.1
Pavement Grades
Pavement Layer

BS 8500 and
GSO EN 2061Designed
Mix

Surface Slabs
Unreinforced Concrete

C40

Jointed Reinforced Concrete ( JRC )

C40

Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement ( CRCP )

C40

Continuously Reinforced Concrete Roadbase ( CRCR )

C40

Ground Anchorage Beam

C40

BS 8500 and
GSO EN 206-1
Standard Mix

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Part
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Page 4

BS 8500 and
GSO EN 2061Designed
Mix

BS 8500 and
GSO EN 206-1
Standard Mix

Wet Lean Mix Concrete 4

C20

ST4

Wet Lean Mix Concrete 3

C15

ST3

Wet Lean Mix Concrete 2

C10

ST2

Wet Lean Mix Concrete 1

C7.5

ST1

Pavement Layer

16.2.3

Cement

The general term 'cement' in this Part means the materials shown below.
Cement

Complying with

Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for


common cements
Portland blast furnace cement

EN 197-1

Specification for pozzolanic pulverised-fuel ash cement (grades


C20 or below)

BS 6610

TC

BS 146 or EN 197-4

The use of a combination of Portland cement and ground granulated blast furnace slag is
permitted subject to the approval of the Engineer. In such cases, the Engineer will stipulate
the minimum combined cementitious material content required for the mix.

The use of a combination of Portland cement and pulverised fuel ash (PFA) is permitted
subject to the approval of the Engineer. In such cases, the Engineer will stipulate the
minimum combined cementitious material content required for the mix. PFA shall be in
accordance with BS 3892.

The use of microsilica in the mix designs will be permitted if approved by the Engineer.

The Engineer will stipulate the minimum combined cementitious material content required for
the mix where PFA or GGBFS are used.

The maximum proportion of ground granulated blastfurnace slag with Portland cement shall
be as per Table 6.6 of Part 5.6.

In combination with Portland cement, the proportion of PFA by mass to the total cement shall
be as per Table 6.6 of Part 5.6.

The limit of chloride content of the concrete shall be as stated in Table 6.5 of Part 5.6.

The minimum cement content for concrete pavements shall be preapproved by Qatar
Standards.

16.2.4

Water

Water for use in the making and curing of concrete shall conform to the requirements of Part
4 of this Section.

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The water content shall be the minimum required to provide the agreed workability for full
compaction of the concrete to the required density, as determined by trial mixes or other
means approved by the Engineer..

16.2.5

Aggregates

The requirements of Part 2 of this specification will govern, except as modified below.

Aggregates for all pavement concrete shall be complying with BS EN 12620

Alternatively coarse aggregate of recycled and secondary aggregate materials may be used
to replace up to 50% by mass of coarse aggregate

The nominal size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 40 mm. When the spacing between
longitudinal reinforcement is less than 90 mm, the nominal size of coarse aggregate shall not
exceed 20 mm.

If requested by the Engineer, the Contractor shall carry out tests on the proposed aggregate
combination to check for the possibility of alkali silica reaction. Such tests shall be carried out
in accordance with the procedure laid down in Part 2 of this Section.

16.2.6

Admixtures

Plasticisers or water reducing admixtures shall comply with BS 5075, BS EN 480 and BS EN
934. Admixtures containing calcium chloride shall not be used.

Other chloride-free admixtures may be used with the approval of the Engineer.

16.2.7

Air content

The total quantity of air in air-entrained concrete as a percentage of the volume of the mix
shall be 5 1.5 % for mixes of nominal aggregate size 20 and be 4 1.5 % for mixes of
nominal aggregate size 40.

The air content shall be determined at the point of delivery by a pressure type air meter in
accordance with BS EN 12350-7, at the rate of one determination per 300 m2 of slab or at
least six times per day whichever is the greater, in conjunction with tests for workability and
strength. For areas less than 300 m2, the rate shall be at least one determination to each 20
m length of slab or less constructed at one time or at least three times per day. If the air
content is outside the specified limits, a further determination shall be made immediately on
the next available load of concrete before discharging. If the air content is still outside the
limit, the Contractor shall immediately adjust the air content of the concrete to improve its
uniformity, before further concrete is used in the Works.

The air-entraining agent shall be added at the mixer, by an apparatus capable of dispensing
the correct dose within the tolerance for admixtures given in EN 206-1, and so as to ensure
uniform distribution of the agent throughout the batch during mixing.

16.2.8

Density

The density of concrete Grades greater than C30 shall be such that without air-entrainment
the total air voids are not more than 3 %. With air entrainment, the total air voids shall be not
more than 8 %, for 20 mm aggregate or 7 % for 40 mm aggregate.

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Part
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Page 6

The density of concrete Grades B15 and B20, mix ST4 or below shall be at least 95 %, of the
theoretical maximum dry density.

16.3

CEMENTITIOUS GROUT

16.3.1

General

This Subpart covers a general purpose non-shrink cementitious grout. The grout shall be
used to where it is necessary to eliminate shrinkage when filling the void between a base
plate and a substrate such as in the grouting of stanchion bases, anchorage fixings, including
masts, anchor bolts and fence posts.

The grout shall be supplied by a reputable construction chemical company as a single pack
prepackaged cement based product which is chloride free.

For a particular application, the Contractor shall submit a method statement detailing how the
formwork will be placed and the points where the grout will be poured.

Before beginning work on large repetitive works, the Contractor shall arrange for a site trial of
the materials and methods with the suppliers representative being present to train the
Contractors personnel in the correct use of the material.

16.3.2

Material

The grout shall be suitable for filling gaps of thickness up to 100 mm and shall be free flowing
and non shrink.

Positive volumetric expansion shall take place while the grout is plastic by means of gaseous
expansion to avoid shrinkage and cracking.

The compressive strength of the grout when tested in accordance with BS EN 12390-3 shall
be a minimum of 25 MPa at 24 h, 40 MPa at 7 d and 50 MPa at 28 d.

The grout shall exhibit a high early strength gain yet not be subject to cracking or other
detrimental effects.

At ambient temperatures above 35 C, cool water shall be used for mixing the grout before
placing.

16.3.3

Workmanship

The storage handling and pouring of the grout shall be in strict accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.

The substrate surface shall be free from oil grease or loose or partially bonded material.

If the concrete surface is defective or has laitance it shall be cut back to a sound base.

Bolt holes and fixing pockets shall be blown clean of dirt or debris.

The substrate shall be soaked with fresh potable water before grouting, although immediately
before grouting, free water shall be removed and blown out of bolt holes or pockets.

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Grout shall not be placed in a gap of less than 25 mm for base plates larger than 1 m wide.
For larger base plates or flow areas the manufacturers instructions shall be followed.

Base plates and metallic items shall be clean and free from oil, grease, or scale.

Vent holes shall be provided to allow the release of air from isolated spots.

Formwork shall be made leak proof by the use of form rubber strip or mastic sealant between
the constructive formwork and joints. Formwork shall extend above the required pour height
and if necessary shall be extended to allow a hydrostatic head to aid placement.

10

The grout shall be mixed mechanically with a slow speed drill fitted with a high-shear mixer.

11

The quantity of water to be added to the preweighed bags shall be enough to give the
desirable consistency as trowelable or flowable.

12

Mixing shall take place for a minimum of 5 min.

13

The grout shall be placed within the time limit specified by the manufacturer depending on
the actual application temperature.

14

Grout shall be poured from one side and it shall be verified that the grout has flowed under all
of the base plate with no voids. Pouring from several sides shall not be permitted.

15

Exposed areas of grout shall be thoroughly cured in accordance with Part 10 of this Section.

16.4

SCREEDS

16.4.1

Scope

This Subpart covers screeds that provide by means of a layer of mortar a level surface in
flooring applications and to provide falls on flat concrete roofs.

16.4.2

General

Screeds shall be suitable for application onto a concrete substrate.

The screeds shall be suitable for receiving surface finishes which may arrange from thin
flexible sheeting to ceramic tiling. The screed is not intended to be the final wearing surface.

Screed mortars shall generally comprise sand and cement modified by additives or
substituted by other materials such as polymers in order to provide specific performance
requirements.

For screeds of thickness greater than 40 mm it is permissible to incorporate a proportion of


10 mm aggregate.

Aggregates used for screeds shall not contain deleterious materials such as coal or iron
particles which may affect the finish the surface of the screed.

Admixtures for mortar screeds shall assist workability or alter rates of setting and hardening
and shall comply with the appropriate part of BS EN 480 and BS EN 934.

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Page 8

Polymer based additives may be used to improve adhesion and strength of thin or featured
screeds, these shall be based on polyvinyl acetate (PVA) styrene bituene rubber (SPR) or
acrylic polymers.

Ready to use sand cement screeds shall comply with the material requirements BS EN 998.

Screeds with a rapid drying time to enable earlier floor finishes to be applied shall be used
strictly in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

10

The interface of the screed in the concrete substrate shall be specified as one of the
following options by the Engineer:
(a)

Monolithic with the concrete base: The screed shall be applied within 3 hours of
placing the concrete base.

(b)

Bonded to the concrete base: Screed shall be laid onto a concrete base which is
hardened and is subsequently been prepared to receive the screed, the minimum
thickness of the screed shall be 25 mm and the maximum thickness 40 mm.

(c)

As an unbonded screed: The screed shall be laid on a separating layer.

(d)

As a floating screed: The screed shall be laid on an insulating material.

The cement and sand screed mix shall have the minimum amount of water added to give
sufficient workability and allow the material to be thoroughly compacted.

12

Pan type mixes shall be used to ensure efficient mixing of materials, the cement to aggregate
ratio shall be between 1 to 3 and 1 to 4.5 by weight. The mixing of the sand cement, water
and admixtures shall ensure a thorough homogeneous mixture with no balling up of the
cement.

13

Screeds shall be laid either between carefully levelled and trued batons or between strips of
screed laid and compacted to a finished level.

14

For bonded screed where a high degree of bond is required the surface laitance of the
concrete base shall be mechanically removed to expose the coarse aggregate. A thin layer
of neat cement grout shall be applied to the prewetted or dampened concrete and the screed
applied and compacted while the grout is wet.

15

Screeds shall be fully compacted by heavy hand or mechanical tamping. The screed at joints
around the perimeter shall be particularly well compacted to avoid breaking out and curling.

16

Screeds thicker than 50 mm shall be laid in two approximately equal layers; screed shall be
kept protected by waterproof sheeting for at least 7 days after laying.

17

Sheet and non ceramic tiling finishes shall only be applied after the screed has cured and
necessary strength achieved.

18

If requested by the Engineer the Contractor shall carry out a soundness and impact test in
accordance with BS 8203.

19

Screeds shall be laid in bays of a size to minimise thermal moisture contraction. Contraction
or movement joints shall be provided as appropriate, where shown on the drawings or as
directed by the Engineer. Bays shall be laid alternatively.

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Bay sizes shall be approximately 15 m2 for 100 mm thick screed and 12 m2 for 75 mm thick
screed.

16.5

CELLULAR CONCRETE

Cellular Concrete (CC) is conventional concrete, where natural aggregate (gravel) is


exchanged for an insulation medium, namely air, embedded in an organic and biodegradable foam. It behaves, like conventional concrete, in particular concerning curing,
hardening and most important "ageing ". CC infinitely increases its strength by hydration as
long as exposed to humidity in the atmosphere.

CC offer more thermal insulation and a substantially higher fire-rating than conventional
concrete.

Minimum compressive strengths shall be 4.0 MPa.

The required density and strength of the CC shall be specified on the drawings and approved
by the Engineer.

The method of production of Cellular Concrete shall be shown on the drawings or directed by
the Engineer. The Contractor shall submit full technical details of the materials and method of
production for the CC along with a list of previous projects where the particular system has
been used.

After source approval of the material and system the Contractor shall submit a mix design for
the CLC for the approval of the Engineer. After the review and approval of the mix theoretical
mix design the Contractor shall carry out a trial mix to check the workability of the fresh
concrete and to allow samples to be made for compressive strength and density.

The Engineer may also instruct that tests are carried out for abrasion resistance and thermal
insulation properties.

Cellular Concrete shall not be used for structural reinforced members.

16.6

REPAIR OF CONCRETE

16.6.1

General

The extent and nature of the defects in concrete shall be established in accordance with Part
15 of this Section. Based on these results the Engineer shall confirm the acceptability of the
work and whether remedial works are required.

If remedial works are required the Contractor shall submit a detailed method statement
identifying the specific materials to be used and the sequence of activities for the repair.

Only proprietary proven materials that form part of a standard repair system shall be used.

16.6.2

Honeycombing or Spalling

Where there is honeycombed concrete or concrete damaged by physical forces such as


impact that has caused spalling, the concrete shall be replaced using a high strength free
flowing cementitious micro-concrete.

The areas of repair shall be marked out and agreed with the Engineer.

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All honeycombed, loose, cracked or friable concrete in these areas shall be removed until
sound concrete is reached. Due account shall be taken of propping or other instructions
given by the Engineer regarding sequences of removal and repair.

The equipment and methods used to break out the concrete shall be such that no reinforcing
steel or other embedded items such as conduits, lifting sockets, or other inserts are loosened
or damaged unless so directed by the Engineer.

Where the removal of concrete by mechanical means is difficult due to reinforcement


congestion, then the use of high pressure water jetting shall be considered and necessary
provisions for protecting the rest of the structure shall be made.

The prepared void shall be profiled so that entrapment of air is avoided during the repair
process using fluid micro-concrete.

The minimum depth of repair shall be 40 mm throughout. The perimeter of the area to be
repaired shall first be cut to a depth of 10 mm using a suitable tool. Feather edges will not be
accepted.

The prepared concrete surface shall be sound and clean and free of loose particles, dust and
debris.

Where exposed reinforcement is sound, it shall be mechanically cleaned of rust and loose
millscale.

10

Reinforcement damaged during the removal of concrete or the preparation process shall, if
required by the Engineer, be repaired or replaced.

11

Adequate formwork shall be provided in accordance with of Part 9 of this Section. This shall
be securely fixed to withstand the hydraulic pressures of the fluid micro-concrete repair
material without distortion or movement during placement.

12

The formwork shall be watertight at all joints between panels and between the formwork and
the existing concrete surface so as to prevent grout leakage.

13

The formwork shall be constructed from appropriate materials as agreed with the Engineer to
achieve the required finish.

14

Formwork surfaces that are to be in contact with the repair micro-concrete shall be treated
with a suitable mould release agent. This shall be used in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations.

15

The entry point of the feed pipe into the form shall be at the lowest point of the void. Sufficient
hydrostatic head or pumping pressure shall be maintained to ensure that the void is filled
completely and no air remains entrapped.

16

Where necessary, provision shall be made for controllable bleed points to prevent air
entrapment and enable the extent of flow of the repair material to be assessed.

17

The formwork shall be inspected by the Engineer and, if approved, filled with clean water
which demonstrates that the formwork is grout-tight and saturates the prepared concrete
surfaces. The formwork shall be then be completely drained and resealed

18

In situations where the completed repair will be subjected to constant immersion an epoxy
bonding agent shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

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19

Both the Compressive strength and Flexural strength shall be at a water:powder ratio of 0.18
and tested at 20 oC

20

The thermal conductivity and the elastic modulus of the repair material shall be compatible
with the host concrete.

21

If requested by the Engineer, recent test results of the material for the following properties
shall be submitted:
(a)

thermal conductivity

(b)

elastic modulus, BS 1881

(c)

expansion characteristics, ASTM C 827, CRD 621-82A

(d)

flow characteristic, UK DOT BD 27/86 paragraph 4.6 B.

The micro-concrete shall be mixed and placed in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations, particularly with regard to water content, mixing equipment and placing
time.

23

As far as possible the placing of the micro-concrete shall be continuous. The mixing
operation shall be timed so that there is minimal interruption in the material flow. If, however,
placing is interrupted, the operation shall recommence as soon as possible while the repair
material retains its flow characteristics.

24

The formwork shall not be removed until the repair micro-concrete has achieved a
compressive strength of at least 10 MPa or as directed by the Engineer.

25

Immediately after removal of the formwork the repair area shall be cured in accordance with
Part 10 of this Section.

26

The repair material shall:

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22

(a)

be shrinkage compensated in both liquid and cured states

(b)

contain no metallic expansion system

(c)

be prepacked and factory quality controlled

(d)

be a free-flowing cementitious material that has a coefficient of thermal expansion fully


compatible with the host concrete and which complies with the requirements of Table
16.3.
Table 16.3
Property requirements of micro concrete
Property

Test Method

Minimum Value

Compressive strength

BS EN 12390-3 @ 28 d

50 MPa

Flexural strength

BS 4551 @ 28 d

10 MPa

Anchorage bond

BS 8110

Passes

16.6.3

Crack injection

This clause of the specification covers non-active cracks within concrete elements caused by
shrinkage or other structural movement. Non-active cracks shall be injected with a lowviscosity epoxy resin to fill and seal the crack and restore the structural integrity.

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Before to starting the injection operation it shall be established by testing and investigation
work that cracks manifest within concrete elements due to either or both shrinkage or
structural movement are non-active.

The extent of the cracks to be filled will be as directed by the Engineer. The cracks to be
filled shall be marked out in detail on the concrete elements by the Contractor and agreed
with the Engineer before proceeding.

The extent of the work may be adjusted by the Engineer as the project proceeds, according
to the conditions found.

Grease, oil or other contaminants shall be removed. Algae and other biological growth shall
also be removed by scrubbing with bactericide or detergent and clean water. If necessary,
wire brushes shall be used.

Loose or spalling areas of concrete, laitance, traces of paint or other coating materials within
the marked out scope of the work shall be removed.

All cracks shall be thoroughly cleaned out using clean, oil-free compressed air. Both the
concrete surface and the cracks shall be allowed to dry thoroughly before continuing.

The injection nipples shall be fixed at intervals along the length of each crack. The distance
between each nipple will depend on the width and depth of the crack.

Spacing shall be close enough to ensure that the resin will penetrate along the crack to the
next point of injection. This will normally be between 200 mm and 100 mm.

10

Each nipple shall be firmly bonded to the concrete surface by using a sealant. The sealant
shall be supplied in two pans (liquid base and hardener system). The two components shall
be thoroughly mixed together for 3 to 4 min until a putty-like consistency is achieved.

11

The mixed sealant shall be applied to the metal base of each surface-fixed nipple. They shall
be pressed firmly into place and held for several seconds until secure. The mixed sealant
shall be applied around each embedded nipple, ensuring a complete seal is made. In this
way, all the nipples shall be fixed along the length of the crack.

12

In the case of a wall or slab which is cracked all the way through, nipples shall be located on
both sides with those at the back placed at midway points between those it the front.

13

The surface of the cracks between the nipples shall be sealed with a band of sealant 30 to
40 mm wide and 2 to 3 mm thick. Both sides if cracks which go all the way through a wall or
slab shall be sealed in this way.

14

The prepared cracks shall be allowed to cure for 12 to 24 h. At low ambient temperatures
(5 C to 12 C) the curing time will be extended and the Contractor shall ensure that the
surface sealant has adequately cured before continuing.

15

One end of the injection hose shall be attached to the lowest nipple on vertical cracks or to
either end of horizontal cracks.

16

Each crack shall be treated in a single, continuous operation. Sufficient material shall
therefore be made ready before the commencement of the work.

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The Contractor shall to ensure that sufficient cracks are prepared to provide effective use of
the mixed material.

18

The preparation, mixing and application of the materials shall be undertaken in strict
accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The Contractor is to ensure that all
necessary tools and equipment are on Site.

19

Both the compressive strength and flexural strength shall be tested at 7 d.

20

The material shall exhibit excellent bond to concrete and when tested for tensile adhesion the
failure shall be in the concrete and not at the interface.

21

The injection resin shall be of a prepackaged or preweighed type and only the use of full units
will be allowed. No part packs or on-Site batching will be allowed under any circumstances.

22

In all operations of storage, mixing and application, the Contractor shall comply with the
health and safety recommendations of the manufacturer and governing authorities.

23

The injected system shall be allowed to cure for 24 h and shall be left undisturbed for this
time.

24

The nipples and bands of surface sealant shall then be removed and damaged areas made
good to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

25

The injection material shall be compatible with the host concrete and shall have the
properties shown in Table 16.4 when tested in accordance with the relevant standards.

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Table 16.4
Property Requirement for Epoxy Crack Injection Material
Property

Method

Compressive strength

BS 4551, BS 2782 BS 6319

Flexural strength

BS EN 12390-5

Minimum Value
70 MPa

16.7

POLYESTER RESIN CONCRETE (PRC) - PIPING SYSTEMS FOR NONPRESSURE DRAINAGE AND SEWERAGE

16.7.1

General

Polyester resin concrete is a mixture formed from aggregates and fillers which are bound
together using a polyester resin (also called Polymer concrete pipes), as defined in ISO
18672-1 or ASTM D 6783 with the amendments given below.

Polyester resin concrete is permitted for use in infrastructure drainage and sewage systems
(pipes, manhalls, soakways).

16.7.2

Resin

The resin used in the pipe system and manufactured as per ISO 18672-1shall have a
temperature of deflection of at least 85 C, when tested in accordance with Method A of
ISO 75-2 with the test specimen in the edgewise position. It shall also conform to the
applicable requirements of EN 13121-1.

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The resin used in the pipe system and manufactured as per ASTM D 6783 shall have a
minimum deflection temperature of 85C when tested at 1.82 MPa following Test Method
D648. The resin content shall not be less than 7 % of the weight of the sample as determined
by Test Method D2584.

16.7.3

Minimum strength

The minimum strength classes for different pipe shapes are given below.
Table 16.4
Minimum strength classes for pipes designated PRC-OC or PRC-TC
Strength class
Sc
Nominal size
N/mm
DN
PRC-OC

PRC-TC

150 DN 500

180

180

600 DN 1000

145

160

1200 DN 3000

120

145

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Table 16.5
Minimum strength classes for pipes designated PRC-OE or PRC-TE
Strength class
Sc
N/mm

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Nominal width/height
WN/HN

PRC-OE

PRC-TE

300/450 WN/HN 600/900

180

180

700/1050 WN/HN 1000/1500

145

160

1200/1800 WN/HN 1400/2100

120

145

Table 16.6
Minimum strength classes for pipes designated PRC-OK or PRC-TK
Strength class
Sc
N/mm

Nominal size
DN

PRC-OK

PRC-TK

800 DN 1000

145

160

1200 DN 1800

120

145

END OF PART

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Page 1

STRUCTURAL PRECAST CONCRETE .................................................................. 2

17.1
17.1.1
17.1.2
17.1.3
17.1.4
17.1.5
17.1.6
17.1.7
17.1.8
17.1.9

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
3
Qualifications
4
Quality Assurance
4
Quality Control
5
Testing
6
Delivery, Storage and Handling
7
Design Loadings, Actions and Structural Members Selection
7

17.2
17.2.1
17.2.2
17.2.3
17.2.4

MATERIALS ............................................................................................................ 8
General
8
Reinforcing Bars
8
Bearing Pads
8
Embedded Steel
8

17.3
17.3.1
17.3.2

FORMING ............................................................................................................... 8
General
8
Tolerances
9

17.4
17.4.1
17.4.2
17.4.3
17.4.4
17.4.5
17.4.6
17.4.7
17.4.8

INSTALLATION ....................................................................................................... 9
General
9
Survey
9
Guying, Bracing and Shoring
9
Adjustment and Correction
9
Erection Tolerances
10
Welding
10
Grouting
10
Field Cutting
10

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Page 2

17

STRUCTURAL PRECAST CONCRETE

17.1

GENERAL

17.1.1

Scope

The work included in this Section comprises furnishing all plant, labour, equipment,
appliances and materials and performing all operations in connection with Structural Precast
Concrete Work.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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This Section
Part 2 ............... Aggregates
Part 3 ............... Cementitious materials
Part 5 ............... Admixtures
Part 6 ............... Property requirements
Part 7 ............... Concrete Plants
Part 8 ............... Transportation and placing of concrete
Part 9 ............... Formwork
Part 10 ............. Curing
Part 11 ............. Reinforcement
Part 15 ............. Hot weather concreting
References

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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17.1.2

AASHTO ....................Standard Specification for Highway Bridges, Section 25


ACI 523.2R .................Guide for Precast Cellular Concrete Floor, Roof, and Wall Units
ACI 533R ....................Guide for Precast Concrete Wall Panels
ACI 533.1R .................Design Responsibility for Architectural Precast-Concrete Projects
ACI 543R ....................Design, Manufacture, and Installation of Concrete Piles
ACI 550.1R-09............Guide to Emulating Cast-in-Place Detailing for Seismic Design of
Precast Concrete Structures
ASCE/SEI 7-05...........Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures
ACI 318-11 .................Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
BS 8110......................The structural use of concrete.
BS EN 1991-1-4 .........Eurocode 1. Actions on structures. General actions. Wind actions
BS EN 1992-1-1 .........Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for
buildings
ISO 9000, ..................Quality management systems. Fundamentals and vocabulary
Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) , Manual 116

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17.1.3

Submittals

Manufacturer's Literature:
(a)

the Contractor shall provide copies of manufacturer's specifications and installation


instructions for each item of proprietary material to be used, showing compliance with
this specification. Information on equipment, embedded items and other accessories
shall also be provided.

Design Mixes:
(a)

copies of mix designs with support material

(b)

the requirements of the mix design shall be in accordance with Parts 6 and 7 of this
Section.

Product Design Criteria:


(a)

loadings for design:


(i)

initial handling and erection stresses

(ii)

all dead and live loads as specified on the contract drawings or as required

(iii)

all other loads specified for the member where they are applicable.

Product Design Calculations:


(a)

the design calculations shall be performed by a Structural Engineer experienced in


precast concrete design. They shall cover all stages of handling, transportation and
erection. The design shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of BS
EN 1992-1-1 or relevant ACI codes, and shall be accepted by the Engineer.

(b)

calculations for the design of precast members shall be supported by a statement


explaining the principle of design and type of analysis adopted

(c)

the influence of individual members in achieving the overall stability of the structure
should be considered

(d)

computer programmes used in the designs shall be fully described and details of input
and printout shall be presented in a manner which can be readily understood and the
following requirements shall be met:

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Page 3

(i)

programme manuals and instructions to programme users shall be made


available to the Engineer upon request

(ii)

where such programme cannot be demonstrated by the Contractor to have been


fully checked or where the Engineer considers it necessary, the Contractor shall
run such test examples as the Engineer may choose, in order to verify the
completeness and accuracy of the programme

(e)

members that are exposed to the weather shall be designed to provide for the
movement of components without damage, failure of joint seals, undue stress on
fasteners or other detrimental effects when subject to seasonal or cyclic day/night
temperature ranges

(f)

precast systems shall be designed to accommodate construction tolerances, deflection


of other building structural members and the clearance of intended openings

(g)

calculate structural properties of framing members in accordance with BS 8110 or BS


EN 1992-1-1, or relevant ACI codes.

Shop Drawings. The Contractor shall provide the following information for the approval of the
Engineer:
(a)

layout plans and detailed fabrication and placement drawings for each structural
precast element

QCS 2014

(b)

size, grade, profile and dimensions of all materials used

(ii)

connection and anchorage details

(iii)

lifting devices, locations and handling limitations

(iv)

steel reinforcement details

(v)

all openings, sleeves, inserts and other provisions in full co-ordination with all
trades in the Contract

(vi)

identification marks.

detailed outline of sequence and methods of erection including but not limited to types,
capacities and numbers of cranage, methods of support and transportation.

A record shall be kept for every piece of precast element produced showing the
following:
type and number

(ii)

date of pour

(iii)

concrete test results

(iv)

shop drawing reference number

(v)

type and duration of curing

(vi)

date of delivery to Site

(vii)

date of fixing in position.

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(i)

Test Reports:
(a)

(i)

Fabrication Records:
(a)

shop drawings are to include the following information:

Erection Procedures:
(a)

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copies of all testing and inspection reports.

Trial Panels:
(a)

the Contractor shall produce trial panels in accordance with the requirements of
Part 10 of this Section.

(b)

trial panels shall be retained for reference purposes for the acceptance of the
production work.

17.1.4

Qualifications

Structural precast work shall be executed by an approved specialist Subcontractor for casting
and also for transportation, handling and erection.

The Contractor may execute this work himself if he can satisfy the Engineer that he has
sufficient experience and expertise in this field. As a minimum the Contractor shall:
(a)

provide satisfactory evidence that his tradesmen and their supervisory personnel
engaged in such work have successful experience with work comparable to that
shown and specified

(b)

provide details of organised quality control and testing procedures.

17.1.5

Quality Assurance

The precast concrete supplier shall have a quality assurance scheme that meets ISO 9000 or
equivalent.

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Page 5

All work shall be performed to secure for the project homogeneous concrete having the
required strength, surface finish, materials, durability, and weathering resistance, without
planes of weakness or other structural defects, and free of honeycombs, air pockets, voids,
projections, offset of plane and other defacements of concrete.

No alterations or substitutions of the structural systems shown on the Drawings are permitted
unless otherwise specified.

The Contractor shall supervise and co-ordinate all phases of the structural precast concrete
construction process and be responsible for the complete manufacturing process.

All methods of manufacture and practices of handling raw materials and manufactured
concrete shall be reviewed by the Engineer before execution of the structural precast
concrete work, at least 14 days before the beginning of precasting work.

Only materials of known quality shall be incorporated in the work.

All materials shall be properly selected, reviewed and approved by the Engineer before use,
and maintained during shipment, storage and use.

Construction systems and techniques shall be properly selected, reviewed and approved by
the Engineer before use, and maintained throughout the complete structural precast concrete
construction phase.

Adequate spare equipment, parts, additional components and repair facilities shall be
available for all tools and equipment.

10

Regardless of approvals by the Engineer, the Contractor shall be responsible for all materials
and methods of structural precast concrete work.

11

If work does not meet the specified requirements, the Contractor shall at no additional cost to
the Employer:

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(a)

implement removal, replacement or remedial work

(b)

revise procedures or materials to prevent recurrence of unacceptable work.

17.1.6

Quality Control

The Contractor shall prepare and provide his quality control programme for structural precast
concrete work with particular attention to details, pre-checking processes, procedures and
close supervision, and in particular the Contractor shall:

(a)

in order to assure that proper work is performed to prevent later corrective actions,
assign at least one experienced supervisor full time to provide quality control for
structural precast concrete work

(b)

the assignment will not relieve the Contractor's other quality control personnel of their
duties relative to the quality control of the structural requirements and surface finish of
the structural precast concrete work.

The Contractor shall arrange for the training of his quality control personnel who will perform
quality control of structural precast concrete work and whose training shall include but not be
limited to:
(a)

materials evaluation

(b)

special mix design techniques

(c)

mix placement

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Part
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(d)

vibrator selection and use

(e)

formwork details formwork protection

(f)

release agent use

(g)

reinforcing steel

(h)

detailing and installation

(i)

finishing equipment and techniques

(j)

corrective procedures and protection of completed work.

Page 6

The Contractor's quality control personnel shall be responsible for verifying all details
necessary to produce the final structural design objectives.

The Contractor's quality control personnel shall also verify the quality of the structural precast
concrete work and guide the production of results which will be within acceptable physical
tolerances

17.1.7

Testing

Concrete shall be tested as specified in Part 6 of this Section.

The Contractor shall:

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furnish labour required to facilitate testing

(b)

inform the Engineer with at least one day's advance notice when concrete is to be
placed

(c)

provide storage facilities for concrete test cubes

(d)

provide material samples and access to materials as required for testing.

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(a)

Should the batching plant be located more than 500 meters away from the site offices, the
Contractor shall provide suitable transport acceptable to the Engineer, for the sole use of the
Engineer's staff.

The Contractor shall station a qualified technician at the casting site to continuously test,
inspect and report on the following:
(a)

that concrete testing is being carried out in accordance with the requirements of Part 6
of this Section

(b)

check the following and verify conformance with specified requirements and approved
shop drawings:

(c)

(i)

all reinforcing bars

(ii)

all embedded items

(iii)

all formwork

check all openings and provisions for co-ordination with all trades in the Contract as
shown on approved shop drawings.

The Contractor shall provide facilities and equipment for the conducting of all tests specified
herein except for the strength test which should be carried out by an approved independent
testing agency.

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Delivery, Storage and Handling

The structural precast elements shall be removed from the form without damaging or over
stressing and stored or placed for transportation on a stable bed that will not allow distortion
of the member.

Separate stacked members with suitable battens and bracing.

Mark each member with an identifying reference or piece mark, and the date of casting.

All piece marks are to be correlated with test reports and plan layouts or erection drawings.

The structural precast element shall be transported with sufficient battens, bracing, and
supports so as to prevent over-stress by vibration or impact loadings. The Contractor shall
submit his proposed method of transportation to the Engineer for approval.

Structural precast units shall be stored, handled and transported in a manner that will avoid
undue strains, hair cracks, staining, or other damage.

The Contractor shall deliver the units from the casting site to the project Site in accordance
with schedule and proper setting sequence.

Structural precast units shall be stored free of the ground and protected from wind or rain
splashes.

The units shall be covered and protected from dust, dirt or other staining materials.

10

During fabrication, construction and after erection, the Contractor shall protect the castings to
avoid the possibility of damage.

17.1.9

Design Loadings, Actions and Structural Members Selection

The provisions of this Clause shall apply if the Contractor is responsible for the design of the
structural precast units.

The precast elements shall be designed to withstand all loading conditions against which
strength and serviceability must be measured.

Vertical loads shall include the self-weight of precast elements, floor coverings and live loads
as indicated on the contract drawings.

The wind loads shall be calculated based on the wind speed provided in Section 1 part 1
clause 1.5.2.

Account shall be taken of the loads and deformation caused by temperature and time
dependent deformations. For such purpose 55 C temperature variation and 90 % relative
humidity should be considered for all members, except exterior elements and facade
o
elements shall consider 85 C.

Precast elements shall be designed in accordance with BS EN 1992-1-1 or relevant ACI


code. Design tensile stresses should not exceed the design flexure tensile stress of concrete,
at the particular age of the concrete.

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17.1.8

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Page 8

Nominal cover to steel including links must meet the durability requirement of severe
condition of exposure and to meet requirement for 2 h period of fire resistance, as provided
for in BS EN 1992-1-1 or relevant ACI code.

Total deflection of precast elements should be limited to 1/350 of the span of this element.

Plan and design for openings for building services, where required or necessary.

17.2

MATERIALS

17.2.1

General

The Contractor shall obtain cement, aggregates and water from a single source, sufficient to
complete the entire structural precast concrete work to assure regularity of appearance and
uniformity of colour.

The Contractor shall provide all materials in accordance with and meet all applicable
requirements of this section.

17.2.2

Reinforcing Bars

Reinforcing bars shall conform to the requirements of Part 11 of this Section

17.2.3

Bearing Pads

These shall be Elastomeric neoprene, conforming to AASHTO Standard Specifications for


Highway Bridges (Section 25) with the following stipulations:

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(a)

use unfactored loads for design

(b)

maximum compressive stress, 0.70 MPa

(c)

maximum shear stress, 0.07 MPa

(d)

maximum shear deformation, 1/2 thickness

(e)

maximum compressive strain, 15 %

17.2.4

Embedded Steel

All embedded items shall be of stainless steel Grade 316L.

17.3

FORMING

17.3.1

General

Forms and casting beds are to be firmly seated so as not to deflect or be displaced under
concreting or tensioning loads.

Correct for thermally induced strains or forces.

For member penetrations larger than 150 mm, coring or field cutting is not permitted unless
approved by the Engineer.

Clean and coat forms with release agent before installation or reinforcing or embedments.

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Page 9

17.3.2

Tolerances

Permissible deviations of formed surfaces are not to exceed tolerances outlined in PCI
Manual 116, with items as summarised or modified in Table 17.1

Table 17.1
Tolerances for Structural Precast Concrete
Description

Tolerance

Dimensions
Length:
Width:
Thickness:
Embedment or penetration location:
Straightness:
End squareness:

5 mm
3 mm
Stem 3 mm; Flange 2.0 mm.
0.2 %
3 mm. for 300 cm
3 mm

INSTALLATION

17.4.1

General

The Contractors erection responsibilities include the safe and proper placing, aligning, and
levelling of the structural precast elements on the accepted bearing surfaces and affecting
their proper fastening.

17.4.2

Survey

Before placement of the structural precast elements the Contractor shall survey and maintain
all temporary supports shown or required to control alignment, and deflection.

Temporary supports shall be retained until framing elements braced thereby have attained
integral stability in accordance with the design.

17.4.3

Guying, Bracing and Shoring

The Contractor shall install in proper sequence and maintain all temporary supports shown or
required to control alignment, deflection and stress levels.

Temporary supports shall be retained until framing elements braced thereby have attained
integral stability in accordance with the design.

17.4.4

Adjustment and Correction

The Contractor shall compensate and correct for the misaligning affect of temperature, draw
from welding, bolting or erection sequence or grouting.

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17.4

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17.4.5

Erection Tolerances

The following erection tolerances shall apply unless otherwise specified in the Contract:
(a)

Variations from plumb

6 mm in 6 m run;
12 mm total in a12 m or longer run

(b)

Variation from level or elevation

6 mm in runs;
12 mm in 12 m run; maximum 12 mm at
single locations
12 mm maximum.

(c)

Variation from position in plan

(d)

Offsets in alignment of adjacent


members at joints

1.5 mm in 3 m run, 6 mm maximum.

17.4.6

Welding

Where permission for welding is given by the Engineer, the following shall apply:
welding shall not take place until all adjacent elements to be connected have been
aligned, firmly seated and braced

(b)

control of heat build-up by limiting voltage, electrode size, and rate

(c)

spalled or heat damaged concrete around weldments shall not be acceptable.

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(a)

17.4.7

Grouting

Joints, gaps and connections shall be filled with grout as shown on the Drawings and as
approved by the Engineer.

17.4.8

Field Cutting

Field cutting of holes may be done only with the Engineer's concurrence, and only with power
saws or core drills. Steel reinforcement or prestressing strand shall be avoided, where the
reinforcement or strand is damaged the unit shall be repaired to the satisfaction of the
Engineer, or rejected.

The maximum hole size shall be 150 mm diameter or as limited by member size or strand
location

Any cracks, spalls and sharp corners created by field cutting are to be ground, eased, and
patched with epoxy type bonding and patching compounds.
END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
18: Prestressed Concrete

Page 1

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ................................................................................. 2

18.1
18.1.1
18.1.2
18.1.3
18.1.4

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
3
Storage and Handling
3

18.2
18.2.1
18.2.2
18.2.3
18.2.4
18.2.5
18.2.6
18.2.7
18.2.8
18.2.9

PRESTRESSING .................................................................................................... 3
General
3
Wires and Strands
4
Sheaths, Cores and Ducts
5
Anchorages
5
Jacking Equipment
5
Tensioning
6
Grouting
7
Grout Mixer
7
Grout Trials
8

AM

TC

18

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
18: Prestressed Concrete

Page 2

18

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

18.1

GENERAL

18.1.1

Scope

This section describes the requirements for prestressed post-tensioned concrete, including
materials and procedures for installation, stressing and grouting.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section

References

AM

18.1.2

TC

Part 2 ............... Aggregates


Part 3 ............... Cementitious Material
Part 4, ........... Water
Part 5, ........... Admixtures
Part 6, ............ Property requirements
Part 7, ........... Concrete Plants
Part 8, ............ Transportation and placing of concrete
Part 9, ........... Formwork
Part 10, ........... Curing
Part 11, ........... Reinforcement
Part 15, ........... Hot weather concreting
Part 16, ........... Miscellaneous

ACI 325.7R ------------- Recommendations for Designing Prestressed Concrete Pavements


ACI 343R ---------------- Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures
ACI 350.3R ------------- Seismic Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures
ACI 358.1R ------------- Analysis and Design of Reinforced and Prestressed-Concrete
Guideway Structures
ACI 372R ---------------- Design and Construction of Circular Wire- and Strand-Wrapped
Prestressed-Concrete Structures
ACI 373R ---------------- Design and Construction of Circular Prestressed Concrete Structures
with Circumferential Tendons
ACI 423.3R ------------- Recommendations for Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded
Tendons
ASTM A881/A881M -- Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Deformed, Stress-Relieved or
Low-Relaxation for Prestressed Concrete Railroad Ties
ASTM A882/A882M--- Standard Specification for Filled Epoxy-Coated Seven-Wire
Prestressing Steel Strand
ASTM A641/A641M Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Carbon Steel
Wire
ASTM A416/A416M-10 Standard Specification for Steel Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire for
Prestressed Concrete
AWWA D110-------------Wire- and Strand-Wound, Circular, Prestressed Concrete Water
Tanks
BS 1881......................Testing Concrete.
BS EN 12350,.............Testing fresh concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
18: Prestressed Concrete

Page 3

BS EN 12390,.............Testing hardened concrete


BS 5896,.....................Specification for high tensile steel wire and strand for the prestressing
of concrete.
BS EN 1992

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures

GSO ISO 1920, .......... Testing of concrete


18.1.3

Submittals

Samples
(a)

(b)

(c)

TC

Technical details of the proposed materials and equipment shall be submitted. Details of the
jack type and size shall be submitted to allow for clearances to be checked. A calibrated
stress-recording device shall be used. Design Data. The Contractor shall submit:
(a)

details of the proposed grout mix design

(b)

tendon extension calculations

(c)

vent pipe spacing and location details.

(d)

detailed execution and shop drawings

(e)

calculation notes

AM

a 1 m length sample of strand shall be taken from every 1000 m of strand to be


installed in the works with a minimum of one sample of strand per reel, on Site in the
presence of the Engineer for strength test at an independent laboratory approved by
the Engineer. A reel shall only be accepted if both the breaking load and the 0.1 %
proof load of the sample exceed the characteristic load given in BS 5896 Table 6
a minimum of three samples of strand shall be taken at random from each reel of
prestressing steel on Site in the presence of the Engineer. The reels on Site shall only
be accepted if the relaxation values determined by the tests are equal to or lower than
the specified relaxation class of BS 5896.
Sample requirements and frequency for prestressing wire shall meet the requirements
of AWWA D110 and ACI 372R.

Other Submittals. The Contractor shall also submit:


(a)

Curriculum vitae and experience record of the supervisor proposed, who shall have a
minimum of five years experience in such a position

(b)

Safety procedures, including warning signs, barricades and communication between


different stressing locations

(c)

The name of the proposed the prestressing company, giving details of previous
projects.

18.1.4

Storage and Handling

Prestressing steel shall be stored on palettes at least 300 mm above the ground, and be
protected from contamination by wind blown sand or rain.

Prestressing strand shall be in coils of sufficiently large diameter to ensure that the strand
pays off straight.

18.2

PRESTRESSING

18.2.1

General

Prestressing operation shall be carried out only under the direction of an experienced and
competent supervisor and all personnel operating the stressing equipment shall have been
properly trained in its use.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
18: Prestressed Concrete

Page 4

In addition to the normal precautions against accident, which should be taken at all times for
the whole of the Works, special care shall be taken when working with or near tendons which
have been tensioned or are in the process of being tensioned.

The system of prestressing used shall be a system approved by the Engineer. Such system
shall be used strictly in accordance with the recommendations of the system manufacturer.

Under no circumstances shall equipment or fittings designed for use with one system of
prestressing be used in conjunction with equipment and fittings designed for use with another
system.

Prestressing components shall be stored in clean dry conditions. They shall be clean and
free form loose rust and lose mill scale at the time of fixing in position and subsequent
concreting. Slight rusting of the steel, which can be removed by moderate rubbing, is
acceptable, but the surface shall not show signs of pitting.

18.2.2

Wires and Strands

All prestressing strands shall be seven-wire super stabilised low relaxation strands with a
Guaranteed Ultimate Tensile Strength (GUTS) of not less than 1770 MPa, complying with BS
5896 or relevant ASTM standards.

All prestressing wire shall be cold-drawn, high-carbon wire meeting the requirements of
ASTM A821/A821M, Type B having a minimum ultimate tensile strength of 1,448 MPa
(210,000 psi) prior to galvanizing. Zinc coating for galvanizing shall meet the requirements of
ASTM A641/A641M, with a minimum weight per unit area of uncoated wire surface of 259
g/m2 (0.85 oz/ft2). The minimum ultimate strength of the wire after galvanizing shall be no
less than 1,241 MPa (180,000 psi).

All wires or strands to be stressed at the same time shall be taken from the same parcel. The
coil numbers of the steel used for each tendon shall be recorded.

Welding of tendons shall not be permitted.

All cutting of strands shall be carried out using a high-speed abrasive cutting wheel or friction
saw at not less than one diameter from the anchor. Cutting shall take place only after the
Contractor has submitted the stressing records and the Engineer has approved them in
writing. Flame cutting will not be permitted.

Tendons shall be built into the Works strictly in accordance with the system which is being
employed.

Sufficient strand shall project from the anchorage to allow jacking to take place at the
stressing end of the tendon.

The cable (tendons) or individual strands comprising the cable shall not be kinked or bent.
No strand that has become unravelled shall be used.

AM

TC

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
18: Prestressed Concrete

Page 5

Sheaths, Cores and Ducts

Sheaths shall be accurately located both vertically and horizontally as described in the
Specific Project Specification. Unless otherwise described in the Specific Project
Specification the tolerance in the location of the centre line of the sheath shall be within
5 mm.

All sheaths and cores shall be maintained in their correct positions during the placing of the
concrete. Unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer, sheaths shall be rigidly supported at
points not less than 50 mm and not more than 500 mm apart. The method of support shall be
to the approval of the Engineer.

Where sheaths are used, the number of joints shall be kept to a minimum and sleeve
connectors shall be used for jointing. Each joint shall be adequately sealed against the
ingress of material. Joints in adjacent sheaths shall be staggered by at least 300 mm

Sheaths shall be kept free of matter detrimental to the bond between the grout and the
sheath and, except for material sealing a sheath joint, between the sheath and concrete.

Within 24 hours of the concrete being placed the Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer that
the tendons are free to move if they are in ducts or that the ducts are free from obstruction.

The number and position of grout vents for entry and outlet points and for checking that the
entire length of duct has been adequately grouted, shall be agreed with the Engineer before
the ducts are formed.

Vents shall be provided at low points in the tendon profile to allow the disposal of water that
may have collected as a result of rain or curing, for example. The vents shall be sealed
before grouting operations beginning.

18.2.4

Anchorages

Anchorages, end blocks and plates shall be positioned and maintained in position during
concreting so that the centre line of the duct passes axially through the anchorage assembly.

All bearing surfaces shall be clean before concreting and tensioning.

Anchoring of prestressing wires shall meet the requirements of AWWA D110 and ACI 372R.

18.2.5

Jacking Equipment

All jacking equipment used for stressing operations shall be of the type applicable to the
system adopted.

Jack and pumps shall be calibrated at an independent facility, in the presence of the
Engineer, before beginning stressing operations. Calibration of the equipment shall take
place at six-month intervals for equipment permanently present on Site. Whenever new
equipment is brought to the Site, or equipment is removed and returned, or serviced,
recalibration of the equipment as described will be required.

All gauges, load cells, dynamometers and other devices used for measurement shall have a
reading accuracy of within 2 %.

Stressing equipment for prestressing wires shall meet the requirements of AWWA D110 and
ACI 372R.

AM

TC

18.2.3

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
18: Prestressed Concrete

Page 6

Tensioning

The Contractor shall submit details of the proposed stressing loads and stressing sequence
to the Engineer for approval.

Tensioning shall be carried out only in the presence of the Engineer or his representative
unless permission has been granted to the contrary.

The Contractor shall ensure that personnel carrying out the stressing are provided with
particulars of the required tendon loads, order of stressing and extensions.

Immediately before tensioning, the Contractor shall prove that all tendons are free to move
between jacking points.

Unless otherwise permitted in the Contract, concrete shall not be stressed until it has
reached at least the age at which two test cubes taken from it attain the specified transfer
strength. The cubes shall be made and tested as described in BS 1881 , BS EN 12350, BS
EN 12390 or GSO ISO 1920. They shall be cured in similar conditions to the concrete to
which they relate to, and in a manner approved by the Engineer.

The friction factors assumed for the calculation of tendon extension shall be verified by on
Site measurement of the force-extension relationship of a typical sample of installed tendons.

The Contractor shall establish the datum point for measuring extension and jack pressure to
the satisfaction of the Engineer.

The tendons shall be stressed at a gradual and steady rate until they attain the force
required.

The maximum force exerted on the shall not exceed 75 % of the GUTS of the strand. For the
purposes of cable detensioning, where the installed strand is to be discarded the jacking
force may be increased to 80 % GUTS.

10

The force in the tendons shall be obtained from the readings on a load cell or pressure gauge
and the extension of the tendons measured. The two readings shall conform to the limits set
by the Engineer but in all cases the force in the tendon as computed from the extension
measurement shall be within +5 % to -2 % of the force indicated by the gauging system.

11

When stressing from one end only the pull in at the dead end shall be accurately measured
and the appropriate allowance made in the measured extension at the live end.

12

If the calculated and measured extensions vary from each other by more than 6 % then
corrective action shall be taken. This may involve detensioning and retensioning of the
tendons if required by the Engineer.

13

When the required force, including overloads of short duration, has been applied to the
satisfaction of the Engineer, the tendons shall be anchored. The jack pressure shall then be
relieved in such a way as to avoid shock to the anchorage or tendons.

14

If the pull-in of tendons at the completion of anchoring is greater than that acceptable to the
Engineer, the tendons shall be detensioned and the tendon tensioned again.

AM

TC

18.2.6

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
18: Prestressed Concrete

Page 7

The Engineer may direct that the force in any tendon be tested by rejacking. This will only be
instructed if there is doubt that the calibration of tensioning equipment is accurate. Care shall
be exercised by the Contractor during the retensioning to ensure that the jacking load does
not exceed more than 80 % of the GUTS of the strand.

16

If it is necessary to crop the tendons to enable the ducts to be grouted, this shall be delayed
as long as is practicable up to the time of grouting. In all other cases, unless otherwise
agreed with the Engineer, the tendons shall not be cropped less than three days after
grouting.

17

The Contractor shall keep full records of all tensioning operations, including the measured
extensions, pressure gauge or load cell readings and the amount of pull-in at each
anchorage. Copies of these records, on suitable forms, shall be supplied to the Engineer
within 24 hours of each tensioning operation.

18

Tensioning prestressing wires shall meet the requirements of AWWA D110 and ACI 372R

18.2.7

Grouting

Grouting shall take place only with the written approval of the Engineer.

All ducts shall be thoroughly cleaned by means of compressed air and all anchorages shall
be sealed before grouting.

Ducts shall be grouted as soon as practicable after the tendons in them have been stressed
and the Engineers written permission to commence has been obtained. Grout shall be
injected in one continuous operation and allowed to flow from the vents until the consistency
is equivalent to that being injected. The maximum time between mixing and injection shall not
exceed 30 min.

The ducts shall be completely filled with grout.

Vents shall be sealed consecutively in the direction of flow and the injection tube sealed
under pressure until the grout has set. The filled ducts shall be protected to the satisfaction of
the Engineer to ensure that they are not subject to shock or vibration for one day.

Two days after grouting, the level of grout in the injection and vent tubes shall be inspected
and made good if necessary.

The Contractor shall keep full records of grouting including the date each duct was grouted,
the proportions of the grout and admixtures used, the pressure, details of interruptions and
topping up required. Copies of these records shall be supplied to the Engineer within three
days of grouting.

Prestressing wires shall be protected against corrosion and other damage by a shotcrete
cover coat meeting the requirements of AWWA D110 and ACI 372R

18.2.8

Grout Mixer

The grout mixer shall produce a grout of colloidal consistency. The grout injector shall be
capable of continuous operation with a sensibly constant pressure up to 0.7 MPa and shall
include a system of circulating or agitating the grout whilst the actual grouting is not in
progress. All baffles to the pump shall be fitted with sieve strainers size BS 14.

AM

TC

15

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
18: Prestressed Concrete

Page 8

The equipment shall be capable of maintaining pressure on completely grouted ducts and
shall be fitted with a nozzle which can be locked off without loss of pressure in the duct.

The pressure gauges shall be calibrated before they are first used in the Works and
thereafter as required by the Engineer. All equipment shall be thoroughly washed with clean
water at least once every three hours during grouting operations and at the end of use for
each day.

The Contractor shall ensure that standby grouting equipment is available in the event of a
breakdown.

18.2.9

Grout Trials

The Contractor shall carry out grouting trails to the satisfaction of the Engineer before actual
grouting taking place.

Unless otherwise directed or agreed as a result of grouting trials, the grout shall:
consist only of ordinary Portland cement, water and an approved expansion agent

(b)

have a water: cement ratio as low as possible consistent with the necessary
workability. Under no circumstances shall the water: cement ratio exceed 0.4

(c)

not be subject to bleeding in excess of 2 % after 3 h or 4 % maximum when measured


o
at 18 C in a covered glass cylinder approximately 100 mm diameter with a height of
approximately 100 mm and the water shall be reabsorbed after 24 h.

TC

(a)

Admixtures containing chloride or nitrates shall not be used. Other admixtures shall be used
only with the written permission of the Engineer and shall be used strictly in accordance with
the manufacturers instructions.

The grout shall be mixed for a minimum of 2 minutes and until a uniform consistency is
obtained.

AM

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
19: Testing of Water Retaining Structures

Page 1

TESTING OF WATER RETAINING STRUCTURES................................................ 2

19.1
19.1.1
19.1.2
19.1.3
19.1.4

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
2
General
2

19.2
19.2.1
19.2.2

TESTING ................................................................................................................. 2
General
2
Cleaning
3

19.3
19.3.1
19.3.2
19.3.3

TESTING PROCEDURE ......................................................................................... 4


Walls
4
Roofs
5
Disposal of Water Used for Testing
5

AM

TC

19

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
19: Testing of Water Retaining Structures

Page 2

19

TESTING OF WATER RETAINING STRUCTURES

19.1

GENERAL

19.1.1

Scope

This Part of the specification applies to the testing of structures that are designed with the
intention of retaining water.

Related Section and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 1 ............... General
Part 13 ............. Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete
Part 14 ............. Protective Treatments for Concrete

19.1.2

References
BS 8007......................Code of Practice for Design of concrete structures for the retaining of
aqueous liquids
Submittals

The Contractor shall record and submit to the Engineer within 24 hours the results of the
watertightness tests carried out.

19.1.4

General

Water retaining structures shall be watertight when subjected to external groundwater


pressures or to tests as specified in this Part.

19.2

TESTING

19.2.1

General

The Contractor shall test watertightness of water retaining structures including storage
reservoirs and other miscellaneous structures that require to be watertight.

All water used for testing shall be potable or irrigation water and the Contractor shall make
arrangements for the supply and disposal of this water.

Water retaining structures shall be tested for watertightness after completion, in accordance
with the following method or as directed by the Engineer:

AM

TC

19.1.3

(a)

the structure shall be filled with potable or irrigation water in stages not exceeding 1 m
in 24 h held at each water level for such time as the Engineer may require. Should
dampness or leakage occur, the water shall be drawn off and the defects remedied to
the satisfaction of the Engineer

(b)

in the case of structures which are subdivided into individual tanks, each individual
tank shall be tested separately. In the case of underground or partially underground
structures, the testing shall take place before application of water proofing membrane,
liner material or perimeter drain, filter material or backfilling is placed against the walls

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
19: Testing of Water Retaining Structures

Page 3

in the case of hopper bottomed tanks, this shall be taken to mean that no material is
placed against the vertical external walls of the tank, the sloping walls of the hopper
bottoms of the tanks being assumed built directly against the excavation apart from the
blinding concrete

(d)

no placing of material against the walls shall take place until the Engineer has given
his written approval and acceptance of the water retaining structures as watertight

(e)

filling shall not take place earlier than 28 d after the casting of the final sections of the
structure which will be stressed by the filling of the structure.

(f)

testing shall not be undertaken until the structure to be tested has been; completed
structurally including roof, if any, and has been passed by the Engineer in writing as
satisfactory in all respects other than watertightness, especially in regard to the final
finish of the work

(g)

not withstanding the satisfactory completion of the seven day test, leakage, cracks,
and damp patches and sweating visible on the outside faces of the structure shall be
rectified from the water face by an injection system to the approval of the Engineer

(h)

repair making the outer face only watertight wall not be accepted, this applies to bobbin
holes also

(i)

the structure shall be retested until the watertightness is approved by the Engineer.

(j)

should the structure fail a test in the above respects, the Contractor shall immediately
take such steps as may be necessary to:

TC

(c)

ascertain the nature and positions of defects or leakage's

(ii)

empty the structure

(iii)

remedy the defects in a manner approved by the Engineer, employing workers


who are specialists in this class of work

AM

(i)

(k)

when the remedial work has been completed in the manner approved by the Engineer,
the testing and if necessary rectification shall be repeated until a satisfactory test is
achieved.

(l)

if necessary, in extreme cases of lack of watertightness, the Engineer may reject the
structure or portions thereof.

19.2.2

Cleaning

All water retaining structures shall, on completion, be carefully cleaned of all debris, to the
complete satisfaction of the Engineer as follows:
(a)

shall be brushed down on all internal faces with a stiff broom while still dry

(b)

all resulting debris removed

(c)

all associated reservoir pipe work shall be cleaned in accordance with the specified
requirements

(d)

the structure shall then be flooded with approximately 75 mm of clean water

(e)

whole of internal faces shall be carefully brushed down with stiff brooms using the
water continuously until all faces are clean

(f)

water shall then be drained off

(g)

walls and floors hosed and flushed with clean water until perfectly clean.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
19: Testing of Water Retaining Structures

Page 4

TESTING PROCEDURE

19.3.1

Walls

After completion and cleaning of the structure and all associated pipe work, if any, the
Contractor shall fill the structure up to the top water level and leave for a stabilising period of
21 d in order to allow for absorption and autogenous healing to take place.

Water shall be added over this period to maintain the top water level.

The Contractor shall ensure that all pipes and specials are available in ample time ahead of
testing.

Two sets of evaporation trays shall be provided along with two sets of rain gauges.

Levels in the trays and structure shall be made and recorded by a hook gauge with vernier
attachments.

Before and during testing, flows in the structure under drainage, if any, shall be monitored,
measured and recorded.

Each under drain shall be numbered and observations reported by under drain number to
facilitate analysis of the data.

All leaks shall be repaired within one month of their detection.

On the twenty-second day, two shallow watertight evaporation trays of area 0.4 m2 shall be
filled with 75 mm of water and placed to float in the structure.

10

The water level in the structure shall be recorded and the test commenced and carried out
over the next 7 d.

11

Readings of water levels in the structure and trays shall be made and recorded every 24 h
over this period.

12

If the water level in the tank falls by more than indicated by the evaporation trays, or other
sign of leakage occurs by the end of the test period then the Contractor shall search and
mark all areas of defect.

13

The structure shall then be emptied and the defects made good as specified herein.

14

After completion of remedial measures the structure shall be refilled and the test repeated.

15

This process shall be repeated until the structure is watertight to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.

16

The fall of water level in the structure over the test period of 7 d, minus the fall accounted for
by evaporation and rainfall shall not exceed 1/500 of the average water depth of the full
structure or 10 mm whichever is less.

AM

TC

19.3

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
19: Testing of Water Retaining Structures

Page 5

Roofs

The roofs of structures shall be tested for watertightness before laying of roof membrane.

Roof and fittings shall be hosed down vigorously and this shall be repeated in such a way as
to keep the roof wet for three successive days.

Roof and fittings shall be deemed satisfactory for watertightness if no discernible leaks or
damp patches show in the soffit.

Roof covering shall be completed as soon as possible after testing.

19.3.3

Disposal of Water Used for Testing

The Contractor shall provide suitable means for disposal of water used for testing, such that
no damage results to facilities, structures or property.

These means shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer and local authorities.

Details shall be submitted to Engineer on request.

The Contractor shall be responsible for damage caused by his filling, testing, flushing and
wastewater disposal operations.

TC

19.3.2

AM

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
20: Personnel Qualifications and Certification

Page 1

PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS AND CERTIFICATIONS ..................................... 2

20.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2

20.2

AUDITORS .............................................................................................................. 2

20.3
20.3.1
20.3.2

READY MIXED CONCRETE COMPANIES ............................................................. 2


Technical Department
2
Production and Operation Department
4

20.4
20.4.1

TESTING LABORATORIES .................................................................................... 5


Concrete Laboratory Department
5

20.5
20.5.1

CONTRACTORS ..................................................................................................... 6
Concrete Construction Department
6

20.6
20.6.1
20.6.2

CONSULTANTS ...................................................................................................... 7
Site Supervision Department
7
Site Supervision / Design Office Department
7

AM

TC

20

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
20: Personnel Qualifications and Certification

Page 2

20

PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS AND CERTIFICATIONS

20.1

GENERAL

The qualification requirements given in this part are optional unless otherwise mentioned
below. The purpose of the qualifications is to prepare the industry to cope with the required
quality of construction. The requirements will become compulsory as and when stated by
Qatar Standards.

Qualifications shall be approved by Qatar Standards or their representatives.

20.2

AUDITORS

Qatar Standards auditors and their approved representatives shall be qualified for inspecting
concrete ready mix plants and testing laboratories.

20.3

READY MIXED CONCRETE COMPANIES

20.3.1

Technical Department

Position:

TC

Technical Manager / QC Manager

Qualifications:

Concrete specification review and concrete mixture proportioning

(b)

Concrete constituent materials, their characteristics, and effects on concrete properties

(c)

Fresh and hardened concrete properties

(d)

Durability of concrete

(e)

Production and delivery of Ready Mixed Concrete

(f)

Handling, placing and curing of concrete

(g)

Specifying and evaluation of concrete strength

(h)

Testing of concrete and its constituents

(i)

Quality control procedures and statistical analysis

(j)

Hot weather concreting

(k)

Troubleshooting concrete problems

AM

(a)

Position:

Site Supervisor

Qualifications:
(a)

The supervisor shall be capable of satisfactorily reading, understanding and


performing the below fresh concrete tests:

BS EN 12350-1 ..........Testing fresh concrete - Sampling


ASTM C1064/C1064M Temperature of freshly mixed hydraulic-cement concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
20: Personnel Qualifications and Certification

Page 3

BS EN 12350-2 ..........Testing fresh concrete Slump test


BS EN 12350-6 .........Testing fresh concrete Density
BS EN 12390-2 .........Testing hardened concrete Making and curing specimens for
strength tests
ASTM C1611/C1611M Standard test method for slump flow of self consolidating concrete
3

Position:

Lab Supervisor

Qualifications:
(a)

The supervisor shall be capable of satisfactorily reading, understanding and


performing the below fresh and hardened concrete tests:

BS EN 12350-1 .........Testing fresh concrete - Sampling


ASTM C1064/C1064M Temperature of freshly mixed hydraulic-cement concrete
BS EN 12350-2 .........Testing fresh concrete Slump test
BS EN 12350-6 .........Testing fresh concrete Density
BS EN 12350-7 .........Testing fresh concrete Air content (Pressure Method)
BS EN 12390-2 .........Testing hardened concrete Making and curing specimens for
strength tests

TC

ASTM C1611/C1611M Standard test method for slump flow of self consolidating concrete
BS EN 12390-3 ..........Testing hardened concrete - Compressive strength of test specimens

AM

BS EN 932-1 .............Aggregates - Methods of sampling


BS EN 932-2 .............Aggregates Methods of reducing laboratory samples
BS EN 933-1 .............Aggregates Determination of particle size distribution (and dust
content)
BS EN 1097-6 ...........Aggregates Determination of particle density and water absorption
BS EN 1097-3 ...........Aggregates Determination of loose bulk density and voids
ASTM C566 ............Method of determination of moisture content

Position:

Site Technician (compulsory if requested by the Engineer)

Qualifications:
(a)

The technician shall be capable of satisfactorily performing the below fresh concrete
tests:

BS EN 12350-1 .........Testing fresh concrete - Sampling


ASTM C1064/C1064M Temperature of freshly mixed hydraulic-cement concrete
BS EN 12350-2 .........Testing fresh concrete Slump test
BS EN 12350-6 .........Testing fresh concrete Density
BS EN 12390-2 .........Testing hardened concrete Making and curing specimens for
strength tests
ASTM C1611/C1611M Standard test method for slump flow of self consolidating concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
20: Personnel Qualifications and Certification

Position:

Page 4

Lab Technician (compulsory if requested by the Engineer)

Qualifications:
(a)

The technician shall be capable of satisfactorily performing the below fresh and
hardened concrete tests:

BS EN 12350-1 .........Testing fresh concrete - Sampling


ASTM C1064/C1064M Temperature of freshly mixed hydraulic-cement concrete
BS EN 12350-2 .........Testing fresh concrete Slump test
BS EN 12350-6 .........Testing fresh concrete Density
BS EN 12350-7 .........Testing fresh concrete Air content (Pressure Method)
BS EN 12390-2 .........Testing hardened concrete Making and curing specimens for
strength tests
ASTM C1611/C1611M Standard test method for slump flow of self consolidating concrete
BS EN 12390-3 .........Testing hardened concrete - Compressive strength of test specimens
BS EN 932-1 .............Aggregates - Methods of sampling
BS EN 932-2 .............Aggregates Methods of reducing laboratory samples
BS EN 933-1 .............Aggregates Determination of particle size distribution (and dust
content)

TC

BS EN 1097-6 ...........Aggregates Determination of particle density and water absorption


BS EN 1097-3 ...........Aggregates Determination of loose bulk density and voids

AM

ASTM C566 ............Method of determination of moisture content

20.3.2

Production and Operation Department

Position:

Plant/Production/Operation Manager and/or Supervisor

Qualifications:

(a)

Properties of concrete and its constituents

(b)

Materials management

(c)

Plant design, function and maintenance

(d)

Batching operations, procedures and dispatching

(e)

Materials management and inventory

(f)

Safety regulations and procedures

Position:

Plant Operator

Qualifications:
(a)

Basic concrete properties and characteristics of its constituents

(b)

Scales, meters and batching sequence and control system

(c)

Central mixing and discharging

(d)

Tolerances, overweight/underweight controls

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
20: Personnel Qualifications and Certification

(e)

Troubleshooting scales, gates and other plant components

(f)

Safety procedures

20.4

TESTING LABORATORIES

20.4.1

Concrete Laboratory Department

Position:

Page 5

Laboratory Manager / QC Manager

Qualifications:

Concrete specification review and concrete mixture proportioning

(b)

Concrete constituent materials, their characteristics, and effects on concrete properties

(c)

Fresh and hardened concrete properties

(d)

Durability of concrete

(e)

Production and delivery of Ready Mixed Concrete

(f)

Handling, placing and curing of concrete

(g)

Evaluation of concrete strength

(h)

Testing of concrete and its constituents

(i)

Quality control procedures and statistical analysis

(j)

Hot weather concreting

(k)

Troubleshooting concrete problems

AM

TC

(a)

Position:

Supervisor

Qualifications:
(a)

The supervisor shall be capable of satisfactorily reading, understanding and


performing the below fresh and hardened concrete tests:

BS EN 12350-1 .........Testing fresh concrete - Sampling


ASTM C1064/C1064M Temperature of freshly mixed hydraulic-cement concrete
BS EN 12350-2 .........Testing fresh concrete Slump test
BS EN 12350-6 .........Testing fresh concrete Density
BS EN 12350-7 .........Testing fresh concrete Air content (Pressure Method)
BS EN 12390-2 .........Testing hardened concrete Making and curing specimens for
strength tests
ASTM C1611/C1611M Standard test method for slump flow of self consolidating concrete
BS EN 12390-3 .........Testing hardened concrete - Compressive strength of test specimens
BS EN 932-1 .............Aggregates - Methods of sampling
BS EN 932-2 .............Aggregates Methods of reducing laboratory samples
BS EN 933-1 .............Aggregates Determination of particle size distribution (and dust
content)

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
20: Personnel Qualifications and Certification

Page 6

BS EN 1097-6 ...........Aggregates Determination of particle density and water absorption


BS EN 1097-3 ...........Aggregates Determination of loose bulk density and voids
ASTM C566 ............Method of determination of moisture content

Position:

Technician (compulsory if requested by the Engineer)

Qualifications:
(a)

The technician shall be capable of satisfactorily performing the below fresh and
hardened concrete tests:

BS EN 12350-1 .........Testing fresh concrete - Sampling


ASTM C1064/C1064M Temperature of freshly mixed hydraulic-cement concrete
BS EN 12350-2 .........Testing fresh concrete Slump test
BS EN 12350-6 .........Testing fresh concrete Density
BS EN 12350-7 .........Testing fresh concrete Air content (Pressure Method)
BS EN 12390-2 .........Testing hardened concrete Making and curing specimens for
strength tests
ASTM C1611/C1611M Standard test method for slump flow of self consolidating concrete

TC

BS EN 12390-3 .........Testing hardened concrete - Compressive strength of test specimens


BS EN 932-1 .............Aggregates - Methods of sampling
BS EN 932-2 .............Aggregates Methods of reducing laboratory samples

AM

BS EN 933-1 .............Aggregates Determination of particle size distribution (and dust


content)
BS EN 1097-6 ...........Aggregates Determination of particle density and water absorption
BS EN 1097-3 ...........Aggregates Determination of loose bulk density and voids
ASTM C566 ............Method of determination of moisture content

20.5

CONTRACTORS

20.5.1

Concrete Construction Department

Position:

Site Engineer

Qualifications:
(a)

The site engineer shall be capable of satisfactorily reading, understanding and


performing the below fresh concrete tests:

BS EN 12350-1 .........Testing fresh concrete - Sampling


ASTM C1064/C1064M Temperature of freshly mixed hydraulic-cement concrete
BS EN 12350-2 .........Testing fresh concrete Slump test
BS EN 12350-6 .........Testing fresh concrete Density
BS EN 12350-7 .........Testing fresh concrete Air content (Pressure Method)
BS EN 12390-2 .........Testing hardened concrete Making and curing specimens for
strength tests
ASTM C1611/C1611M Standard test method for slump flow of self consolidating concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
20: Personnel Qualifications and Certification

Position:

Page 7

QC Manager/ QC Engineer/ Material Engineer

Qualifications:
Concrete specification review and concrete mixture proportioning

(b)

Concrete constituent materials, their characteristics, and effects on concrete properties

(c)

Fresh and hardened concrete properties

(d)

Durability of concrete

(e)

Production and delivery of Ready Mixed Concrete

(f)

Handling, placing and curing of concrete

(g)

Specifying and evaluating of concrete strength

(h)

Testing of concrete and its constituents

(i)

Quality control procedures and statistical analysis

(j)

Hot weather concreting

(k)

Troubleshooting concrete problems

20.6

CONSULTANTS

20.6.1

Site Supervision Department

Position:

AM

Site Inspector/ Material Inspector

Qualifications:
(a)

TC

(a)

The site engineer shall be capable of satisfactorily reading, understanding and


performing the below fresh concrete tests:

BS EN 12350-1 .........Testing fresh concrete - Sampling


ASTM C1064/C1064M Temperature of freshly mixed hydraulic-cement concrete
BS EN 12350-2 .........Testing fresh concrete Slump test
BS EN 12350-6 .........Testing fresh concrete Density
BS EN 12390-2 .........Testing hardened concrete Making and curing specimens for
strength tests
ASTM C1611/C1611M Standard test method for slump flow of self consolidating concrete

20.6.2

Site Supervision / Design Office Department

Position:

Material Engineer

Qualifications:
(a)

Concrete specification review and concrete mixture proportioning

(b)

Concrete constituent materials, their characteristics, and effects on concrete properties

(c)

Fresh and hardened concrete properties

(d)

Durability of concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
20: Personnel Qualifications and Certification

(e)

Production and delivery of Ready Mixed Concrete

(f)

Handling, placing and curing of concrete

(g)

Specifying and evaluating of concrete strength

(h)

Testing of concrete and its constituents

(i)

Quality control procedures and statistical analysis

(j)

Hot weather concreting

(k)

Troubleshooting concrete problems

AM

TC

END OF PART

Page 8