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RICHARD WILLIAMS DIRECTOR OF ANIMATION ‘WHO FRAMED ROGER RABBIT’ "4 NIMATORS SURVIVAL KIT AMANUAL OF METHODS, PRINCIPLES AND FORMULAS FOR CLASSICAL, COMPUTER, GAMES, STOP MOTION AND INTERNET ANIMATORS To Imogen, ‘my co-conspirator and wife, without whom this book would certainly not exist - and the author might not be around to write it. | want this book to put over what I have found to be the best working methods, so that animating becomes better and easier to do. There are lots of formulas, principles, clichés and devices here to help, but the main thing | want to pass on is a way of thinking about animation in order to free the mind to do the best work possible. | earned it from the best in the business and I've boiled it all down into a systematic working order. It transformed my work — I hope it will be useful to you. CONTENTS 1 WHY THIS BOOK? 14 DRAWING IN TIME 23 TIMETO DRAW 35 IT'S ALLIN THE TIMING AND THE SPACING. 41 LESSON 46 ADVANCING BACKWARDS TO 1940 47 History of the Chart and inbetween 48 Extremes and Breakdowns 57 Keys 61 Three Ways to Animate 68 Testing, Testing, Testing 70 The X-Sheet 75 Came the Dawn. 76 The Best Numbering System 78 The Great Ones and Twos Battle 80 The Top and Bottom Pegs Battle vii 88 90 92 96 99 99 101 101 102 106 109 4 15 118 120 128 135 136 136 142 146 a7 148 156 163 167 173 176 189 192 195 200 201 209 212 213 vill MORE ON SPACING Classic Inbetween Mistakes ‘Watch Your Arcs Getting More Movement Within the Mass ‘The Elongated inbetween ‘The Major Beginner's Mistake ‘The ‘Ruff’ Approach How Much Do We Leave To The Assistant? Take The Long Short Cut ‘WALKS Getting the Weight Set the Tempo ‘The Passing Position or Breakdown ‘Two Ways to Plan a Walk ‘The Double Bounce Loosening it Up Digging Deeper into Walks ‘There's Nothing Like Trying It The Heel Foot Action ‘Normal Walk Spacing Weight Shi The Belt Line ‘Arm Movements ‘Counteraction The Recipe Sneaks The Tip Toe Sneak RUNS, JUMPS AND SKIPS The 4 Drawing Formula Run ‘The 3 Drawing Run ‘The 2 Drawing Run ‘The Recipe Run, Jump, Skip and Leap Skips Jumps Weight on a Jump 217 FLEXIBILITY 218 The Breakdown 223. Simple Overlap 226 Overlapping Action 230 Simple Counteraction 231 Breaking Joints to Give Flexibility 246 Flexibility in the Face 249 Overlapping Action in the Face 251 instant Read - Profiles for Readability 256 WEIGHT 262 Pressure and Weight 264 How Much Effort Do We Have To Expend? 269 Dancing 272 Rules of Thumb On Synchronising Action 273 ANTICIPATION 282 Surprise Anticipations 283 Invisible Anticipations 285 TAKES AND ACCENTS 295 A Hard Accent Bounces Back 295 A Soft Accent continues 297 TIMING, STAGGERS, WAVE AND WHIP 297 Stagger Timings 299 The Side to Side Vibration Formula 301 Whip Action 301 Wave Action 304 DIALOGUE 305 Phrasing 310 Picture and Sound Syne 311 Accents 314 Attitude 314 The Secret 345. ACTING 320 Change of Expression 321 Look for the Contrast 323 An Acting Point 324 324 325 325 327 328 330 333 334 334 334 335 335 335 335 335 335 335 335 335 338 338 339 342 Body Language Symmetry or ‘Ty Steal It! Eyes ANIMAL ACTION Live Action Reference Basic Animal Walk Pattern DIRECTING The Brief The Leica Reel Separate the Characters Best Foot Forward Casting Animators Making Changes ‘Say! Say!" Voice Recording Hook Ups Research Editing Believe in Your Material REVIEW ‘The Procedure ‘The Ingredients Acknowledgements WHY THIS BOOK? ‘When I was ten years old | bought a paperback book, How to Make Animated Cartoons, by Nat Falk, published in 1940. its now long out of print, but I used it as a handy reference guide for 4940s Hollywood cartoon styles when I designed the characters and directed the animation for Who Framed Roger Rabbit. ‘More importantly for me, however, the book was clear and straightforward; the basic informa~ tion of how animated films are made registered on my tiny ten-year-old brain and, when I took the medium up seriously at twenty-two, the basic information was still lurking there. | was living and painting in Spain when the incredible possibilities of what animation could do engulfed my mind. | planned my first film and took the money I had left from portrait painting to London, | starved for a bit, finally found work animating television commercials and man- aged to self-finance The Little isiand ~ a half-hour philosophical argument without words The Little sfand, 1958 Three years later, when I'd finished the film, the unpleasant realisation slowly crept up on me that | really didn’t know very much about animation articulation, that is, how to move the stuff. To train myself | traced off the animation that Ken Harris had done of a witch in a Bugs Bunny cartoon (Broomstick Bunny ~ 1955, directed by Chuck Jones). Doing this only confirmed how little | understood about movement. While | was making The Little island | had seen a re-release of Bambi, but since I'd considered myself a revolutionary in the field of animation, I'd rejected the film as conventional. But when I finished my film, | saw Bambi again, and almost crawled out of the theatre on my hands and knees. “How did they ever do that?’ I'd learned just enough to realise that I really didn’t know anything! 1 ‘Animation master Ken Harts and wannabe, 1969 So, how and where to get the expert knowledge? | was working in England as an independent and didn’t want to go into the Hollywood cartoon mill. | wanted it both ways. | wanted my artistic freedom but | also wanted the knowledge. Preston Blair's How to Animate Film Cartoons was available, but because | was put off by the squashy-stretchy 1940s cartoon style, it was harder for me to grasp the underlying principles | was after ~ although it's a solid book and Preston was a very good animator from the Golden Age. It's ironic that forty years later | would become best known for my work on Who Framed Roger Rabbit - drawing in precisely the same style that had put me off learning from Preston. Much later, | was able to work with Ken Harris, the first ‘real’ master animator | met, and whose witch in Broomstick Bunny | had traced off. It’s generally agreed that Ken Harris was the master animator at Warner Bros. Certainly he was director Chuck Jones's lead man. In 1967, | was able to bring Ken to England and my real education in animation articulation. and performance started by working with him. | was pushing forty at the time and, with a large successful studio in London, | had been animating for eighteen years, winning over one hundred international awards. After seven or eight years of working closely with Ken, he said to me, ‘Hey Dick, you're start- ing to draw those things in the right place.” 2 “Yeah, I'm really learning it from you now, aren’t I?" | said. “Yes,” he said thoughtfully, ‘you know . .. you could be an animator.’ After the initial shock I realised he was right. Ken was the real McCoy whereas I was just doing, a lot of fancy drawings in various styles which were functional but didn’t have the invi ‘magic’ ingredients to make them really live and perform convincingly. So I redoubled my efforts (mostly in mastering head and hand ‘accents') and the next year Ken pronounced, ‘OK, you're an animator.’ ‘A couple of years after that, one day he said, ‘Hey, Dick, you could be a good animator.” ‘When he was eighty-two, I would go out to Ken's trailer home in Ohai, California and lay out scenes with him that he would later animate. He'd often take a half-hour nap and I'd keep working. ‘One day he conked out for three hours and by the time he woke up, | had pretty much animated the scene. ‘Sorry, Dick,’ he said, ‘you know . . . I'm just so god-damned old.’ (long pause) ‘Oh . .. 1 see you've animated the scene “Yeah, | said, ‘I didn’t know what else to di “Nice drawings...” he said, then pointed. ‘Hey, that’s wrong! You've made a mistake.’ And of course he was right. “Dammit Ken," | said. ‘I've worked with you for thirteen years and I sti! can’t get your “thing”. I'm afraid it’s going to die with you.’ “Ye-e-aaahhhhh . . .” he snickered, then said, ‘Well, don't worry, you've your own pretty good thing going.’ Then he snickered again. Ken was a very fast worker and | was always squeezing him for more and more footage and getting him to animate even when the taxi was ticking outside waiting for him to catch a plane home to the States. When he died in 1982 at eighty-three, my real regret was that when | was a pallbearer | didn’t have the guts to tuck a blackwing pencil into his hand in his open coffin. He would have loved that. When | first started working with Ken, we had just completed the animation sequences which occur throughout Tony Richardson's epic film The Charge of the Light Brigade and | thought ‘was getting pretty proficient. When Ken saw it in the theatre he said, ‘God, Dick, how did you guys ever do all that work?" (pause) “Course it doesn’t move too good But I'm still not ashamed of our work on that film. After that we went to see The Beatles’ feature cartoon The Yellow Submarine. Though | liked the designer Heinz Edelman’s styling, the ‘start-stop, stop-start’ jerky quality of most of the animation meant that after a half hour much of the audience went to the lobby. No matter how stylish or inventive — jerky or bumpy animation seems only to be able to hold the audience for about twenty-five minutes. While The Yellow Submarine had an enthusiastic cult following from the advertising agencies and university crowd, the general public avoided the film. It killed the non-Disney feature market for years. 1es rom Tony Richardson's epe fl, The Charge ofthe Light Brigade, 1968, A top United Artists executive who distributed The Yellow Submarine told me, ‘This is the Beatles at the height of thelr popularity and stil! people stay away from non-Disney animation.’ Film executives at that time always said of animation, ‘If it doesn't have the Disney name on it, no one will go see it.’ But the real point is, It wasn’t just the Disney name - it was the Disney expertise that captivated the audience and held them for eighty minutes. Almost the same week Disney's The Jungle Book came out and was an instant hit. ! went along to see it reluctantly, thinking (as | still considered myself an innovator) that though there might be something interesting, it was probably predictable stuff. That's how it started — with standard-issue wolves adopting the ‘good housekeeping seal of approval’ cutesy baby. | remember the boy Mowgli riding a black panther moving and acting in a clichéd way — until he got off. And suddenly everything changed. The drawing changed. The proportions changed. The actions and acting changed. The panther helped the boy up a tree and everything moved to a superb level of entertainment. The action, the drawing, the per- formance, even the colours were exquisite. Then the snake appeared and tried to hypnotise the boy and the auidience was entranced. | was astonished. The film continued at this high level, and when the tiger entered weighing eight hundred pounds and was both a tiger and the actor who did the voice (George Sanders), | realised | didn’t even know how it was done - let alone ever be able to do it myself. | went back to my studio in shock and, through the night, I wrote a long fan letter. In those scenes | thought | had recognised the hand of the great Disney genius Milt Kahl, who Ken Hatris had raved about. The first name on the directing animator's credits was Milt Kahl, so | assumed the work that stunned me had been Milt's. And it turned out that it was - except for one shot that was by Ollie Johnston. Johnston and Frank Thomas had done lots of other marvellous work in the picture. ‘So I wrote to Milt saying that I thought The Jungle Book was the absolute high point of pure animation performance and that | didn’t think it would ever be possible for anyone outside the Disney experience to reach that pinnacle. Ht tured out Milt said it was the best letter they ever had — and even better, that he knew my work a bit and wanted to meet me. Irtepressible ambition made me change my opinion that they alone could attain such heights; | figured, | think correctly, that given talent, experience, persistence — plus the knowledge of the experts - why should everything not be possible? | couldn't stand it any more. |had to know everything about the medium and master all aspects of it. Cap in hand, I made yearly visits to Milt and Frank Thomas, Ollie Johnston and Ken ‘Anderson at Disney. ‘One of the most important things Milt said was: ‘Our animation differs from anyone else's, because itis believable. Things have weight and the characters have muscles and we're giving the illusion of reality.’ ‘A powerhouse of animation knowledge. From the left Ken Harris, Grim Natwick and Art Babbitt, with students Richard Purdur and me outside my Soho Square studio in London, 1973, But how to make it believable? I didn’t go there to drink Milt's bathwater or to find out what Frank Thomas had for breakfast. | would fire my carefully prepared list of questions at them and later write down everything they said. These wonderful virtuosos became my friends and were incredibly generous with their help. As Milt said, ‘If you ask questions you find out what you want to know. /f you're lucky enough to ask someone who knows.’ 1 was also fortunate enough to enlist the marvellous legendary animator Art Babbitt as a collaborator and teacher. Babbitt had developed Goofy and animated the Mushroom Dance In Fantasia. He ‘dumped his kit’ of knowledge by giving several month-long in-house seminars. 2s well as working with me in my London and Hollywood studios for several years. In 1973, | hired the eighty-three-year-old — but stil briliant — Grim Natwick as a ‘live-in’ tutor in my London studio. Grim had made his name designing Betty Boop and animating most of Snow White herself in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. | also worked closely with Emery Hawkins who Ken Harris regarded as the most imaginative animator. Emery was wildly creative and rotat- ed in and out of every studio. | was also able to work for a short time with Abe Levitow, Gerry Chiniquy and Cliff Nordberg. Dick Huemer, one of the first New York pioneer animators, and later a key Disney story director (Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Dumbo, Fantasia and all the early Disney features) also gave me a very clear picture of the early days of animation. ‘Most of them are gone now but this book is full of their accumulated knowledge and craft. 6 at once tutor the author ~ Frank Thomas standing and Mit Kahl atthe desk, early 1970s, ‘The Arthurian Legend’ was a formidable professor who regarded the profesional sls of the animator as being equivalent to those of a cancer pani. At inaction: his fist month long seminar at my London studio was lice water inthe desert for us 8 In the three-day masterclasses I've been giving lately, some experienced professionals initially feel that we're running over material that they're quite familiar with. Then about half way through the seminar things deepen and on the last day it all suddenly knits together. Some even describe it as an epiphany. Well, it sure was for me when | finally “got it’ So please read the whole thing. Animation is just doing a lot of simple things ~ one at a time! A lot of really simple things strung together doing one part at a time in a sensible order. The movie actor, Scott Wilson sat through my three-day San Francisco masterclass. To my sur- prise he came up at the end and said, ‘Of course you realise, Dick, that this whole thing has been about acting.” I said, ‘What?' and Scott said, ‘These are the exact equivalent methods, exercises and analyses we actors do in our acting workshops.” ‘So acting is intrinsically part of the whole. And if you can't draw or articulate movement how are you ever going to do the acting? Someone once asked Milt Kahl: ‘How did you plan out the counteraction you used on that character?” ‘Milt blew up: ‘That's the wrong way to look at it! Don't think of it like that! | just concen- trate on giving the performance - that’s what's important! The play's the thing. You'll get all tangled up if you think of it in a technical way!" Of course he’s right. if a musician knows his scales, he can concentrate on giving the perform- ance and bringing out the ideas inherent in the music. But if he constantly has to think of the mechanies of what he's doing - then he can hardly play. Therefore, if we know and understand all the basics ~ then we've got the tools to create. Only then we can give the performancet This book is an anatomy course in animation. Just like an anatomy course in life drawing, it shows you how things are put together and how they work. This knowledge frees you to do your own expression, It takes time. I didn’t encounter Ken Harris until | was nearly forty and he was sixty-nine. | had to hire most of my teachers in order to leam from them, hired Ken in order to get below him and be his assistant, so | was both his director and his assistant. I don't know if this is original, but I finally figured out that to lear or to ‘understand! | had to ‘stand under’ the one who knows in order to catch the drippings of his experience. There's a tale about a decrepit old Zen master wrestler. A very fit and brilliant young wrestler begs the old master to take him on and show him the master’s ninety-nine tricks The old man says, ‘Look at me, I'm old and decrepit and I'm not interested.’ The young man keeps pestering the old man who says, ‘Look, son, I'm fragile now and when | show you the ninety-nine tricks, you'll challenge me, they always do - and look at me, you'll make mincemeat of me. The Charge ofthe Light Brigade, 1968 ‘Please, oh please, master,’ pleads the powerful young man. ‘I promise I will never chal- lenge you! Oh please teach me the ninety-nine tricks.” So reluctantly the old man teaches him until the young man has mastered the ninety-nine tricks. The young man becomes a famous wrestler and one day takes his master into a room, locks the door and challenges him. ‘The old man says, 'I knew you'd do this ~ that’s why | didn’t want to teach you in the first place.’ “Come on, old man, there's just me and you in here,’ says the young one, ‘Let's see what you're made of.’ ‘They start and right away the old man throws the young fellow out of the window. The crumpled-up young man moans up from the street below, ‘You didn’t show me that one!” "That was number one hundred,’ says the old man. This book is the ninety-nine tricks. The hundredth trick is called talent. | became a repository for various strands of animation lore and I've taken all this stuff and given it my own twist. The goal here is to master the mechanics in order to do new things. Get the mechanics into your bloodstream so they just become second nature and you don’t have to think about them and can concentrate on giving the performance. | remember once saying to Emery Hawkins (a wonderful, unsung animator), ‘I'm afraid my brains are in my hand.’ Emery said, ‘Where else would they be? It’s a language of drawing. I's not a language of tongue. So everything | know about animation that | can put into words, scribbles and drawings is here in this book. 10 =< AN ANMATION PENCIL Ue Bom eins TD DRAWING IN TIME ‘Why animate? Everyone knows its a lot of hard work doing all those drawings and positions. So what's the hook? Why do it? ‘Answer: Our work Is taking place in time. We've taken our ‘stills’ and leapt into another dimension. Drawings that walk: seeing a series of images we've made spring to life and start walking around is already fascinating. Drawings that walk and talk: seeing a series of our drawings talking is a very startling expe- rience. Drawings that walk and talk and think: seeing a series of images we've done actually go through a thinking process - and appear to be thinking ~ is the real aphrodisiac. Plus creating something that is unique, which has never been done before is endlessly fascinating. We've always been trying to make the pictures move, the idea of animation is aeons older than the movies or television. Here's a quick history: ‘Over 35,000 years ago, we were painting animals on cave walls, sometimes drawing four pairs of legs to show motion. " In 1600 BC the Egyptian Pharaoh Rameses II built a temple to the goddess Isis which had 110 columns. Ingeniously, each column had a painted figure of the goddess in a progressively changed position. To horsemen or charioteers riding past - Isis appeared to move! The Ancient Greeks sometimes decorated pots with figures in successive stages of action. Spinning the pot would create a sense of motion. As far as we know, the first attempt to project drawings onto a wall was made in 1640 by Athonasius Kircher with his ‘Magic Lantern’, 2 Kircher drew each figure on separate pleces of glass which he placed in his apparatus and pro- jected on a wall. Then he moved the glass with strings, from above. One of these showed a sleeping man’s head and a mouse. The man opened and closed his mouth and when his mouth ‘was open the mouse ran in, Although photography was discovered as early as the 1830s, most new devices for creating an illusion of movement were made using drawings, not photos. In 1824 Peter Mark Roget discovered (or rediscovered, since it was known In classical times) the vital principle, ‘the persistence of vision’. This principle rests on the fact that our eyes temporarily retain the image of anything they've just seen. If this wasn't so, we would never get the illusion of an unbroken connection in a series of images, and neither movies nor ani- mation would be possible. Many people don't realise that movies don't actually move, and that they are still images that appear to move when they are projected in a series. Roget's principle quickly gave birth to various optical contraptions: ‘The Thaumatrope: A cardboard disc mounted on a top - or held between two pieces of string. A birdcage drawing is on one side and a bird on the other. When the top Is spun or the strings are pulled the disc twirls, the images merge and the bird seems to be in the cage. The Phenakistoscope: Two discs mounted on a shaft - the front disc has slits around the edge and the rear disc has a sequence of drawings. Align the drawings with the slits, look through the openings and as the discs revolve we have the illusion of motion, 3 ‘The ‘Wheel of Life’ (or the Zoetrope): Appeared in the USA in 1867 and was sold as a toy. Long strips of paper with a sequence of drawings on them were inserted into a cylinder with slits in It. Spin the cylinder, look through the slits and the creature appears to move. The Praxinoscope: Devised by the Frenchman Emile Reynaud in 1877. He was the first to create short sequences of dramatic action by drawing on a 30 foot strip of transparent substance called ‘Crystalold’. This opened the way for the tremendous advances to come. The Flipper book: In 1868 a novelty called ‘the flipper book’ appeared worldwide and it remained the simplest and most popular device. It's Just a pad of drawings bound like a book along one edge. Hold the book in one hand along the bound edge and with the other hand flip the pages and ‘see ‘em move’. The result is animation - the illusion of continuous action. Drawings in time. 14 This is the same as schoo! kids making drawings in the comers of their math books and flipping the pages. Today the ‘classical’ animator still flips his drawings the same way as a flipper book before ‘esting it on the video or film camera. He places the drawings in sequence, with the low num- bers on the bottom, then flips through the action from the bottom up. Eventually he should get good enough at it to approximate actual screen time and spot any errors or drawings that need altering. Now that we have the video camera with Its instant playback of the drawings at film speed, not everyone learns to flip. In 1896 a New York newspaper cartoonist James Stuart Blackton interviewed the inventor Thomas Edison who was experimenting with moving pictures. Blackton did some sketches of Edison, who was impressed by Blackton’s speed and drawing facility and asked him to do some drawings in a series. Later, Edison photographed these - the first combination of drawings and photography. In 1906 they publicly released Humorous Phases of Funny Faces. A man puffed a cigar and blew smoke rings at his gitl friend, she rolled her eyes, a dog jumped through a hoop and a Juggler performed. Blackton used about 3000 “flickering drawings’ to make this first ani- mated picture - the forefather of the animated cartoon. The novelty brought explosions of laughter and was an instant hit. 6 ‘A year later Emile Coh! made and showed his first animated film at the Follies Bergeres in Paris. The figures were childlike - white lines on black ~ but the story was relatively sophisticated: a tale of a girl, a jealous lover and a policeman. He also gave lampposts and houses intelligence and movement, with emotions and moods of their own. Cohi's work prefigures the later ani- mation dictum, ‘Don't do what a camera can do — do what a camera can't do! Winsor McCay, brilliant creator of the popular comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland, was the first man to try to develop animation as an art form. Inspired by his young son bringing home some flipper books, he made 4000 drawings of ‘Little Nemo move. These were a big hit when flashed on the screen at Hammerstein's theatre in New York in 1911. ‘As another experiment he drew a bizarre short film, How @ Mosquito Operates, which was also enthusiastically received. Then in 1914 McCay drew Gertfe the Dinosaur and McCay himself performed ‘live’ in front of the projected animation, holding an apple in front of Gertie and inviting her to eat. Gertie lowered her long neck and swallowed the fruit — astounding the audience. This was the first ‘personality’ animation — the beginnings of cartoon individuality. It was so lifelike that the audience could identify with Gertie. It was a sensation. 16 In MeCay's words: ‘I went into the business and spent thousands of dollars developing this new art. It required considerable time, patience and careful thought - timing and drawing the pictures [my italics]. This is the most fascinating work | have ever done ~ this business of ‘making animated cartoons live on the screen.’ ‘McCay also made the first serious dramatic cartoon, The Sinking of the Lusitania, in 1918. ‘A war propaganda film expressing outrage at the catastrophe, it was a huge step forward in realism and drama ~ the longest animated film so far. It took two years of work and needed 25,000 drawings. Later, as an older man being celebrated by the younger funny-cartoon animators in the busi- ness, McCay lashed out at them saying that he had developed and given them a great new art form which they had cheapened and turned into a crude money-making business done by hack artists. This well defines the endlessly uncomfortable relationship between the pioneering artist/ide- alist and the animation industry - working to comfortable and predictable formulas. Still doth the battle rage... In the twenties Felix the cat became as popular as Charlie Chaplin. These short Felix cartoons ‘were visually inventive, doing what a camera can't do. But more importantly a real personality emerged from this flurry of silent, black and white drawings and Felix ‘himself’ connected with audiences worldwide. ‘The Felix cartoons led straight to the arrival of Walt Disney, and in 1928, Mickey Mouse took off with his appearance in Steamboat Willie - the first cartoon with synchronised sound. ” i The brilliant Ward Kimball, who animated Jiminy Cricket in Pinocchio and the crows in Dumbo, onee told me, “You can have no idea of the impact that having these drawings suddenly speak and make noises had on audiences at that time, People went crazy over it’ Disney followed Steamboat Willie with The Skeleton Dance. For the first time, action was co- ordinated with a proper musical score. This was the first Silly Symphony. Ub Iwerks was chief animator on both films and a lot of the sophisticated action of The Skeleton Dance still holds up today. Disney leapt forward again in 1932 with Flowers and Trees ~ the first full colour cartoon. 18 ‘Then he followed it one year later with Three Little Pigs. This had a major impact because of its fully developed ‘personality’ animation ~ clearly defined and believable separate personalities acting so convincingly that the audience could identify with and root for them. Another first. Astonishingly, only four years after that, Disney released Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the world’s first fully-animated feature-length film, raising cartoon drawings to the level of art and holding the audience spellbound for eighty-three minutes. A truly staggering feat accomplished in an incredibly short space of time. (It's said that many of the artists booked themselves in advance into hospital to recover from the effort of completing the film.) ‘The tremendous financial and critical success of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs became the foundation of Disney's output and gave birth to the ‘Golden Age’ of : Pinocchio, Dumbo, Bambi and Fantasia, as well as the Silly Symphonies and Donald Duck and Mickey ‘Mouse shorts. 19 Surrounding the potent Disney centre were the satellite studios: Max Flelscher with two fea- tures ~ Gulliver's Travels and Mr Bug Goes to Town ~ and Popeye shorts; Warner Bros’ Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies with Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig: MGM with Tom and Jerry, Droopy and the great anarchic Tex Avery shorts, and Walter Lantz with Woody Woodpecker. Fed as they were by the knowledge and expertise emanating from the Disney training centre, their much wilder humour was often in reaction to or in rebellion against Disney ‘realism’ and ‘believability’. But after the Second World War the situation changed. ‘The arrival of television and its voracious appetite for rapidly produced product demanded sim- pler and cruder work. 1950s stylisation gave birth to UPA studios in Hollywood who created ‘Mr. Magoo and Gerald McBoing Boing. UPA's approach was regarded as more graphically sophisticated than Disney and used more ‘limited’ and much less realistic animation. At the same time there was a worldwide flourishing of personal, experimental and ‘art house’ ani- mated films made in new ways with many different techniques and with very different content to the Hollywood product. Animators were reinventing the wheel stylistically but were ignorant of the structural knowledge developed in Hollywood's Golden Age. This knowledge, though residing in the hands of the originators, was generally ignored as being ‘old hat’ or was forgotten in the following thirty years. However, in the last few years, the renaissance of animation as a form of mass entertainment is giving rebirth to the old knowledge. The startlingly successful innovations of computer ani- mation are helping to transform animation in al its multi-faceted forms into a major part of the entertainment mainstream. Alongside this, there is also the explosion in the computer games industry. If drawn ‘classical’ animation Is an extension of drawing, then computer animation can be seen 4s an extension of puppetty — high tech marionettes. Both share the same problems of how to give a performance with movement, weight, timing and empathy. The old knowledge applies to any style or approach to the medium no matter what the advances in technology. Most of the work methods and devices in this book were developed and refined in the Hollywood animation studios between 1930-1940. I've co-ordinated what I've leamt from various approaches and I'm presenting it here in a form based on my own experience in this medium — with its limitless possibilities of imagination, Emery Hawkins said to me, ‘The only limitation in animation is the person doing it. Otherwise there is no limit to what you can do. And why shouldn't you do it?" 20 | meticulously punted ths poster for the 1981 London Film Festival. Everybody sad, ‘Oh, | didn't know you did collage a TIME TO DRAW This section is really for classical animators. However, | haven't been sut of the leading computer animators draw rather well, so it may be interesting to them too. It certainly helps enormously to be able to put down your ideas - even in stick figures. For the classical animator it is crucial. Drawing should become second nature, so that the animator can concentrate on the actual actions and the timing of them and give the performance life. When you're doing cartoons all the time, it's very easy to slide into formula drawing. During the making of Who Framed Roger Rabbit | found this pinned up on our notice board: + EPITARA oF AN UNFORTUNATE ARTIST > are HE Found A FORMULA, Fok DRAWS come Rageirs: THIS FORMiLA Foe DRAWER Come RABBITS PAW, Se iN THE END KE coup NOT euAMee THE Tedaie HABITS. THIS FoRMULA FoR DRAWING Come RABATS MADE. —— ReGERT GRAVES — Life drawing is the antidote to this. ‘When you're doing life drawing, you're all alone. One of the main reasons animators - once they become animators ~ don't like to spend their evenings and spare time life drawing is because it’s not a collaborative operation. Animation is usually a group effort, and one has the stimulus of constant interaction, both competitive and co-operative, with the cut and thrust, highs and lows, political factions of complaint and inspiration, all the tensions and anxieties, rewards and excitement of group production. 23 nda toys With life drawing there’s no one to admire your efforts ~ rather the reverse. It's always shocking to find you're not as advanced or skilled as you thought you were, and since it's about the hard- est thing to do with no rewards other than the thing itself - it's no wonder few do it or stick at it. ‘Most animators are exhausted at the end of a day's work and have families to go to. Also, one has to do a /ot of life drawing to get anywhere - not just a bit at a time here and there. But the fact remains that there is no replacement for the hard work of solid life drawing. ‘There is one payoff and it is substantial - the gradual and fundamental improvement of all one’s work. Winsor McCay once said: ‘If! were starting over again, the first thing I'd do would be to make a thorough study of draftsmanship. | would learn perspective, then the human figure, both rnude and clothed, and surround it with proper setting.” ‘And Milt Kahl said: “I don’t think it’s possible to be a top notch animator without being an excellent draftsman. You have to try for the whole thing, you know, got to know the figure. Know the figure well enough so that you can concentrate on the particular person ~ on the difference ~ why this person Is different from somebody else. The ability to draw and be able to turn things and the ability, the knowledge that enables you to caricature and to exaggerate in the right direction and emphasise the difference between things is what you're doing all the time. Any time you're doing a strong drawing of anything well, your drawing Is strong because ‘you're depicting why this is different from something else. You need that figure-drawing back- ground in order to sharpen. Every animator should have this background and unfortunately they don’t! You just can’t know too much. If you're going to lampoon something, or do a satire = you have to understand the straight way. It gives you a jumping-off point. It gives you a contrast. You just do it and do it...and do it!’ 24 Art Babbitt is blunter: ‘if you can’t draw ~ forget it. You're an actor without arms and legs." But we can learn to draw. There's the myth that you are either a born draftsman or not. Wrong! ‘Obviously, natural talent is a great help and the desire is essential, but drawing can be taught and drawing can be learnt, Its best to have done a ton of it at art school to get the foundation in early. But it can be done at any time. Just do it. Here are three pleces of drawing advice that were given to me — and which stuck. ‘When I was fifteen years old and really keen on being an animator, | took a five day-and-night bus trip from Toronto to Los Angeles, and walked up and down outside the Disney Studio fence for days hoping to get inside. Finally an advertising friend of my mother's saw my drawings and rang up the Disney PR department, and they took me into the Studio for two days; they were very kind to me and even did a press story on me. twas there that | received my first plece of great advice. Richard Kelsey (Disney story artist and designer/illustrator) said, ‘First of all, kid, leam to draw. You can always do the animation stuff later” | desperately wanted to become an animator and | produced my sketches of Disney characters, which were kind of at the Roger Rabbit level since I was a precocious little bastard. Dick Kelsey looked at them and said, ‘Yes, but | mean really learn to draw.’ 25 2y with eager beaver Disney studlos, 1948, ‘My commercial work, age 17, ‘Weeks later when I was getting on the bus to go home to Toronto, | rang Dick up and asked again, ‘What do you think I should do?’ - ‘Learn to draw!’ he said. ‘One great regret | have in my life is that forty years later, when | was animation director on Who Framed Roger Rabbit, | saw Dick in the Disney canteen out of the comer of my eye, but | was so caught up in the production politics | didn't break away to go over and thank him. | never had another chance. After my trip I went straight to art school and received the second piece of advice, from a great teacher and superb draftsman, Eric Freifield, then teaching at the Ontario College of Art. He looked at my life drawings and said, ‘Well, here's a clever litle fellow who's never seen any- thing.’ | said, ‘What should | do?" He said, ‘Go to the library and look at Albrecht Darer for two years."| did. And not surprisingly my interest in animation vanished for years. | paid my way through art school by knocking off Disneyesque dog food ads like the one above - at the same time doing ‘realismo social’ like this lithograph of a revival meeting “Where the healing waters flow’. Alter that | lived in Spain for a couple of years doing paintings like these until a totally unexpected affliction by the animation bug got me. Forty years later a top executive on Who Framed Roger Rabbit kept referring to me as ‘artsy craftsy’ or ‘artsy fartsy'. How did he ever know? He must have smelt it as there was no sign of it in my animation. 26 The third piece of drawing advice came many years later ~ 1 was fifty - when I was pretty accomplished, and it came from a much younger man. My talent is primarily ‘linear’, which makes cartooning easy. However, since animators have to enclose their shapes, there is a ten- dency to end up just drawing outlines like colouring-book figures. In other words, animators don't usually draw from the inside-out, like a sculptor does. Sculpture had been my weakest subject - although I'd done a lot of life drawing and had a grounding in basic anatomy. John Watkiss - then a twenty-three-year-old, self-taught, brilliant draftsman and anatomist - held his own life drawing classes In London. (Recently he was one of the principle designers of Disney's Tarzan.) | used to hire John periodically to do presentation artwork and we were friendly. | went to John's evening life classes for a while and one day John, who is ruthlessly honest, pointed to my drawing and said, ‘Hey! You missed a stage!” | felt like a butterfly pinned to the wall. He was right. | knew exactly what he meant. | was weak from a sculptural point of view. I was too linear, Years later, when | had dropped out of the ‘industry’ part of animation, I re-studied my anato- my and worked on drawing from the inside-out. | advanced backwards and filled in the missing stage. 28 | showed my ex-illustrator mother several of these life drawings when she was bed-bound just before she died. ‘I've been working at reconstituting myself, Mom, doing all these drawings.’ She looked at them carefully for some time, then said, ‘Very nice, very nice . .. Nothing new. Advice from the inside - from one’s family ~ somehow doesn’t have the same Impact as from the outside. However my mother had once said, ‘When you go to art school, you'll find every body sitting around practising how to do their signature,’ and sure enough, there they were, some of them doing just that. She also gave me this great advice: ‘Don't try to develop a style. Ignore style. Just concen- trate on the drawing and style will just occur.” Of course there's an opposing view to all of this ‘you've got to learn to draw’ stuff. The great Tex Avery, master of animation’s ability to do the impossible and make the unreal spring to life ~ and the first director of Bugs Bunny and Elmer Fudd — said: “Iwas never too great an artist. | realised there at Lantz's that most of those fellows could draw rings around me . . . | thought, Brother! Why fight it? I'll never make it! Go the other route. And I'm glad | did. My goodness, I've enjoyed that a lot more than I would have enjoyed just animating scenes all my life.’ 29 Tex stopped animating and became a great, original and innovative director. The biographer John Canemaker said: ‘While Disney in the 1930s was trying to convince the audience of the “reality” of his characters in his film world, by creating his “illusion of life", Tex went in the opposite direction, celebrating the cartoon as cartoon, exploring the medium’s potential for surrealism.’ He never let audiences forget they were watching an animated film. Tex had a twenty-year run with his wildly funny approach to the medium, but he foun impossible to sustain. ‘I'm bummed out,’ he said. His colleague, animator Mike Lah said, "He didn't have any more space. He used it up.’ I love Tex Avery's cartoons — his drawings and character designs. His Droopy is my favourite cartoon character. One of the nice things about doing Who Framed Roger Rabbit was to emu- late Tex Avery's humour - ‘But not so brutal!’ were my instructions. Though, as Milt said, “You have to try to have the whole thing.” | am convinced that if an animator’s drawing foundation is strong, he will have the versatility to go in all the different directions possible at his fingertips. He'll be able to draw anything - from the most difficult, realistic characters, to the most wild and wacky. And it's not likely he'll exhaust his resources and suffer burn-out. Because of his strong drawing ability, Milt Kahl was usually saddled with animating ‘the Prince’ or Disney's ‘straighter’ characters ~ which of course are the hardest ones to do. Whenever any- one criticised his work, he'd say, ‘OK, you can do the Prince.’ And they'd soon vanish, Word spread among the more ‘cartoony’ artists that, ‘Milt draws beautifully but he can only do the straight stuff and he can't handle zany stuff at all.’ Then, between features, Milt animated most of Tiger Trouble, a ‘Goofy’ short. Everybody shut up, and stayed shut up. His work is a classic of broad and crazy animation. ‘if you can draw funny that’s enough’ is an animation myth that's been around a long time, and still seems to persist. This Is because a few of the early animators lacked sophisticated drawing skills ~ but nevertheless were very inventive and excellent at getting the essence of the drama and performance. The myth was that all they needed was to have a good draftsman as an assistant to do the final drawings and everything would be fine. But in the mid thirties, when the new wave of young animators with better drawing skills came on the scene and learned from the old guys, the ground was soon littered with out-of work animators who could only handle the cruder car- toons. The new breed of better draftsmen took their jobs away from them. If the present boom in this medium ever contracts it's certain that the more skilled artists will be the survivors. Bill Tytla - famous for his animation of Stromboli in Pinocchio, the Devil in ‘Night on Bald ‘Mountain’ from Fantasia, and Dumibo with his mother ~ once said: ‘At times you will have to animate stuff where you can’t just be cute and coy. Those are the times when you'll have to know something about drawing. Whether it's called form or force or vitality, you must get it into your work, for that will be what you feel, and drawing Is your means of expressing it’ 30 Obviously all this doesn’t apply so much to computer animators since the ‘maquette’ of the characteris already planted inside the machine, ready to be manipulated. But since most of the feading computer animators draw rather well, many work out their positions in small sketches, and, of course, the planning, layout and story artists and designers draw exactly the same as their classical equivalents. {had an unnerving experience in Canada when a friend asked me to give a one-hour address to a large high school gathering of computer animation students. They had a very impressive set-up of expensive computers but, from what I could see of thelr work, none of them seemed to have any idea of drawing at all. During my talk I stressed the importance of drawing and the great shortage of good draftsmen. A laid-back greybeard professor interrupted to inform me, ‘What do you mean? All of us here draw very well.” Words failed me. At the end of the talk, | showed them how to do a basic walk, and as a result got mobbed at the exit, the kids pleading desperately for me to teach them more. | escaped, but I'm afraid that's what the situation is out there — a lack of any formal training and no one to pass on the ‘knowledge’. You don't know what you don’t know. ‘One of the problems rampant today is that, in the late 1960s, realistic drawing generally became considered unfashionable by the art world, and no one bothered to learn how to do it any more. The Slade school in London used to be world-famous for turning out fine British draftsmen. A distinguished British painter who taught at the Slade asked me, ‘How did you learn how to do animation?’ | answered that | was lucky enough to have done a lot of life drawing at art school, so without realizing it | got the feeling for weight which is so vital to animation. Then | said, ‘What am I telling you for? You're teaching at the Slade and it's famous for its, life drawing and excellent draftsmen.” ‘Ifthe students want to do that,” he said, ‘then they've got to club together and hire them- selves a model and do it in their own home.’ At first | thought he was joking - but no! Life drawing as a subject went out years ago. It wasn’t even on the curriculum! t had a boyhood friend who became a bigwig in art education circles. He ran international conferences of the arts, About sixteen years ago he invited me to Amsterdam to a conference of the deans of the leading American art colleges. He knew me well enough to know | was bound to say controversial things, so I was invited as his wild card. {In my talk | found myself lamenting the lack of trained, talented artists and that ! was ham- pered in my own studio's work because I couldn't find trained disciplined artists to hire. The applicants’ portfolios were full of textures, abstract collages, scribbles, often nude photos of themselves and friends. No real drawing. | didn’t realise how strongly I felt about this and as | talked | found myself nearly in tears. 2 lh GRADUATE -My advertising campaign design for Mike Nichols! The Graduate. A foundation of life drawing was invaluable ‘hen | had to draw this simple leg fr this movie logo. 3 Tharangued the deans of the art schools for failing in their duty to provide proper skills to their students, Surprisingly, when I finished, the deans called an emergency meeting to which | was Invited. ‘Look Mr. Williams,’ they said, ‘you're right, but we have two problems. Number one: since classical drawing was rejected years ago, we have no trained teachers who can draw or teach conventional drawing as they never learned it themselves. And number two: our mostly rich students ~ on whom we count for our funding ~ don't wari to learn to draw. They would rather decorate themselves as living works of art — and that's exactly what they do." So | said, ‘Look, all | know is that I can’t find people to hire or train; but otherwise | don’t know what you can do.” They said, ‘Neither do we.’ Lately things have improved somewhat. So-called classical drawing seems to be coming back, but with a hyper-tealistic photographic approach because skilled artists are thin on the ground. Shading isn't drawing, and it isn't realism, Good drawing is not copying the surface. it has to do with understanding and expression. We don’t want to leam to draw just to end up being imprisoned in showing off our knowledge of joints and muscles. We want to get the kind of reality that a camera can't get. We want to accentuate and suppress aspects of the model's character to make it more vivid. And we want to develop the co-ordination to be able to get our brains down into the end of our pencil. ‘Many cartoonists and animators say that the very reason they do cartoons Is to get away from realism and the realistic world into the free realms of the imagination. They'll correctly point ‘out that most cartoon animals don’t look like animals ~ they're designs, mental constructs, Mickey ain't no mouse, Sylvester ain’t no cat. They look more like circus clowns than animals. Frank Thomas always says: ‘lf you saw Lady and the Tramp walking down the road, there's no way that you are going to buy that they're real dogs.’ But to make these designs work, the movements have to be believable — which leads back to realism and real actions, which leads back to studying the human or animal figure to under- stand its structure and movement. What we want to achieve isn't realism, it’s believability. ‘While Tex Avery released the animator from the more literal approach in order to do the impos- sible, he was only able to do it so successfully because his animation was mostly done by Disney drop-outs who already had ‘the Disney knowledge’ of articulation, weight, etc. So, ironically, his rebellion, his ‘going the other route’, had its basis in an underlying knowledge of realism. But don't confuse 2 drawing with a map! We're animating masses, not lines .So we have to understand how mass works in reality. In order to depart from reality, our work has to be based on reality. 34 IT'S ALL IN THE TIMING AND THE SPACING I met Grim Natwick (born Myron Nordveig) in a Hollywood basement when he was in his eighties. Grim was the oldest of the great animators, being already in his forties when he animated eighty-three scenes of Snow White in Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Previously, he'd designed Betty Boop for Max Fleischer, for which he received nothing and was furious about it ‘til the day he died, aged 100. I'll never forget the image of this big Norwegian American sitting in the golden twilight, extending his long arms and spatula hands saying... UACAHA-ANIMATION, «TS. AAALL IN THE TIMING. ..-A-A-AND IN«- THE SPACING. (bone PAUSE)... ws STQAY-Y-Y-N-NGE.-.. THAT THE AMERICANS... WERE THE ONES 35 ‘The bouncing ball says it all. ‘The old bouncing-ball example is often used because it shows so many different aspects of animation, A ball bounces along, W ate BOINK, BoM BOK Bow = Boule ‘and where it hits ~ the ‘boinks’ - that's the timing. The impacts - where the ball is hitting the ‘ground ~ that's the timing of the action, the thythm of where things happen, where the ‘accents’ ‘or ‘beats’ or ‘hits’ happen. And here's the spacing. The ball overlaps itself when it's at the slow part of its are, but when It drops fast, it's spaced further apart. That's the spacing. The spacing is how close or far apart those clusters are. That's it. It’s simple, but it's important. The spacing is the tricky part. Good animation spacing is a rare commodity. 36 So we have: —— SPACING A TIMING ‘The two basic elements of animation. To experience this, take a coin and film it in stages under a video camera. First plot out the timing — where you want the ball to hit the ground. Then push the coin around ~ taking a picture at each frame ~ and see what looks right or wrong. Try it with different timings and spacing. You're already animating. You're already dealing with the important fundamentals and you haven't even made a single drawing. You're doing pure animation without any drawings. 7 Hidden in this simple test is the weight of the ball — how it feels, light or heavy; what it's made of, Is it large or small, moving fast or slow? This will all emerge if you do several tests = which only take a few minutes to do. The importance of the timing and the spacing will become obvious. Because you did it, a certain amount of personality will creep into the action - whether the ball is deliberate, slow, jaunty, erratic, cautious, even optimistic or pessimistic. And all this, before you've made a single drawing. This reveals how important and dominant the timing and the spacing is. Even if the ball positions were drawn in detail by Michelangelo or Leonardo da Vinci, the timing and the spacing of the drawings will still dominate. Another interesting way to experience the difference between timing and spacing right away is this: Let's put a coin under the video camera and move it across the page (or screen) in one second =24 frames of screen time. That's our timing. We'll space it out evenly ~ and that's our spacing. arr ipo ap Now we'll keep the same timing ~ again taking one second for the coin to move across the page. But we'll change the spacing by slowly easing out of position number 1 and easing grad- ually into position number 25. t bon re 2 ik * oe Wed A Nao ) It still takes one second for the coin to get over there. It has the same timing - but there is very different movement because of the different spacing. Both start together ~ and both hit the middle together ~ but the spacing is quite different. And so the action is very different. 38 ‘You could say that animation is the art of timing. But you could say that about all motion pictures. The most brilliant masters of timing were the silent comedians: Charlie Chapli Keaton, Laurel and Hardy. Buster Certainly for a film director, timing is the most important thing. For an animator, it’s only half the battle. We need the spacing as well. We can have a natural feel for timing, but we have to learn the spacing of things. ‘One other thing: The bouncing ball example is often used to show animation ‘squash and stretch’ ~ that is, the ball elongates as it falls, flattens on Impact with the ground and then returns to its normal shape in the slower part of its arc. It might squash and stretch this way if it was a very soft ball wi not much air in it, but what I've found Is that you can get a good enough effect with a rigid coin — provided the spacing of it was right - so this added technique is not always necessary. Certainly a hard golf ball isn’t going to bend all over the place. In other words, if you do this squishy squashy thing too much, everything comes out a bit ‘sploopy’, like it's made of rubber. Life ain’t like that. At least most of it ain't. More about this later. * Golf ball bounce, 1951 Having established allthis, let's go to lesson one: 39 Sills from Chatles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol, 1972. We'te starting to get better. | got my first Oscar for this half= hour fim made original for TV. You wouldn't think a lt ofthis was drawn by Bugs Bunny animators It coulda’t have been done without Ken Hats who caried the load on Scrooge. Towards the end, Chuck Jones (the Executive Produces lent us Abe Leviton, a great unsung animator with majestic qualities, We also had help from Disney alumni George Nicholas and Hal Ambro. My own stalwarts were Richard Purcum, Sergio Simonetti and Roy Naisitt 40 LESSON ONE UNPLUG! Unplug! Take off your head phones! Turn off the radio! Switch off the CD! Turn off the tape! Close the door. Like many artists, | had the habit of listening to classical music or Jazz while working. On one of my first visits to Milt Kahl | innocently asked: MILT, PO YOU EVER LISTEN TO. CLASSICAL MUSIC. WHILE VOURE WORKING? a neSSS-STY if ] COBrE hae _ pie ees P-COD-GOD DA d 1) » of sted ah DYER’ cor aD ra Me ANY soe Pieie fe. S Since it came from a genius, this made quite an impression on me. After this I leamt to face the silence and think before swirling my pencil around. My animation improved right away. This has been the case with many artists when I've passed this wisdom along. Recently, two previously sound-addicted computer animators were shocked to find that their plugget colleagues instantly made them objects of ridicule for not having wires coming out of their ears. They were even more surprised at the startling improvement in their work. end of lesson one. Portralt ofthe artist after receiving lesson * 45 a : se peed OPE ADVANCING BACKWARDS TO 1940 Let's advance backwards to approach where animators were during the ‘Golden Age’. And then g0 forward from there ~ so we can do new things. The thing you are going to build on must be basic. Everyone wants to decorate their house with interesting pieces before putting in the corner- stones and supports. Everyone wants to jump ahead to the sophisticated bit - glossing over the dull, old support work. But it's the thorough understanding of the basics that produces real sophistication. As Art Babbitt said: “The knowledge that went into making little drawings come to life is in the early Disneys. Nobody taught us how to articulate these fanciful characters. We had to discover the mechanics ourselves and pass them around amongst each other. There are many styles but the mechanics of the old Disney animation remain.’ ‘They had it all worked out by 1940, around the time that Pinocchio was released. It was a wonderful system ~ precise and simple. First we'll take it bit by bit — and then we'll put it all together. 46 (CHSTERY CThe CHART aud INBETW a A very interesting thing happened when we worked with Grim Natwick. He was so old that each day he tended to snap back into a different professional period of his life: one day he would come in and do circular ‘rubber hose’ animation from the 1920s, then the next day he would be in a 1936 ‘Snow White’ phase, making tons of smoothly moving drawings, the next day would be sharp, physical actions with plenty of static holds from his 1950 UPA ‘Mr Magoo’ period, then he'd be doing as few drawings as possible, as if he were animating a 1960s TV ad, and then the next day back into fulsome Fantasia mode. (One day I found him drawing in an old style - something like this: He wasn’t just showing the arc of the action — he was indicating all the different spacings on his drawing. | suddenly realised that this was probably the origin of the charts that animators put on the edge of their drawings eg. HAND HEAD Tal Ty TT! Ti * a + 3 ¢ # 44 e s @ # | asked, ‘Hey, Grim ~ did these charts just gradually move across the page away from the drawings? ‘A far-away look came into his eyes ~"... Yes. 47 In the 1920s, animators did most of the work themselves. Dick Huemer was the top New York animator and was working for Max and Dave Fleischer on their Mutt and Jeff series. Dick told ime they said to him, "Your work is great, Dick, but we can't get enough of it.’ So Dick said to them, ‘Give me someone to put in the in-between drawings and I'll do two to three times as much work." And that was the invention of the ‘inbetweener’. Dick later said in an interview that It had been the Fleischers’ idea and that he just went along with it. But Dick actually told me that he had invented the inbetween and the inbetweener, the helper or assistant. ‘The main drawings or extreme positions came to be called extremes and the drawings in between the extremes were called the inbetweens.. EXTREME in eerweens EXTREME bon 2 8 4) The chart shows the spacing. Ly++—+} We'll put in three even inbetweens between the two extremes. ‘Number 3 is smack in the middle between 1 and 5. Then we put number 2 righ between 1 and 3 ~ and number 4 in the middle between 3 and 5. We've got th spaced evenly INBETWEENS FXTREME OO O OO ee EXTREMES 20d BREAKDOMNS Take the example of a swinging pendulum: The extremes are where there is a change in direction — the ends of the action where the direction changes. EXTREME FV EXTREME 48 Because the pendulum’s arm maintains its length as it swings, the middle position creates an arc in the action. We can see how important that middle position between the two extremes is going to be to us. BECHISE “the AR Has: SHRUNK > — Eun ‘cor eae ’ 51 The animator can get away with just drawing the two extreme positions and making a chart for the assistant to put in all the inbetween positions. | was spoilt by being taught by marvellous, hardworking, top Hollywood animators and I had a few shocks when | worked with some of the lesser mortals. Here's how a Hollywood hack animator might duck the work: A character enters screen left... and goes out screen right. ‘Scope SCREEN BxTRENe PxReNe #4 496 “/ fe 18 a1 Thay 30 ao BE gy % gg ay hg, Org Hey 7%, 8g, OF, 90, leted iH oe shkate tate Rese Rekadtaeel To walk across the screen it's going to take 4 seconds — 96 frames, So the animator does draw- ing number 4 and drawing number 96 and gives this chart to the assistant and goes off to play tennis, He wanders back in next day and blames the assistant for the terible result. This may seem far-fetched, but it does happen. ‘Moving on ~ we know the extremes and the breakdowns are crucial to the result, but the inbetweens are also very important. The genie in the computer creates perfect inbetweens, but for ‘drawing’ people getting good Inbetweens can be a real problem. Grim Natwick constantly intoned, ‘Bad inbetweens will kill the finest animation.’ In 1934, when the novice Milt Kahl ~ having just started work at Disney - first met the great Bill Tytla, he told Tytla that he was working in the inbetweening department. Tytla barked, ‘Oh yeah? And how many scenes have you screwed up lately?” 52 Like most people starting out, | did all my own inbetweens. Then | got my first ‘official’ job animating for UPA in London. They gave me an inexperienced assistant who drew well, but this, is what happened: ‘We had a simple character of the period, a little girl called Aurora who was advertising Kia Ora orange drink. ‘Where's the Kia Ora, Aurora?” She looked like this. | drew drawings 1 and 3 and 5, my assistant put in inbetweens 2 and 4. He had ambitions as a designer and he didn't like egg-shaped eyes tke tis: (.) () He liked circular eyes like this: (3) (*) ‘So the inbetweens all went in like this: > > ~ RS 2 ~~ Kas Vow Lue) ar »\ / GORY be —_— bons bes 3 The result on the screen, of course, is this 6 G Wobble, wobble, wobbie. \w 53 common in production when racing to meet the deadline, we end up the street who can hold a pencil. And this is what happens: Say a live actor is holding an animated coffee cup - ‘The inbetweener from the streets doesn't understand simple perspective - so the curved top of the cup gets put in straight on the inbetweens. ITP TTT L 2 + | z 5 Result: ‘Frying tonight.’ Wobble, wobble, wobble. = ‘And if t's this wobbly with a simple thing, just imagine what it's going to be like when we are dealing with complex drawings. All the shapes will be doing St Vitus's dance. So the assistants’ or inbetweener's job is really volume control. A lot of assistants worry about the quality of their line ~ matching the animator's line quality. | always say never mind the line quality ~ just get the volumes right. Keeping the shapes and volumes consistent = volume control! When the thing is coloured in, its the shapes that we s = it's the shapes that dominate. 54 Whenever we were under the gun and short of skilled helpers, we found if we outnumbered the dodgy inbetweens by three good drawings to two bad ones - we just scraped through with an acceptable result. Goo Goo 6000 i 2 a 4 5 pf BAD BAD When we only had two good ones with three bad ones in between them ~ the bad ones out- numbered the good ones and the result was lousy. Geop Goob te +--+ BAD BAD BAD If the breakdown or passing position is wrong, all the inbetweens will be wrong too. ep BREA DOWN Seep 12 3 4 5 7 6 BAD RAD BAD BAD When we're not accurate, here's what happens: The animator supplies a chart and wants equal inbetweens. This is putting them in the right place. TOO Q pop pd But let's say the assistant puts the breakdown or passing position slightly in the wrong place ~ OC 29 © ol the assr Pus 4 INHERE.. NOTOR. 55 OOD 8 4 HYy——+—_} — ALREADY NOT OK: THEN the, INEETWEENER PuTs In#Z HERE “THEN SOMEONE Purs4 2 IN HERE So: Number 4 is wrong. 3 compounds it 2 compounds it more, And instead of ending up with fluid actions like this — we'll get this all-over-the-place kind of thing. ‘One thing an animator should never do is to leave his assistant to make ‘thirds’. ‘ 2 3 4 Hf we need to divide the chart into thirds - ++} NN Ne = the animator should make one of the inbetween positions himself ~ ‘ 2 3 4 L+4~—+_ EXTRENE EXTRIME |BrwN EXTREME: = in order to leave the assistant to put in the remaining position in the middle. 56 Leaving thirds to the assistant is cruel and is asking for trouble ~ but it’s fair to make a chart like this, calling for an inbetween very close to an extreme: 4 (3) MAKE ONE INBTAN CLOSER To 3 MAKE ONE IBTWN CLOSEZ TO MAKE ONE (ETM CLOSHR To | MAKE ANOTHR IBTWN CLOSER To. 4 KEYS ‘And now we come to the Great Circling Disease. For some reason, animators just love circles. ‘We love to citcle the numbers on our drawings. Maybe it's because, as old Grim Natwick said, “Curves are beautiful to watch.’ Or maybe it's just a creatively playful thing. once worked with a Polish animator who circled every single drawing he made! ODOOOOG OOM@HO® « “Is animation, man! Circle! Circle! You'll notice that so far | haven't circled any extreme positions. In this clear working system and method developed by the 1940s, the extremes are not circled, but the key drawing is. The drawings which are circled are the ‘keys’. Question: What is a key? Answer: The storytelling drawing. The drawing or drawings that show what's happening in the shot. 57 If a sad man sees or hears something that makes him happy, we'd need just two positions to tell the story. These are the keys and we circle them. These are the drawings we make first. How we go interestingly from one to the other is what the rest of this book is about. Take a more complex example: Let's say a man walks over to a board, picks up a plece of chalk from the floor and writes some- thing on the board. | ——— | & IF It was a comic strip or if we wanted to show what's happening on a storyboard, we'd need only three positions. We'll keep it simple and use stick figures so we don't get lost in detail. These three positions become our keys and we circle them. The keys tell the story. All the other drawings or positions we'll have to make next to bring the thing to life will be the extremes (not circled): the foot ‘contacts’, the passing positions or breakdowns and inbetweens. 58 Hfwe time this action out with a stopwatch, we might find that our first key position at the start will be drawing 1. Say it takes him 4 seconds to walk over and contact the chalk on the floor ~ we'd circle the second key drawing as 96. And when he's stood up, stepped over and written his stuff, it might take another 4 seconds - so our third key could be the last drawing in the shot ~ 192. The whole shot would then take 8 seconds. Of course, we don't need to time it all out first, but before we dive into animatorland with all that stuff, we have to clearly set out with our keys what it is we're going to do ~ and we can test our three drawings on film, video or computer. ‘We haven't dealt with how he or she moves - whether the characteris old or young, fat or thin, tall or short, worried or happy, beautiful or ugly, rich or poor, cautious or confident, scholarly or uneducated, quick or slow, repressed or uninhibited, limping or fit, calm or desperate, lazy ot ‘energetic, decrepit or shaking with the palsy, drunk or frightened, or whether it’s a cold-hearted villain or a sympathetic person ~ in other words all the ‘acting’ stuff, plus all the trimmings ~ clothes, facial expressions ete. But what we have done Is made it very plain what happens in the shot before we start. It we were to make a diagrammatic chart of the whole scene, it would end up looking some- thing like this: Pus BREAKDoWAS AND INBETWEENS 59 Important animators are called key animators, and word got round that they just draw the keys ~ anything that they draw is a key — and slaves fill in the rest according to the little charts provided by the key animators. Wrong. A key animator is simply like a key executive ~ an important one. ‘Many good animators call all their extremes ‘keys’ ~| sure used to. But it makes life so much clearer and easier if you separate the keys from the extremes. Actually, I never heard Ken Harris ever call a drawing a key, but he would say, ‘Draw that one first. That's an Important drawing.’ ‘And it was a key, really. I've worked every system, good, bad or half-baked, and experience has convinced me that it's best — even crucial ~ to separate the storytelling keys from the extremes and all the other stuff. (Of course, as in our example above, the three keys will also function as extremes.) Separating them out stops us getting tangled up and missing the point of the shot, as we vanish into a myriad of drawings and positions, ‘There may be many keys in a scene ~ or maybe just one or two ~ it depends on what it is and the length of the scene. Its whatever It takes to put it over, to read what's to occur. You can spend time on these keys. | remember once visiting Frank Thomas and he was drawing a cat. ‘Dammit, he sald. I've been working all day on this damn drawing - trying to get this expression right.’ ‘was shocked. all day! Wow! That was the first time | ever saw anyone working so hard on a single drawing. How was he ever going to get the scene done? Finally, the penny dropped. ‘Of course, stupid, Its his key!" It's the most important thing in the scene! He's got to get that right! And it was encouraging to see anyone that great struggling to get it right! 60 2 WAYS TO ANIMATE 4. The natural way, called ( STRAIGHT AHEAD We just start drawing and see what happens - like a kid drawing in the page corners of a schoolbook ~ stick the numbers on afterwards. Disney director-animator Woolie Reitherman said, ‘When I didn’t know what | was doing in an action, always went straight ahead. I'd just start on ones. Half the time | didn’t know what | was doing. To me, it’s fun. You find out something you wouldn't have found out otherwise.’ ADVANTAGES — WE GETA NATURAL FLOW OF FLUID, SPONTANEOUS ACTION. — IT HAS The VITALITY OF IMPROVISATION, —— 175 VERY CREATIVE'— WE GO WITH The FLOW ~ TAKING ALL OF The ACTION AS IT COMES ALONG. —— OFTEN the UNCONSCIOUS MIND ‘STARTS TO KICK IN? LIKE AUTHORS SAYING THEIE CHAPACTER. TELLS THEM WHATS GOING TO HAPPEN — IT CAN PRODICE SurPPRES = /nGiC! — rs FUN, DISADVANTAGES: —— THINGS START TO WANDER, — TIME STRETCHES 2nd the SHOT GETS LONGER ad LONGER. — CHARACTERS GROW aid SHRINK. -— WE CAN TEND TO MISS The POINT OF The SHOT dud NOT ARRIVE AT “the RIGHT PLACE AT the RIGHT TIME. — The DIRECTOR HATES US BECAUSE HE/SHE CANT SEE WHATS HAPPENING, —— [TS LOTS OF WORK TO CLEAN UP “The MESS AFTERINAPDS ~ 9nd IT'S HARD TO ASSIST. —— [TS EXPENSIVE ~The PRODICER HATES US- — IT CAN BE HARD ON The NERVES - MAD ARTIST aud NERVOUS BREAK DOWN TIME, AS WE CREATIVELY LEAP IN 20 THRASH AROUND IN The VOID - ESPECIALLY WITH LOOMING DEADLINES. a 2. The planned way, called ( POSE TO POSE First we decide what are the most important drawings — the storytelling drawings, the keys — and put them in, Then we decide what are the next most important positions that have to be in tthe scene. These are the extremes and we put them in - and any other important poses. Then we work out how to go from one pose to another ~ finding the nicest transition between two poses, These are the breakdown or passing positions, Then we can clinically make clear charts to cushion and ease in and out of the positions and add any finishing touches or indications for the assistant. To illustrate how effective the pose to pose method Is, the brilliant Disney art director-designer Ken Anderson told me that when he was making layout drawings of characters for animators working on Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, he drew lots and lots of key poses of Grumpy for each shot. Ken's drawings were then given to one of the Grumpy animators. Ken found out later that the guy just put charts on the drawings, handed them to his assistants and went off to lunch, and took the credit, for what in effect, was Ken's fine animation. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES — WE GET CLARITY, — But AND [TS A BIG Bur: _— “The POINT. OF The SCENE 18 NICE WE MIES The FLOW. ud CLEAR» — The ACTION CAN BEA BIT CHOPPY —— ITS STRUCTURED, CALCULATED, LOGICAL. A BIT UNNATURAL —— WE CAN GETNICE DRAWINGS 2d — AND IF WE CORRECT THAT BY ADDING CLEARLY READABLE POSITIONS. Alor OF OVEELAPPINS ACTON (16 — [MS INORDER- “the RIGHT THINGS IT CAN GO EASILY The OTHER WAY HAPPEN AT The RIGHT TIME acid IN gud BE RUBBERY 2d SQuiSH ¥— wthe RIGHT PLACE IN The OVERALL TIME FQUALLY UNNATURAL. ALLOTTED. — IT CAN BE TOO LITERAL -A BIT. —— The DIRECTOR LOVES us. COLD-BLCOPED. NO SURPRISES — ITS FASY TOASSST- — WHERES the MAGIC? —— ITS A QUICK WAY TO WORE ud FRERS US UP TO DO MORE SCENES. | ——The. PRODUCER LOVES US. -— WE KEEP SANE, OUR HAIR ISN'T ‘STANDING ON END. —— WE FARN MORE MONEY AS WE ARE ‘SEN TO BE FESPOWSIBLE PEOPLE id CLEARLY NOT MAP ARTISTS. Propacers Have 70 Deve ON TINE axa) ON BUDGET, SO BRILMANCE IS REWARDED AS MUCH AS contin £ SPEAK RIN RERCE WORKING BOTH SIDES OF-tie FEACE. They Denr PAY US FOR MAGE! THEY PNY US Fe DELIVERY. e So it's pretty obvious the best way to work is going to be: 3. (The COMBINATION CF STRAIGHT AHEAD aud POSE To POSE First we plan out what we're going to do in small thumbnail sketches. (It's also a good idea to have done this with the other two methods.) Then we make the big drawings ~ the storytelling drawings, the keys. Then we put in any other Important drawings that have to be there, like anticipations or where hands or feet contact things ~ the extremes. Now we have the structure, just as we had with the pose-to-pose system. But now we use these keys and important extremes as guides for things and places we want to aim at. After you get your overall thing ~ go again. Do one thing at a time. We'll work straight ahead on top of these guideposts, improvising freely as we go along. ‘We'll do several straight ahead runs on different parts - taking the most important thing first. ‘We may have to change and revise parts of the keys and extremes as we go along, rubbing bits off and re-drawing or replacing them. ‘So: we make a straight ahead run on the primary thing. ‘Then take a secondary thing and do a straight ahead run on that. ‘Then take the third thing and work straight ahead on that. Then the fourth thing, etc. Then add the hair or tail or drapery or flapping bits at the end. ADVANTAGES | DISADVANTAGES — WORKING THIS WAY COMBINES — NONE THAT | KNOW OF... “the STRUCTURED PLANNING OF WORKING FROM POSE To POSE WITH The NATURAL FICE FLOW OF The STRAIGHT AHEAD APPROACH. | — ITS A RALANCE BETWEEN PLANNING 94d SPONTANENTY. ITS A BALANCE BerWeen COMP BLCODEDNESS and PASSION. 6 Let's take our man going over to the blackboard again. What do I do first? ‘Answer: The keys - the storytelling drawings or positions that have to be there to show what's happening. Put it where you can see it... . so it reads. What do we do next? Answer: Any other drawings that /ave to be in the shot. Obviously, he has to take steps to get ‘over to the chalk ~ so we make the ‘contact’ positions on the steps where the feet are just. touching the ground. There's no weight on them yet ~ the heel is Just contacting the ground, As with the fingers just contacting the chalk — they haven't closed on the chalk yet. If we act all this out, we might find he takes five steps to get to the chalk and bend down. | notice that when | act it out, | automatically pull up my left pant leg as | bend down, then | put ‘my hand on my knee before my other hand contacts the chalk. | would make an extreme where the hand just contacts the pant leg — before it pulls up the pants. ‘These will be our extremes. We're working rough, sketching things in lightly — although we probably have made rather good drawings of the keys. (I haven't here, because I'm trying to keep it simple, for clarity). 64 fa) QQ eden ahve bine Tone) We could act it out, timing the steps and putting numbers on the extremes or we could leave the numbering tll later. | would probably put numbers on it now and test it on the video to see how the timing feels as his steps get shorter — and make any adjustments, What next? We'll break it down, lightly sketching in our passing positions or ‘breakdowns’, We won't get fancy about it now ~ the fancy stuff comes later in the book. For now, we'll just make the head and body raise up slightly on the passing positions of the steps - lke it does on a normal walk. Passing Posmen ee REARDON — BUN 65 ‘We'd probably have numbers on the drawings by now, and when we test it, we've got three or four positions for every second - so it's easy to see what our timing is. And to make any adjust- ments, And if the director wants to see how we're doing - it looks almost animated. Now we'll make straight ahead runs on the different parts — using our extremes and breakdown positions as a guide — and altering them, or parts of them, if we need to as we go along, Take one thing at a time and animate it straight ahead. SEPARATE RUN ON Hea SEPARATE Bun Ow i ‘Maybe he's mumbling to himself, or maybe he's talking ~ maybe his head just wobbles around with self love. Whatever itis, we'll treat it as a separate straight-ahead run, working on top of what we already have. ‘We'll make another straight-ahead run on the arms and hands. Maybe they'll swing freely in a figure eight or a pendulum movement; or maybe they hardly move before he reaches for the chalk. Maybe he pulls up his pants as he moves along - or scratches or snaps his fingers nerv- ‘ously, or cracks his knuckles. When we arrive at our key, we might rub out the arm and alter it to suit our arm action. Or delay his head. Or raise it early to look at the board. ‘We can do lots of interesting things with the legs and feet, but for now we just want them to function smoothly. (I'm avoiding the problem of weight at this stage because the up and down on the head and body that we have at the moment will be adequate for now, and the figure won't just float along.) When he writes on the board, we'll treat that as a separate run. If he has long hair or a pony tail, we'll do that as a separate straight-ahead run. His clothes could be a separate run, baggy pant legs following along, if he'd grown a tail, that would be the last thing we'd put on. 66 've shown these things in different colours to be as clear as possible. In my own work | some times use different coloured pencils for the separate runs ~ then pull it all together in black at the end. | was delighted to find that the great Bill Tytla often used colours for the separate bits, then pulled them all together afterwards. To recap: Having made the keys, put in the extremes, then put In the breakdowns or passing pe Now that we've got our main thing - we go again, taking one thing at a time. First, the most important thing. Then, the secondary thing, Then, the third thing. Then, the fourth thing etc. Then, add any flapping bits, drapery, hair, fat, breasts, tails ete, The general principle is: After you've got your first overall thing - go again. Do one thing at a time (testing as you go along). Then pull it all together and polish it up. Make clear charts for the assistant to follow up or do it all yourself, Is like this: SrOR}EOMRD OR LAYOUTS: a (Coons crete) + (es) oad) Polak 50 Se ——— La _— —_ Of course, you can work any way you want. There are no rules - only methods. You might fee! like ignoring all of this and just work straight ahead or work from pose-to-pose, or start one way and switch to the other ~ why not? What's to stop us re-inventing the wheel? Lots of people are busy doing it. But on the other hand, why bother? This method of going at it was developed through concentrated trial and error by geniuses and it’s a wonderful basis on which to operate. Having used just about every approach going - including no system — I've found this is the best working method by far. Get it in your blood- stream and it frees you to express yourself, Use this technique to get past the technique! ‘Milt Kahl worked this way. Near the end of his life I told him, ‘Now that I've been working the same way, | really do think that ~ apart from your talent, brain and skill - fifty per cent of the excellence in your work comes from your working method: the way you think about it, and the way you go about it” ‘Well... he said thoughtfully, ‘you're right. Hey, you've gotten smart!’ Milt often told me that by the time he'd plotted everything out this way, he'd pretty much animated the scene ~ even Including the lip sync. Then he'd finish putting numbers on the drawings, add bits and make litte clinical charts for the assistant - easing things in and out. He complained he never really got to animate because when he'd finished plotting out all the important stuff — it was ani- mated. He'd already done it. rest my case. TESTING, TESTING, TESTING... 1 always use the video to test my stuff at each stage ~ even the first scribbles ~ time them and test them. In the 1970s and 80s, Art Babbitt used to get mad at me for it - ‘Goddamit, you're using that video as a crutch!’ ‘Yes,’ I'd say, ‘but is it not true that Disney first instituted pencil tests and that's what changed and developed animation? And don't you always say that pencil tests are our rehearsals?’ Assenting grunt. ‘And what's the difference between rushing a test in to the cameraman at the end of the day when he’s trying to get home, and if he does stay to shoot it, hang around the next day til the lab delivers the print and mid-morning interrupt the editor, who's busy cutting in the main shots, and then finally see your test - when we can use today's video and get a test in ten minutes?" Art would turn away, ‘I am not a Luddite.’ (Machine wreckers protesting the Industrial Revolution.) 68 Whenever Ken Harris had to animate a walk, he would sketch out a quick walk cycle test and we'd shoot it, pop the negative in a bucket of developer, pull out the wet negative (black film with white lines on it), make a loop and run it on the moviola. ‘t've done hundreds of walks,’ Ken would say, ‘all kinds of walks, but I still want to get a test of my basic thing before I start to build on it” Bill Tytla said, “If you do a piece of animation and run over it enough times, you must see what's wrong with it | actually think the video and computer have saved animation! Certainly the success of Who Framed Roger Rabbit contributed substantially to the renaissance of animation, and having the video to test everything as we went along was crucial to us. We had a lot of talented but inexperienced young people, and with a handful of lead animators we were able to say, ‘Take that drawing out, change that one, and put more drawings in here’ ete. This enabled us to keep improving everything as we raced along, so we were able to collec- tively hit the target. Milt always said he would never bother to look at his tests. ‘Hell, | know what it looks like ~ | did it” He would wait to see several of his shots cut together in a sequence but only to see ‘how it's getting over’, But that was his way. | have never reached that stage and probably never will. | test everything as | go along and it really helps. We're building these performances, so why not test our foundations and structure and decorations as we proceed? And since it reveals our mistakes — mistakes are very important since we do leamn from our mistakes - we make our corrections and improvements as we build. Of course, at this stage | wouldn't have a problem rout testing - but why? ing my way through a job without The video or computer is there, so let's use it. ‘An interesting thing I've noticed is that when animators get older their perception of time slows up. They move slower and animate things slower. The young guys zip stuff around, So, the video Isa useful corrective to us old bastards. And young ones when it's too fast. 69 Before we dive into walks and all the articulation stuff, there are some other important camera techniques we should know about. (Te X SHEET ) SS ‘On the next page is a ‘classic’ exposure sheet called the X-sheet or dope sheet - the first sight of which is guaranteed to put any beginner or artist off the whole business. When I was a kid and first saw one of these I thought, ‘Oh no, I don’t want to be an animator anymore. I'll just make the designs for other people to move around.’ Actually, it's awfully simple when you make friends with it. It’s just a simple and efficient form where animators write down the action and dialogue (or music beats) for a scene or shot — plus the information for shooting. Each horizontal line represents a frame of film. 3b CD IONE FRAME iy The columns 1 to 5 show five cel levels of animation we can use if we need them. (Usually you need just one or two.) ea ~ “ACTION brat, ‘CAMERA 70 Cie DRAINS — ER Ba The ACTION column is for = x ae us to plan out our timing - how Jong we want things to take. ts The D/A column is for. the measurement of the pre-recorded dialogue and | sometimes the breakdown 5° \ ‘of music into beats etc. \ This ‘classic’ X-sheet is designed to hold 4 seconds of action (1 second = 24 frames). TS ithas darker lines to show the footage, which Is 6 feet of film (1 foot = 16 frames). Many animators always number the footage going 2.2” down the page. I've also written in the camera dial numbers ~ the frame numbers in the camera column, Some animators time things ‘out by thinking in seconds. ‘Others think in feet = 2/3 of second, 40 eee ken Harris thought in feet and would tap the end of his pencil every foot. I think in both seconds and feet, but seconds is easier for me, Also, you can think in 1/2 seconds = 12 frames to a half second. That's march time, which is quite easy, = a oe (Computer animators please \ bear with me here = you obviously have your own sys- ‘tems of timing.) s We'll plan out the action using the action column. Ken Hartis always sald, ‘Come on, now, you can have fun doing the drawings later, but do the important part first - time it all out.” So we'd use a metronome or a stopwatch and I'd act it out several times, and we'd mark down on the sheet where things would happen. Let's take our man walking over to pick up the chalk: ‘We've got him taking five steps to reach the chalk. ‘When | act it out, the first two steps are leisurely ~ 46 frames long (2/3 of a second). ‘Then during step 3 he sees the chalk, and this step is slightly quicker ~ 14 frames. His fourth step is quickest ~ 12 frames. ‘On step 5 he slows up slightly - 14 frames and he's already started bending down, which takes over 2 feet till his hand contacts the chalk, 've got him tucking up his pant leg above the knee as he goes down ~ which takes 8 or 10 frames, Of course, we can change all this as we work, but this becomes our guide and the points to aim for as we go along, Now we can put the numbers of these drawings on the page as I've done here. incidentally, although numbers 1 and 96 are keys and we've circled them, we don't circle the num- bers on the X-sheet. 72 Dik NUM The five available ‘cel’ levels on this X-sheet are there so we can treat each character or element separately, Why have different levels - why not draw everything on one level? ‘Answer: You can, but what do you do if you want to change the timing on one or two parts of the action and leave the other bits as they are? However, it's a good idea to try to keep to just ‘one or two levels for simplicity If we wish to use all five levels, start with the main action on level 4. Say a man walks in from cone side of the screen and a cat walks in from the other, We animate our main action man on level 1, and the cat on level 2, adding a ‘C' after the cat numbers: 1-C, 2-C, 3-C ete., so as not to confuse it with the man drawing. The man drawings, or main action, don’t need an iden- tifying letter, If a woman passes in front of them, we'd put her on level 3, adding a ‘W" behind her numbers, If a truck was to stop in front of them, we'd use level 4 for the truck and add a 'T' to the truck drawings. If it's raining, we'd put the rain drawings on level 5, adding an ‘R’ after the numbers. ‘The X-sheet would look something like this: CK WONN "CAMERA INSTRUCTIONS bottom up ~ and take a frame of film with all the numbers across matching the dial number on his camera, But there is one very important thing here: ARE YOU A MEMBER OF K:|-S'S 2) Keep It Simple, Stupi Use simple numerical sequences! Animation is complicated enough without making it any worse. 73 ‘My years in England taught me that the English just love complexity. A very brilliant friend, ‘who is a top Oxford mathematician, called me up and said, ‘We're about to penetrate your prin- cipality.’| sald, ‘You mean you're coming to visit?" ‘Indeed.’ ‘Wow,’ I said. 'You just used nine syllables to say what a North American would say in two! Vi-sit!” ‘We sure used to pen-e-trate-our-prin-ci-pal-it-y with our exposure sheets until Ken Harris, joined the team. ‘They looked something like this: CAR wnosian Bay YAK TEAK WAY YAK RUNING fhe xi =f ‘CAMERA INSTRUCTIONS TB tA 4 TXB - 28-4 Ke 2A | By-3 [yre4, 7 £ — TXB 2: {Vs ¢ 2 7 _ _ y2R-Ag| TES TT 7 Yae4cl 1X2 ZAI an you Imagine trying to make any changes or improvements when you're weighed down with numbers like this? It would be like re-numbering the Encyclopaedia Britannica Not only were our numbers complicated, but our action went from two frames to three frames then to four frames, bumping along then back to two frames etc., giving a jerky stop-start result to the movements. When we had just one level of action ~ say it’s a tiger ~ everyone would call the drawings T1- 41 and T1-2 and T1-3 ete. One day | asked, ‘Why are we doing this?” The answer from the head of the department came, ‘So we know its a tiger.’ ‘But we can see its a tiger! Why not number it simply 1 and 2 and 37' Answer: ‘That will just confuse the painting department.’ ‘And it's not just the English who can overcomplicate! | once saw the working sheets of an established American animator who's written two books on the subject, and his numbers looked like this: z Toe All smudged and rubbed out BX-2lx| 147 and re-entered . .. vif 4 He 74 CAME THE DAWN... ‘And then the first real live master animator arrived to work with us. On his first day Ken Harris lightly pencilled in simple numbers going down the page on => ‘twos’, that is, two exposures per drawing, That was the first time I ever saw anyone go down the page on twos! Ken usually planned his action on twos: twelve drawings per second, shooting each drawing for two exposures, instead of working on ‘ones’, one exposure for each drawing, which is twenty-four drawings per second — twice the amount of work. Ken was from Warner Bros - used to tight budgets; the animators had to produce an average of 30 feet (20 seconds) a week or be fired. Since most normal actions work well on twos, Warner animators tried to avoid putting actions on ones. ‘When he needed to go onto ones for fast actions (runs cM etc.), he'd just number it in on ones. i.e. Then he'd go back on to twos “Ok, Ken, but what do you do when Y - you've worked it out on twos, but you find you want to add in ones to smooth it out more?’ > Answer: Add ‘A’ drawings. Great, so now all this TXL-1 and PP-2 3/4 stuff goes out the window. We're not welghed down with meaningless technology. It becomes simpler to work and easy to make changes and improvements and we start getting better. But there is an even better and simpler system! 75 (The BES = the BEST NUMBERING sysTem ) ‘Milt Kahl called it his system, but I suspect that the good guys at Disney all discovered it around the same time - it’s so logical. Just use the camera dial numbers for the drawings. Go down the page on twos but use odd numbers. Then if we do need to smooth something out or we need very fast action, we just add in the ones, ‘Milt told me, ‘Whenever | see my drawings with odd numbers ‘on them, I know I'm on twos and when I see even numbers, | know I'm on ones." asked, 'What do you do when you want to get into a hold - just indicate you're holding that drawing with a line? And when you come back in do you start again on the dial number?" Answer: ‘Yes. Come back in on the dial number." Not only does this make it easy for shooting, but it's easier when you do need several levels of action. We've now got the same dial numbers horizontally across the frame of film. 2 7 i" 7 27] _F £1 re 6 TTT 7 Z pt g So, just go down the page with odd numbers ~ on twos - and drop in ones when you need them. It's simpler and frees you to concentrate on the work, Boy, did my output and quality improve! ‘There are a couple of other things to mention before we start in on the great argument of ones versus twos, 76 ‘There's a very important thing | learned from Ken Harts. I know it sounds crazy but if you have a series of B drawings ~ don't put the B in front of the number. i.e. Put the 8 after the number. i We want to think as simply as we can. Ken said, ‘Look, you don’t call me Mister Ken. Put the letter behind so all you think of is the numbers.’ Put any formality or whatever behind. It may seem mad but it helps you do more work. Try it. All we'te really doing is thinking of series of numbers from 1 to 10. Anything to keep It simple. Nobody could figure out how this sick old man could produce so much work — and of such high quality. He just kept everything as simple as could be. Two more things: The only time you should circle a drawing on the X-sheet is when a cycle of action re-starts ~ when we're repeating the same set of drawings. We circle drawing (1) to alert the cameraman that it's out of sequence with the normal dial numbers. Then we circle the drawing in the correct dial number when we come back to a normal sequence. ‘My tulle Is: The only time you ever put a letter in front of a number is when you have an overlay cel (of something in front of the characters). Then you put O-1 (for the overlay cel) or for a held cel (somebody's stationary feet, for example) and call it H-1. TABLE HED Oley Fee _ ACTION 3 tee (the GREAT ONES aud TWOS BATTLE Some people always complicate the numbering by calling ones and twos, ‘singles’ and ‘dou- bles’. n fact ‘singles’ is from a 1940s term for inbetweening when the animator did drawings 4 and 3 and 5, made an evenly-spaced chart and said to the assistant, ‘I've left you singles.” single in betweens But when to use ones and when to use twos? The rule of thumb is — use twos for normal actions and ones for very fast actions. For instance, runs always have to be on ones ~ normal ‘acting’ on twos. Walks can function nicely on twos, but they're going to look better on ones. Obviously, life is on ones (or whatever speed we film it on), but twos work well for most actions and, of course, it's half as much work as doing it on ones, And half as expensive! Working on ones is twice as much work and expense all the way down the production line. ‘Apparently, in the early 1930s as Disney's animators got better and better, costs were sky- rocketing, and since twos work for most things, they tried to stay on twos whenever they could. AA lot of great animators even say that twos are really better than ones, that ones lead to a mushy result, that broad, fast actions on twos ‘sparkle’ and adding ones diminishes that vitality. Well, yes, this is true if the ones are just dumb, mechanical inbetweens. ‘My experience is different. I've found that if you plan for ones, the result is usually superior to twos. | feel that twos are an economic answer to an artistic question. With twos being half the work, everybody gets to go home on time, and why would / make a case for ones? Hell, | was a studio owner. When I was re-learning all this stuff, | would wait till my animation on ones was traced and painted, then I'd shoot it on ones as planned and then I'd take out every other cel and shoot the rest on twos to see if it ‘sparkled’ and was better. Inall but one case, ones worked better. The time the twos worked better was when | had an old lady pulling out a doctor's stethoscope from her pocket. The ones produced a very smooth movement. 78 It worked just fine, but then I removed every other painted inbetween and shot it on twos. It ‘was better on twost I cannot figure out why ~ it just was better. So they're partly right, | guess. But I became addicted to using ones whenever | could ~ ones seem to make for compulsive viewing and that's what we're after. ‘Art Babbitt used to nag at me for using ones. ‘That's too realistic- one of the things about ani- mation is that it's not like life!’ But | would often add ones to Art's work when he wasn't look- Ing and it came out better — and he liked it better. Computer animators have everything on ones ~ with perfect inbetweens - and it hasn't dimin- ished the appeal of their work — rather the reverse. And twos tire the eye after a few minutes. | eel that ones are twice as much work, but the result is three times as good. Compulsive view- ing, easy to watch. | think my co-animator Neil Boyle said it best : “Twos work — ones fly.” ‘And Ken Harris, who spent most of his life working on twos, would say to me when I'd be putting ones into his stuff, ‘Oh, It's always better on ones.” There's one thing that always makes me crazy. When you have a character animated on twos and the camera is panning with it on ones you get stroboscopic jitter. Either pan with it on twos (not great) ot add in single inbetweens so it doesn't strobe! Some of the really good guys do this. It's a mystery to me, Why don’t they add single Inbetweens so it doesn’t strobe? ‘Maybe its because a lot of things don’t show up on the pencil test. It’s when it's coloured in that we see the bumps. ONCLUSION: t's a combination of twos and ones. Not only but also. Normal actions on twos — which is the bulk of our work anyway. Fast or very smooth actions on ones. Normal spacing on twos, Far apart spacing on ones. 79 he TOP and ROTTON PEGS ere ) ‘An endless debate has gone on among classical animators about whether to register the draw- ings on top pegs or bottom pegs. At present, bottom pegs seem to have won out; most people seem to be animating using the bottom pegs to hold their drawings. Frank Thomas has said, ‘Getting off the top pegs and working on bottom pegs has actually advanced the art of animation because you can rol! the drawings as you work and see what's happening ~ whether the creature is doing what you want.’ And that’s had a tremendous influence. (Disney animators all work on bottom pegs.) Alternatively, Ken Harris spent his life on top pegs and would fiip his drawings and see what's happening - whether the creature is doing what he wants. (Warner animators all worked top pegs). Ken would sometimes go ted in the face and explode, ‘You know who started that whole bottom pegs business? A goddam lazy cameraman who didn’t want to be bothered reaching all the way under the glass pressure plate to place the cels at the top! He's the bum who started bottom pegs!’ 80 It comes down to something like this: Ifyou only have four fingers you can still roll four sheets at once, plus the bottom drawing = giving us five images, Ken would stretch an elastic band around his pegs to make flipping easier as he drew — with out having to take the drawings off the pegs. ‘When Ken had calmed down, he used this example: ‘SAY | WAS OFFERING YoU A CIGAR FROM A CIGAR BOX — WOULD YOU LIKE ME Tb PRESENT (7-70 YOU Lice THis? OR LIKE THIS? \\ fey a ‘And what's going to make it easiest to draw? LiKe THIS? OR LiKE THIS? ~ % oo ‘Add to this the fact that most of the discs that animators use are made of heavy metal with inset panning bars with screws to tighten and release them for sliding pans. It's pretty awkward with = all these points sticking up and we unconsciously have to dodge the pegs as we draw. oucH OucHl oucd! ‘The engineer who made most of the equipment for my English studio arranged the panning, bars differently every time. I had to fire a guy once, and his close friend - who was very talent- ‘ed ~ quit with him. To get even with me they ordered a special disc (on the firm) made with three panning bars for different field sizes, top and bottom ~ six in all! By the time you added in the screws It looked like this: How WOULD You “Ke TO DRAW ON THIS? You CowD END uP in) (NTENSIVE CARE. 82 But how often do you really use the panning bars? Not too often, in my experience. (One day about fifteen years ago I found layout artist and designer, Roy Naisbitt, working on a big piece of white plastic Perspex (Plexiglass) with a peg bar just taped on to it. a, What a solution! You tape the pegs on wherever you want, top or bottom. Also, | keep a heavy metal disc with panning bars beside the desk for when I very occasionally need it for a mechanical pan. This also allows you to tape on taller pegs to carry more drawings if you're on top pegs. The shorter peg bars are OK for bottom pegs, but the drawings keep falling all over the floor. Again, an elastic band helps. I'm delighted to see that Roy's solution has spread through the industry, as I've seen several animators walking around in Hollywood with Perspex discs and a taped-on peg bar tucked under their arms. It works just fine. | animated the first close-up on Who Framed Roger Rabbit in a Welsh hotel room with a Perspex disc on my knee — and top pegs! I work both ways. Again, it’s not only but also. Top pegs Is great for drawing and bottom pegs Is great for rolling. Take your pick. Obviously, computer animators are free from all this tactile nonsense - but I'm sure you have equivalent stuff to cope with. Having started out as a drawing animator, Jim Richardson, now a computer animator, told me that when he first switched over to the computer, he found it was like ‘animating with a microwave’. 83 MORE ON SPACING Somebody once said an animator is something between an artist and a garage mechanic. Here's more nuts and bolts from the garage ~ but vety interesting ones, and it really helps to know them. Ken Harris showed me this one: Say we've got a telephone pole moving up quickly in perspective. Where do we put our middle position? You'd put it in about here, right? 84 Wrong. Even after fifteen years’ experience | got it wrong. And nearly every professional I've asked since has gotten It wrong, Here's where the middle position is: Rule in the lines like this and the cross point tells us it’s here. At least technically, And just keep doing it: [ ‘This works well for fast moves. However, for more normal moves it's best to cheat it - split the difference ~ and come back about half way to where our first guess was. Do that throughout and you'll get a better result. vise ESE gue $ uswe ia _ i | fy Incioenmsy Dust Sms I The. Sane AACE -DOESNT “TRAVEL Wt The CAUSE OF IF. RASBS UP. nor cur NE ALL KNOW PREM EXPERIENCE (On Tis MmiDoLE 85 VIEW OF SOMEBODY TOWARDS Us — OR ScmeTina: fess COMING UP AT US = FAST. > & AND-7e Po Wint the SAME SORT OF THING y 4 “the SAME THING Zo SAY A DIS APPLIESTO A FRONT NI » VD iS Sohne é “TAKE 4 POSITIONS OF A BALL REVOLVING NOW ADD IN The MIDDLE RERITIONS and SEE AROUND A CENTRAL ROT ~ HOW CLOSE THEY ARE The QUTS/DE OF the ARC soe ( ) a ——~¢ view » > Top A view (ere wee ee auc Ke Don ADD IN he NEXT ANID POSMTONS ond The PUREST The PONT IS THAT The SPACING OF Te OWES With ALMOST COVER-UP The OUTSIDE BALLS. INBETWEENS Wict CLUSTER AT he EDGES OF the SWAG ARCUND 2 WP CAN INCREASE The PERSPECTIVES Bur (7 STILL CLUSTERS AT the EDGES CF The ARC AROUND 86 ‘So when we're going to turn a head, t's going to be the same kind of thing: A Te B Aer Beer SHOWED US THIS - a JF We JUST INBETWEEN IT = IT WILL LOOK LIKE the FEATURES, SLIDE AROUNP The HEAD WHILE “the HEAD REMAINS SrATIC ~ SO WE DISPLACE THE MIDDLE POBITION TO MAKE IT CONVINCING: — ALSO WE TEND To (eagpanen) LOWER OURHEAD (O° oS ONATURN. = =~& 9 incidentally ~ on a head turn, Ken Harris showed me this: Do it yourself or have somebody else hold up two fingers. Look first at one, relax, then turn the head round to look at the other finger. During the head turn, something interesting will hap- pen. The person will blink. The eye, switching focus from one side to the other, will blink en route, (Unless they're frightened - then the eyes will stay open.) So WE'LL PROBABLY pad BLINK DURING The TURN - 87 (rp pec pe ees jajeen ee ( 1c (CLASS! INBETWEEN MISTAKES. ) A MALLET HITS A NAIL WHICH BENDS - AND We WANT ONE INBETWEEN RIGHT INTHE MIDDLE. 4 z L4H 2 OUR HELPER, WHO IS PLUGGED INTO A CD, PHONE OR WHATEVER, POES PRECISELY WHATS REQUESTED AND PUTS IT RIGHT IA THE MIDDLE... \WELL, | FOLLOWED YOUR GHAET:” 4 fl LATER THE SAME PLUGGED-IN PERSON AND PUTS IT OBMIOUSLY PUTS IN A DROP OF RIGHT IN THE THe CHANGE WATER. BETWEEN ae) Cena THESE TWO POSITIONS. eon t z 2 #3 Ie = Ne SENSE. IT GOES ON AND ON: Sor RUGBER BALL FALLING ~ O OFTEN WHEN FACED WITH A BREAKDOWN HALF WAY BETWEEN - We Ger VELL, | PUTT THIS FHT IN the MIDDLE LIKE You SAID = THIS IS RIDICULOUS BUT The. PQUIVALENT OPTEN HAPPENS WITH COMPLEX INBETWEENS- Every drawing is important. We can’t just have brainless drawings joining things up. In one sense there are no inbetweens ~ all the drawings are on the screen for the same amount of time. AMD, IGNORING OUR TELEPHONE POLE PRINCIPLE... t 1 “gyri pur rr , ics NOT LNs - RIGHT IN-the IDOLE. GOT 7 " TERMS OF MASSES! WHEN A GOLF CLUB HITS A HARD GOLF BALL~ BUT IT WOULD, AT the MOMENT. GO BACK 7 ITS OF IMPACT WE MIGHT OWN SHAPE WITHIN DISTEND “The SHAPE VERY FEW FRAMES. 89 Ideally the inbetweener should understand and be able to complete eccentric actions. {| ner ) Tle RESULT Wis Don'T Nee ‘SPARKS’ { ETHER. IF the ANIMATION HAS POWER Wee WONT NeeD LITTLE BLACK LINES AROUND: ~ IT TO GWE tr STRENGTH, ZI However, | find the elongated or ‘long-headed’ inbetween is very useful ~ not just for a zippy cartoon effect, but also for use In realistic fast actions: Again, we're returning to the original purpose ~ emulating the transparency of broad, live action blur movements. It's especially suitable with ‘soft edge’ loose drawings - where the out- lines aren't sharp and enclosed like colouring book drawings. The MAJOR. BEGINNERS MISTAKE) ee aus mu Doing too much action in too short a space of time, ie. too great arm and leg swings in a run, The remedy: go twice as slow. Add in drawings to slow it down — take out drawings to speed it up. Ken Harris told me that when Ben Washam was starting out at Wamer's, he became famous in the industry for ‘Benny's Twelve Frame Yawn’. Ben drew well and made twelve elaborate draw- ings of someone going through the broad positions of a yawn — an action something like this: ‘Then he shot it on ones. Zip! It flashed through in half a second! So then he shot it on twos. ZZZip! It went through in one second! So then he inbetweened it (twenty-four drawings now) and shot it on twos. 222222! it went through in two seconds ~ almost right. Then Ken showed him how to add some cushioning drawings at the beg! bingo, Ben’s on his way to being a fine animator. ing and end ~ and Sohn Mp) PUFF" APPROACH ) Some animators want to save themselves a lot of the work so they draw very rough. (Ruff ~ they don't even want to spend the time spelling ‘rough’. Too many letters in it to waste our valuable time ...) And they leave lots and lots of work for the assistants. I've never understood why some people in animation are so desperate to save work. If you want to save work, what on earth are you doing in animation? It’s nothing but work! 99 In the early days at The Disney Studio, when animation was being transformed from its crude beginnings into a sophisticated art form, they used to say, take at least a day to think about what you're going to do - then do it. ‘One old animator, writing about the subject forty years later, advises that we should spend days thinking about it. He's read up on Freud and Jung and the unconscious mind and he writes seductively about how you should ruminate until the last minute and then explode into a frenzy of flowing creativity. He told me that in a week's work he'd spend Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday thinking about it and planning it in his mind. Then on Friday he'd do it. The only problem is that it then takes three weeks for somebody else to make sense of it. | knew this guy pretty well — and he made it sound so creatively attractive that, though | felt it was artistic b.s., | thought | better try it out. | managed to ruminate, stewing and mari- nating my juices for about a day and a half and then couldn't stand it any more. | exploded into creative frenzy for a day, drawing into the night like a maniac. The result was pretty interesting, but it really did take three weeks to straighten it all out afterwards. And I don’t think it was any better than if had worked normally ~ maybe just a bit different. | think Milt Kahl has the correct approach: ‘I do it a lot. | think about it a lot, and I do it a lot.” Ken Harris worked intensely from 7.30 am till noon, relaxed at lunch, hung around doing bits for a while, went home to watch TV (or play tennis when he was younger) and thought about what he was going to do the next day — then came in early, avoided social contact and did it. He worked carefully and thought very hard about his stuff. He said he was surprised when he saw some of Ward Kimball's working drawings because they were exactly the same as his — very neat ~ very carefully done ~ usually something on every drawing in the shot. When | first saw milt’s work on his desk I was startled by how much work he did. His drawings were finished, really. There was no ‘clean up’ ~ just ‘touch up’, and completing details and simple inbetweens or parts of them, Ditto Frank Thomas, ditto Ollle Johnston, ditto Art Babbitt. The two exceptions to this were Cliff Nordberg, a marvellous ‘action’ animator who ‘worked with me for a while, and Grim Natwick. Cliff did work very roughly ~ so he was awful- ly dependent on having a good assistant and it always caused him a lot of concern. And Grim was a law unto himself. There's an animation myth about the assistant always being able to draw better than the ani- mator. (I never met one who did.) The myth is that the animator creates the ‘acting’ and the fine draftsperson improves the look of everything and nails it all down. Well, there aren't that many fine draftspeople around and if they're good enough to nail all the details down and draw well, they really should be animating - and probably are. (An exception to this is the assistant ‘styl- Ist’ on commercials where the ‘look’ of the thing is it’s ralson d'étre. There are a few excellent ‘ones around.) Rough drawings have lots of seductive vitality, blurs, pressure of line, etc. But when they're polished and tidied up you usually find there wasn’t that much there to begin with. 100 ‘As we go along through this book itll be apparent how much work we have to do to get a really Interesting result. No matter how talented ~ the best guys are always the ones that work the hardest. But hang the work, it's the unique result that we're after. Every time we do a scene, we're doing something unique ~ something nobody else has ever done. It's a proper craft. HOW MUCH DO WE LEAVE To “the. ASSISTANT? ) Milt KahI’s answer: ‘I do enough to have iron clad control over the scene.’ Ken Harris's answer: ‘I draw anything which is not a simple inbetweer ‘Milt again: ‘I don’t leave assistants very much. How much can | get away with leaving and still control the scene? If it's fast action, | do every drawing.’ ‘The purpose of the assistant is to free the animator to get through more work by handling the less important bits - but as we have seen, he/she can’t be just a brainless drawing machine. ‘The computer produces perfect inbetweens, but obviously has to be programmed to put in the eccentric bits that give it the life. Here's my tip on saving work - my rule of thumb: TAKE The LONG SHORT CUT, ‘The long way turns out to be shorter. Because: something usually goes wrong with some clever rabbit's idea for a short cut and it tums out to take even longer trying to fix everything when it goes wrong. I've found it's quicker to just do the work, and certainly more enjoyable because we're on solid ground and not depending on some smart guy's probably half-baked scheme. ‘And again, if you don’t want to do lots of work, what are you doing in animation? ‘One of the things | love about animation is that you have to be specific. Ifa drawing is out of, place it's just wrong - clearly wrong — as opposed to ‘Art’ or ‘Fine Art’ where everything these days is amorphous and subjective. For us, it's obvious whether our animation works or not, whether things have weight, or just jerk about or float around wobbling amorphous. We can't hide in all that ‘unconscious mind’ stuff. Of course, we can dress up and act like temperamental prima donnas ~ but we can't kid anybody with the work. It's obvious whether it’s good or bad. And there's nothing more satisfying than getting it right! 101 WALKS Advice from Ken Harris: “Awalk is the first thing to learn, Learn walks of all kinds, ‘cause walks are about the toughest thing to do right." THERES A TRNDENCY 4B LEAN IN A WALK. “THE SLOWER IT Is, THE MORE YOURE (N BALANCE - AND THE FASTER - MORE OUT OF BALANCE, Walking Is a process of falling over and catching yourself just in time. We try to keep from falling over as we move forward. If we don't put our foot down, we'll fall flat on our face. We're going through a series of controlled falls. We lean forward with our upper bodies and throw out a leg just in time to catch ourselves. Step, catch. Step, catch. Step catch. 102 Normally we lift our feet off the ground just the bare minimum. That's why it's so easy for us to stub our toes and get tipped over. Just a small crack in the pavement can tip us over. USELESS(?) BuT INTERESTING SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION ON WAUKS: DID YOU KNOW WE PUT A IMILAON POUNDS OF WHLGHT ON Ou. FEET EACH DAY? Gos gone up Gowe __MEDINNT pon D @ corn iL AEN HOS Asweor Te a @ | Eee, ASNEREIAN culate hay CRE oy Sagas | | Gyrosmetgs cums ppimsnepwecy Fran supanecke be aug, DO aa | | Rice” = Geauvicpone “Pert he nee ere | SEMEOF Te WRK -RSEP. WALKING eR A SOFT i | . ieauy erat Tie uefa | nO tea CRE “endive | re TOR Ca Ae OP, nosso | : ; (Geo wars). | DOESNT HELP YOU MUCH WHEN YOURE ASKED TO ANIMATE THE WALK ie OF A SAD BUT HAPPY MAN — OR DOES IT? ) AUL WALKS ARE DIFFERENT NO TWO PEOPLE IN THE WORLD WALK THE SAME, ACTORS TRY To Get HOLD OF A CHARACTER BY FIGURING CUT HOW HE/SHE/IT WALKS - TRY TO TELL HE WHOLE STORY WITH THE WALK. 103 Why is it that we recognize our Uncle Charlie even though we haven't seen him for ten years ~ walking ~ back view ~ out of focus - far away? Because everyone's walk is as individual and distinctive as their face. And one tiny detail will alter everything. There is a massive amount of information in a walk and we read it instantly. Art Babbitt taught us to look at someone walking in the street from the back view. Follow them along and ask yourself: - ARE THEY O10? ~ YOUNG? — WHATE THEI. FINANCIAL POSITION ? — STATE OF HEALTH? — Ape tuey StecT? — PERMISSIVE 2 — DEPRESSED? = HOPEFUL? = Sad? = HAPPY? — DRUNK? Then run around to see the front and check. So what do we look for? The big eye-opener for me happened like this. (Unfortunately its a little politically incorrect, but its great example, so here goes.) a MANS HD laa VW Ab V7 WE . {r \ iv wont \ | was in my parked car turning on the ignition, when out of my peripheral vision | semi- consciously noticed a man’s head walking behind a wall. Qn 104 It passed through my mind that he was gay. A gay walk, Now I'm quite short-sighted - my eyes were focused on the ignition key, and it was a busy street with lots of cars and people - and he was about fifty yards away! Wow! How did | know that? This is crazy, All I'd seen was his out- of-focus head moving along behind a wall for a split second! | started to drive away, then stopped. Wait a minute ~I'm supposed to be good at this. I'm sup- posed to know these things. | have to know why! I remembered Art's advice, re-parked, jumped out and ran a block and a halt to catch up with the fellow. | walked along behind him, copying him. Sure enough, it was an effeminate walk. Then | got it. He was walking as if on a tightrope and gliding along. Now how could | have registered this with out-of-focus peripheral vision at fifty yards without . even seeing his body? Simple, really. There was no up and down action on the head. Try walk« ing on an imaginary tightrope and your head stays level. No ups and downs. AND IN GLIDING CCN ENTION)- eich STEP ie BODY WEIGHTLESSLY | Szeto | PASSING POSTION. From then on the first thing | always look for is how much up and down action there is on the head. The amount of up and down is the key! WOMEN OFTEN TAKE SHORT STEPE WA STRAIGHT LINE ~ LEGE CLOSE TOGETHER = LITILE UP sad DOH ON The BODY AAS OPPSSED TO MITER: NACHO? py ‘Women mostly walk with their legs close together, protecting the crotch, resulting in not much up and down action on the head and body. Skirts also restrict their movement. Mr Macho, however, because of his equipment, has his legs well apart so there's lots of up and down head and body action on each stride “ixos en) iJ en = WE CAN TURN A VERY MASEULNE WALK NTO A EPPEMNATE ONE SUS BY CROSSING OVER the PEE ACrON GETTING THE WEIGHT) WE DONT GET WEIGHT BY A SMICOTH LEVEL MOVEMENT. ‘When we trace off a live action walk (the fancy word is rotoscoping), it doesn’t work very well. Obviously, it works in the live action - but when you trace it accurately, it floats. Nobody real- ly knows why, So we increase the ups and the downs — accentuate or exaggerate the ups and downs ~ and it works. (75 THE UP AND DOIN POSITION OF YOUR MASSES THAT CAVES YOu THE FEELING OF WEIGHT. WE FEELTHE ~ ESPECIMLY 7 AND WHEL (TS THEN we Ger WHEN THE Ags, PRECEEDED iT TAKES voit er OFTHE BODY BY ASTRAGHT THE WEIGHT’ | Haller COMES WHE THERES UZ ho welsH our OR A IE THE DONN POSITION WHERE “THE LEGS ARE BENT AND THE BOPY JAAS 15 PON WHERE WE PEELTHE WEIGHT. Commer 106 Before we start building walks and ‘inventing’ walks ~ here's what happens in a so-called ‘normal’ walk: CONVENTIONAL WALK, THE ARMS ARE ALWAYS pros ITE Te Tite Leas To Give BALANCE AND THRUST. Cy) ~\ IN A NORMAL, * * cenber conricr PASSING POSITION ((Shiewy wicee” ae yet (a aniD-FONT NEXT WELL Net ME aol rita. O OO THe MIDDLE i; POSITION= ce. BREAKDOWN’ fi | ae J HALE-Way é <\ PHASE AND JUST To. COMPLICATE OOO O ‘LIE IN A NORMAL WALK SECAWE THE LIG 1S STRAIGHT UPON THE PASSING POSITION, 118 GOING © LIFT THe Pais, BODY ad HEAD SLIGHTLY HIGHER. NEXT COMES THE - “THe ABM SIs 18 AT NPT COMES TE ( xs ITS wibesT. DOWN POSITION (/) \ ON THE DOWN POSITION (AND NOTONte Conner \ \ POSIONAS Web PREFER: WEIGHT J y) \} WIE CAN IGNORE THIS. AS WE PROCEED BuT WE MIGHT AS WELL UNDERSTAND THE NORM BEFORE WE START MESSING ABOUND. 107 NEAT WE PUTIN OO 36 6 “the FOOT PUSHING OFF POS L{PTS “The PELVIS, THE UP POSITION 4d \ \\ BODY and HEAD UP v “THe PUSH-OFF. “To INS HIGHEST POSITION THEN The LEG (S"THROWN Cur TO CATCH US ON “fle CONTACT PESTON — So We Don'T FALL ON OUR FACE. Lers SPREAD iv Our AND =< EXAGGERATE |T \ A LITTLE MORE \\ sors CLEARER. ‘ \ 6 \ cobnee cosher SO, INA NORMAL’ REALISTIC! WALIC Tier APTER be SP = “The WEIGHT GOES (DOWN) JUST AFTER The CONTACT 20 The WEIGHT GOES (UP) JUST APTER-The PASSING POSITION, ease ae contacr Gone we) E 4) SET THE TEMPO yD) “The FIRST THING Te DO NA WALK IS SET A BEAT GENERALLY PEOPLE WALK ON [2'S ~ MARCH TIME (Hale A Scone PER STEP : “TWO STEPS PER SECOND. Bur LAZY ANIMATORS DONT Like To PO IT ON 12'S ITS HARD To DIVIDE UP. YOU HAVE To USE’ THiRDS'—THINIX PARTLY IN THIRDS THE IN BETWRRNS ARF GOIN To BE ON THARDS, OOPS = NOW WHERE Bo WE PUT Tee DOWN OR uP? HEY, THIS 1S GETING HAD ~BSPECINAY WHER WE GET IAT THE ARMS AND HEAD, AUD "ACTING! AND DRAPERY — MAYBE THERES AN aime WAY > THERE !S AN EASIER WAY~ HAVE HIM/HER WALK ON IGS — OR WALK ON ©'S MUCH EASIER TO WALK ON 16'S — ITS EASY 72 DIVIDE UP — SAME THING OW B'S. C#hcH STEP =%% Sec) (3 StPS Per SEC.) 2 138 07 eTeqeueyure| WHEW, THAT ALAS LIFE ES ( PenutsD uP aup Pow Acree since) is mene piace INA sicRTER Time) “THIS 1S WHY CARTOON WALKS ARE CRrEN ON BS BUMP, BlewP, BUAP, 3 STEPSA SEHD NICE VEN Divisione Now — 109 So, we Ser A BEAT: 4 Frames = Avery FAST RUN (6 STEPS A SECOND) & Feames = A RUIN OB VERY FAST WALK (-4 SrEPS A SECOND) Bo Frames = SLOW RUN OR ‘CARTOON’ WALIC (3 STEPS A SECOND) 12 FRAMES = BRISK, BUSINESS-LIKE WALK— ‘NATURAL WALK (2- STEPS A SCeND) (6 Feates = STROLLING WALK - MORE LEISUPELY (% OFA SECOND FER SEP) 20 FRAWES = ELDERLY CR TIRED PERSON (ALMcRI A SECOND PEE SIEP ) 24 FeAMes = SLOW STEP (ONE STEP PER. SECOND) 32 Frames = ...SHOW ME Te WAY,...TO GO HOME... ‘The best way to time a walk (or anything else) is to act it out and time yourself with a stop- ‘watch. Also, acting it out with a metronome is a great help. { naturally think in seconds ~ ‘one Mississippi’ or ‘one little monkey’ or ‘a thousand and one, ‘a thousand and two! etc. ken Harris thought in feet, probably because he was so footage conscious — having to produce thirty feet of animation a week. He'd tap his upside-down pencil exactly every two thirds of a second as we'd act things out. ‘Milt Kahl told me that on his first week at Disney's he bought a stopwatch and went downtown in the lunch break and timed people walking — normal walks, people just going somewhere. He said they were invariably on twelve exposures - right on the nose. March time. ‘Asa result, he used to beat off twelve exposures as his reference point. Anything he timed was just so much more or so much less than that twelve exposures. He said he used to say ‘Well, it's about 8s.’ He said it made it easy for him — or easier anyway. Chuck Jones said the Roadrunner films had a musical tempo built into them. He'd time the whole film out, hitting things on a set beat so they had a musical, rhythmic integrity already builtin, Then the musician could hit the beat, ignore it or run the music against it. Chuck told me that they used to have exposure sheets with a coloured line printed right across the page for every sixteen frames and another one marking every twelve frames. He called them "46 sheets’ or 12 sheets’ | guess ‘8 sheets’ would be the normal sheets. I mentioned once to Art Babbitt that | liked the timing on the Tom and Jerrys. ‘Oh yeah,’ he said dismissively, ‘All on 8s." ‘That kind of tightly synchronized musical timing is rare today. They call it ‘Mickey Mousing’ where you accent everything - it's a derogatory term nowadays and considered corny. But it can be extremely effective. 110 In trying out walks, it's best to keep the figure simple. It's quick to do and easy to fix ~ easy to make changes. ALSO, IN DOING THESE WALKS - TAKE A FEW STEPS ACEOSS the PAGE O8 SCREEN — | aratats | ON | (Don'T) TRY TO WORK OUT A CYCLE WALKING IN PIACE WITH! The FEET SLIDING BACK, EE THAT ALL BECOMES Too TECHNICAL. We WANT Our BRAIN FREE TO CONCENTRATE ON AN INTERESTING WALK PROGRESSING FORWARD. WE CAN WORK Our A CYCLE FOR Te WALK LATER... PERHAPS JUST FOR The FEET BODY. BUT THEN HAVE the ARME aneie HEAD PERFORMING SEPARATELY. CLES ARE MECHANICAL aed LOOK JUST LiKE WHAT THEY ARE ~ CYCLES CHUCK JONES TELLS CH HIS TINY & YEAR. OLD GRANDDAUGHTER SAYING, “GEANDAD, WHY DORS The SAME WAVE KEEP LAPPING CA The (LAND? Incidentally, if you are using colours as | am here, it works just fine when you film them. | often have a lot of colours going at first, and you still see the action clearly. Now we're going to start taking things out of the normal: the the PASSING F POSITICN ee BREAKCONN ) THERES A VERY SIMPLE WAY TO BUILD A WALK. START wit Jus 3 DRAWMES — we ne Our comracr POBITIONS ~ Uh are THIS. Tia “THEN Pur IN Oo hy O WERE Raising The mippie Posmon- AL] A igre at “he. PASSING POSiTICN- ii ene ee i THE _UP POSITION- (THe HGH /we\e onirre> ee BENT LEG TAKING Te. WEIGHT Aid cup coners Witt acrae the LOW / ck BREAKDOWN ‘When we join these up with connecting drawings, the walk will still have a feeling of welght because of the up and down. We can make tremendous use of this simple three drawing device. BUT LOOK WHAT HAPPENS IF WEGO POWN ON THE PASSING Position! )S 2 NOW THE PASSING We Ger A VERY As a Foss Se DIEFERENT WALK - | | Comncts Aer A’ CARTOONY’ WALK, | | SOE iL GIVING A FEELING CF WEIGHT THE CRUCIAL THING (S THIS MIDDLE POSITION AND WHERE WE Pur IT: Fass. Pos, (e wom WITH A BEND’ HIS Lie A nies? | 112 THESE CONTACTS ARE AML THE SAME BUT THE MIDDLE POSITION UTTERLY CHANGES THE WALK Nee TO ACCOMODATE OUSLY Welt. NEED THE ) IN A SLOW STEP We MIGHT GO AS FAR AS THIS BROAD MOVES LiKE TMS ‘ALMOST A SNEAK. WHAT IF THE PRET SWING CUT SIDEWAYS ON THE PASSING POSITIONS? AND AYE STRAIGHTEN “thee BODY ON the PASS POSIMONS? NoT Te MENTION EY THING Tiana Ne WHAT WE CAN DO 5 e Wit The HEAD, WANT 7 PUT THE HANDS, ARMS OR ‘MIDDLE reer™ PoSiTION - THE VARIATIONS ARE ENDLESS 113 AND WHY SHOULD WE BE STUCK WITH THE SAME SHAPE? Lets say \ ITS. A HEAVIER: MAN - GOT A How ABOUT ( INSTEAD OF RAISING < “the WHOLE BODY / \ ON Tes PASS FOS \ POT ON HA STRETCH IT, tL = GIES: FLEXIGILITY AN — PEWS LEVEL Y/ or. ConvarSy SQUASH IT. ie SNES PELVIS iB iL LE Vel ‘L Pint “1HRo'cur. The WALK To my knowledge, | think Art Babbitt may have been the first one to depart from the normal walk or the cliché cartoon walks. Certainly he was a great exponent of the ‘invented’ walk. He became famous for the eccentric walks he gave Goofy - which made Goofy into a star. He even put the feet on backwards! He made it look perfectly acceptable and people didn’t realize they were backwards! Art's whole credo was: ‘Invent! Every rule in animation is there to be broken - if you have the inventiveness and curiosity to look beyond what exists.’ In other words, ‘Learn the rules and then learn how to break them.” This opened up a whole Pandora's box of invention. Art always said, ‘The animation medium is very unusual. We can accomplish actions no human could possibly do, And make it look convincing!” This eccentric passing position idea is a terrifically useful device. We can put it anywhere and where we put it has a huge effect on the action, And who says we can’t put it anywhere we want? There's nothing to stop us. 14 For that matter, we can keep on breaking things down into weird places ~ provided we allow ‘enough screen time to accommodate the movement. TAKE THS ONE: FoR INSTANCE ~ ee Ro \ y WE CAV Sri GO DOWK To TAKE The WEIGHT AND STIL. GO HIGHER ON THE PUSH OFF PAS wen "Fos THIS wOulD BE Peery viin> Put HE DOWN WHERE THE LP WOULD NORMALLY BE Anyway, back to the normal: ——— 2 WAYS TO PLAN A WALK Pass Pos PEVIENING OOC’ The CONTACT’ Y O Q METHOD: ~ | POSITIONS The We Pur IN The PASSING POSITION ((AeRMAL) < COMACT METHOD PORN PR: TID WE GET ALLThe UP ad DOWN PHASES OF A NORMAL WALK. ITS The SAE THING. WEBE JUST STARTING OFF CHE PHASE EARLIER O8 CVE PHASE LATER "7 ( the DOUBLE BOUNCE) ‘Truckin’ on down.’ The double bounce walk shows energetic optimism — the North American ‘can do’ attitude, They used this walk like mad in the early 1930s - lots of characters (bugs and things) all trucking around doing jazzy double bounces. ‘THE IDEA IS 2 BOUNCES PER STEP. You BOUNCE TWICE, YOK GO DOWN (ea up) TWICE INSTEAD OF ONCE TO THE STEP. SAY TIS A 16 FRAME STEP (ON NES ReCwSe THERS 4 107 GOWe-ON.) Wel. START WITH THE BENT LES DOWN - SPRRAD THE LEGS APKET FOR CLARNY, 5 Pass Pos: PASS Pos: 7 By MO Sy oy J | I App In THe AKT TWO Mo RESITIONS PAS THE Hicuts, PHT Tim Pass Pos IN The MIDDLE Bur ALS POW THE OWRT (SKE THis? ir we 2 ¢ 4 uo PAs its owes “CoNTAcTS 4 TAS POS ARE “THE HIGH AND rib POSIONS AGRE FOWS 18 | MADE THIG DOUBLE BOUNCE WALK BY COMBINING The TWO APPROACHES. | DID Tee STRAGHT LEG CONTACTS FIRST, GUT ALSO MADE THEM THE LOW ~ the DOWN. #1 Pom HS IS-CH ONES TAKG OnE SmP CeAWALKON 2s : cde, nckas +, ler up Som ue Set “Te IV RETHERS ARE OX “TheDe = UM FORTUNATELY. is % i ‘Z DOKN LOOSENING IT UP) wea Anan 15 FORWARD fhe SHOULDER 1S FORWARDS WELL START CUT iw mH THIS S OKPLE CLICHE WALK = NOTHING FANCY YET. THe ARMS NORMALLY WILL MOVE OPPOSITE TO THE LEGS ~ Bur SIMPLY BY HAVING “THE SHOULDERS OPPOSING THE LEGS WILL GIVE IT MORE LIFE PLING (7 APARI PRONT viEW . FOR CLARITY Now LeTs sees (| “Tut THF SHOU Tee SOME VITALITY = Wee takin cue BASIC: PLAN ROW AND ‘ADDING iN THINGS “TO BUILDON fw SYSTEM: NOW LES Ro ComETHINE WITH THE HEAP JO MAKE THIS SIMPLE FORMULA WALK MERE INTERESTING — LETS TET “THE HEAD: 120 HOW ABOUT THis? , LEIS DELAY Y the TILT oF The HEAD ON The, f PASSING POSITION | Lets bo SOMETHING ELSE WITHTHE HEAD = STick The HEAP OUT” onthe PASSING POSITION Gives A SUGHT Paces 2rrEcT Ge) Ne ¥ THEHEAD U7] GES FoRwaRD AND CONTINUES BRAD TS AT THE GoRCuT END OF THE SEP 121 ANY SMALL DETAIL ALTERS A WALK a, LIKE MOVING THE HEAD UP OR DOWN - g 5 ORTILTING (T FROM SIDE TO SIDE ~ = - OR MOVING ITT BACK AND FORTH - OR A COMBINATION &) OF ANY OF THIS. “mB Be Sp “HE EGOTISTS WOBBLE Yeap - wf PAS ies You See THS A Lor wnt Pelicans ob rom wae naa, “THE CNN ISON TH ALL THE TIME! SOME Comepians Bo IT WHEN THEY GET A Big AUDIENCE BESPONCE. POING IT ELOATING ALONG IN LOWE WITH ITSELF NTS WONDERFUL To BE WONDERFUL! Wik WORK Nicely wit NOT MUCH UPoel TOWN WHEN (Was & iD J ALWAYS WENDRRED Now | {naow WAY ANIMATERS PeBW HEADS KE Tac - THEYRE en WITH CONSTRUCTION wits INES ON THe ALLTHE Time. 122 BUT | A CAUTIONARY NCTE FROM KEN HARRIS: FOR WALKS, DONT MAKE CYCLES OF BODY AND HEAD ACTION IN CIRCLES Of FIGURE 8's — (F YOU DO IT WILL LOOK LIKE A BIRD OR PIGFON WALI (HNLESS You wait war) DONT ’ i KS ©) A) a? i cq S ( we \ At FOR SAFETY KEEP THE (MASS \ MOST STRAIGHT UP AND Pow, Bur BEARING THIS IN MIND WE SHOULD Sri BE BRAYE AND TRY THINGS... BUILDING ON OUR BASIC PLAN, WEVENS#UADPED IN MORE ACTION IN THE-HEAD, SHOULDERS, ARMS, HIPS AND FEET: NOW Lets BEND THE BCDY ON THE BeRENES Keep SrRAGHT \ One PASSING: POSITION AND NOW WERE GOING TO DO THINGS TO “he LEGS and ARMS THAT LCOKS WEIRD. 123 WERE GONG TD ‘BREAK’ THE LEG. WEEE GOING TO BEND IT WHETHER IT WOULD BEND THAT WAY CRNCT: OF COURSE THE BONES REMAN he SAME LENGHE. “The ONLY TE Tf CHANGES 15 OHEN tre FoRESI y PERSPECINE \ \ WE'VE TAKEN AYAMMER AND BROKEN fe \ Jon WERE DONG | * WHAT h te ARTBABEITT a cals — we BREAKING THe JOWNT BeNDINe irae re war (7 LOOKS WEIRD ENOUGH , BUT IF WE PRAW A BALLET DANCER ONTOPOF IT, iT LOOKS f Just FINE a 4 30. WE CAN Lp TAKE INCREDIBLE a Ligeenes wind “Te UNDERLYING. A STROCTURE y CIF We WONT ARD IT NIL BE PERFECTLY ACCEPTABLE = ESPECIALY Za IN MOTION! 124 WHY ARE WE DOING THis? EVERYTHING WERE DOING ISTO GET MORE CHANGE, MORE ACTION WiTHIN HEACTION. FO LIMBER. THINGS UP- GET MORE LIFE INTO Ie Grim Natwick said: ‘We used to bet ten dollars against ten cents that you could take any character and walk it across the room and get a laugh out of it. “We used to have about twenty-four different walks. We'd have a certain action on the body, a certain motion on the head, a certain kind of patter walk, a big step or the “Goofy” walk that ‘Art Babbitt developed. ‘While the opposite arm naturally moves with the opposite leg, we'd break the rules eight or ten different ways to make the walk interesting.’ WERE TAKING OUR BASIC PLAN NOW AND ADPING IN THINGS TO BUILD UPON THE SYSTEM. SAY WE HAVE A KIND OF ANSRY WALIK ~ WE'D NORMALLY PO THIS? BUT LOOK WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE DO JuST 2 THINGS ~ Put Hiks DOWN (OW Tie PASSING POSITION > MARIN HIS A BACK CONVEX & — AND bo Tuls Wilt THE ARM SEREAKING’ THE ELBOW. 125 LETS TAKE THIS ANGRY WALK MUCH FUEHER- “THIS |S THE KIND OF THING ART SABRIT PID ALL HIS LIFE- MAKING IMPOSSIBLE MOVES LOCK CONVINCING ac) BELIEVABLE. HelD SAY, "BE A LITE BIT TeuTHPUL., "0 IT DOESNT DUST LOOK HIKE ONE STEP REPRATING WWE SLIGHTLY CHANGE the SILHOUETTE EN-tie 20° CONTACT (#15) Sc THE CCUNTHE ARM POSITIONS ARE DIFFERENT FROM COMIACT!L, OR The CONTACTS he CACK LEG (S BREEN AND he ROOT SWIVEL-ED BACKWARDS. HS ON-TWOS - EACH STEP TAKING 14 FRAMES Bei y Pigs Pos, exreene #1 aed S Y comer Peg Aro REWER DIFFERENT APN POSITION — BACKARN — FoOT BACHIRES aad BACK Faca ne Reviews conmer —uvresst “Ac REVERSES Yer AGAN GAG ASH Ryness, AGA BREAKING The FIRST STEP DOWN FURRER = a SL Team in mma (Grau neni) Hon Smears’ — ARUBA’ ACK Sra EAE - Burr isarrrsmakesr, CONTE Spero. BACH AR RevaPSES. ROBY Twist AY FECT abue PESAUY FROM US Fem e uoSssr FOr IS BR Lacs co STRAIT CW RARE NCW she OPRCSIT STEP = Pass Poe. 5 7 9 2 23 25 27 exe o7) “The ARM SWING Bee BREN! — AND Th FOOT SWIVELS BACK AARLER ~The REST CF the PATTERN (S"Gie SAME, 126 INCIDENTALLY, ON A PROFILE WALK IT HELPS To HAVE ONE FOOT ALITTLE IN FRONT - AND ANGLED SIDEWAYS A BIT: / Ive SEEN KEEPING THINS veRy Din eANOIATIC TLL NOM, LEIS KEEP TAKING THINGS OUT OF THE CRDINARY — WHY ROT A SIMPLE EEVERSAL OF THE UP AND DOWN OF A NORMAL WALK? eee HAVE shies UP (Res uP THEUP ay BN BR SPREAD CUT ae OCcUR ‘et So Lee TRY ue O THIS IS FINE INGING THE ureeir Ossie ORDINARY ONTHE PASSING POSITION — i i 127 (DIGGING DEEPER INTO WALKS ) HERES A KIND OF STRUT. LETS BEND “the BODIES CUTWARDS ON The EXTREMES - HEADS, SHOULDERS, HIPS TILTED. PUT The PASSING POSITION TOWN av! SWINE The LEG IN WARDS 210 "BREAK The SUPPORT LEG - KIND OF KNOCK-KNEED ~ THIS'LL GIVE AN INTERESTING RESULT” NOW Lat’ TAKE THE SAME EXTREMES AND PUT The PASSING POSITION UPAND Well STRAIGHTEN “The SUPPORT LEG TD LIFT HIM UP AND SWING The PASSING LEG INWARDS AS PREVIOUSLY: BUT AMKE The NEXT SEAKDOWN DOWN (AS Noel) WITH th LES ANGLING comiayens gn The OTHER BREAKDOWN JUST COMING FORWARDS -(flie BODY JUST INBETINERN PRS Pos, = EXCEPT FOR THe LE 128 WE CAN Go Ob FORBIER THIS WAY, ALTERING BITS AND SWITCHING THINGS AROUND ON OAR BASICS DRAWING PLAN. HOW ABOUT THIS? KEEP The SAME 2 STARTING EORENES BUT USE THE RENT LEG: RosmTal PUT The PASSING POSITION UP. How aBouT one LiKe THS? / STBRT WITH Keno. KNEES ~( BROKEN Joe es!) WHAT WERE TRYING TO PUT OVER HERE IS A WAY CE THINKING ABOUT IT. A SIMPLE GRID ON WHICH To BUILD QuiT NORMAL WALKS - OR WILDLY ECCENTRIC ONES - AND ALLTHAT LIES BETWEEN 29 HERES A KIND OF FEMININE WALK ON The SAME BACICFIGUEE- PASS Fos © ~ © tue Sieurpees bo Nor OP RSE “Be HIPS “THE VARIATIONS Her stow pene AND i MaGelE WHAT ARE ENDLESS... AND HEAD ON PASS Px, WE CAN GET UP Tm WHEN Teenie Tune rs sie BY JO anes ov @ icc of h ) \ (2D a \ PNA EVEN IF THE ACTIONS ARE IMPOSSIBLE (#eoKen j JOINTS, ETC. To Do -itS AGGOD IDEA TO ACT CUT ALL-The BUSINESS To See WHETHER Hr WILL EIT INTO THE TIME ALL OFTED. DISCARD ALL MODESTY AND ACT IT OUT” WHEN | ASKED Mur Kat ABOUT A MARVELLOUS FEIMALE WALK Heb ANIMATED, HE Alp Y CLOSED Tne Deore, Bur iF YouD SEEN ME DOING iT You HAVE WANTED To Kise MES 130 ee We 6 1B LIKE THIS ~ LETS SIMPLY CHANGE the TILT OF The BoPY ON the PASSING POS TION (ox 8's) Be pow HERD NEL 131 AnD WE ShowLONT BE AFRAID TO TAKE LIBERTIES AND DiSRT THINGS- ESPECIALLY FOR FAST ACTION- (on ones) i INCLUDING THS BASKETBALL FIGURE | ANIMATED - JUST’ To SHOW HOW FAR Wie CAN GO a) CONCLUSION? WE CAN TAKE GREAT LISSRTES WITH FAsT ACTIONS EVEN WITH REALISTIC: FIGURES. 17S OBVIOUS THAT FOR REALLY FAST ACTIONS YoU HAVE TO MAKE EVERY DEAWING — AN ASSISTANT (ron THt6) MIGHT ie AHELP SHADING MUSCLES OR STRIPES BUT NOT MUCH EISE. MILT KANE NIE its FASTACTION | MAKE EVERY DRAWING 134 SS NOTHING LiKE TRYING IT INNUMERABLE POSSIBILITIES EXIST, WERE NOT COPYING LIFE, WERE MAKING A CoNMMENT ON [r iS DND JF WE MAKEA MISTAKE, WHO CARES? ITS JUST A TEST. MAKE The CaRR=CrTON| AID TEST AGAIN, HALE The TIME WELL FALL ON OUR PAGES - BUT the OFFER. HAL OF The TIME IT'LL WORK AND Be NEW. HERES A RULE BREAKER - EREAKIE DOAN fiewe | S 2 18 17 ADDING IN 5 40 13 Like THis eer pate ™ OMe 4 SRA ¥ Bees BET INIBISS SPREAD OUT . Baw | 7 POT sg 7 AON 18 18 7 AND NE HAVERIT DONE ANYTHING INITH The HEAD OR ARMS. MAYBE W ITH SUCH ACTION. ON The FEET WE SHOULD KEEP The ARMS aud HEAD VERY CONSERVATIVE ~ MAIBE, NAYSENCT. THIS WILE WERK ON TWOE » LUT BE BETTER. WITH ONES ADDED BECME0F Bie BEOAD SPACE, 135 BACK TO NORMALCY FOR A BIT- (THe Heel “the HEEL (S THE LEAD FART. “The Foor IS SECONDARY 2a! FOLLOWS ALONG, The, HEEL LEADS audth ACTUAL FOOT PRAGS BEHIND 240 FLOPS FORINARD- BUT-The HEEL CONTROLS (T- FER WALKS ad RUNS - LOCK the HEEL FLAT ON the GROUND FOR The FEELING OF WEIGHT KEEP The Foot BACK TiLL“the LAST POssigLe MOMENT, ets PEN > Pewis PASS Pos. Paws up AMD THIS 1S The, \s ara iy el eeeTLY up Ta We WAY paTTERNOE LEE A ‘5. Zz ‘say rt (on a's SRERAD oir 136 ut Lets SINT pes MD PASS POSTE ADP wow We Bow’ way oP WAY OWN DONT HAE Te THINK “Tite 2 Downs" ey 8 7 a As Milf says, ma te ABoUT “The 1s KINDOFA UPS and Rows stare POSITION = AND HEC CONCENTRATE wet THE ON PONS PASSING POSITION UP Ke the FRET: BPS AND DO _ f= fo. = MORE. Cuan, waranty * f Paarnie ve Liens PEE coin HRI MI 8 DIRE SIRAIL « INSEWERNS wee vec [etree LIFE IN IT" ate a (Beea | Pi NOW LETS MAKE IT NOW WENE GOT MORE SPRIGHTLY. ‘SOME CHANGES! 7, BENT TOSTRAGHT MAKE™S STRAIGHT ‘AS IT PUSHES OFF -TO BENT ge =To STRAISHT wd MAKE*T TRAIT =T BENT AS IT CONTACTS ‘ 6 0 FA i THOM e ‘he GROUND, “THIS ISNT REALLY YERY DIE PERENT THAN WED a Contre METHED. ANYWAY - ADS IN weve gor STRAIGHT CHING AND IN BETWEEN VITALITY ~ MCEPT KEEP ~fhe LAS AND Foot” Autor ‘SOLE PASS FAST THROUGH FLAT ON #2. ee see o's frie Beane HAVE THE TOOT on’ of STEP, Par Linen oh Nat Te NOW Welle FIND METHOD IN THE MADNESS ~ HERES WHAT ART BABBITT MIGHT PO - STARE WITH The SAME: 2 BASIC POSITIONS Sut pur P's mor on BACK WARRS —p LEAVE te PSN POSITION AS 5, Bur DeLay the Foot oN DRuNe ‘The VICAR." saw A cae WALK Wo A wot.) We INHIBITED SocerY MaTRON The FIGHTING Peunic “he SENTIMENTALIST The Firesr TIME DRUNK eterete JO Sum UP: WAYS TO GET VITALITY IN A WALK eee RECIPE ) LEAN “the FOPY USE STRAIGHT LEGS CN CONTACTS we) PUSH OFF POSTION (GOWNS FROM STRAIGHT To BENT OR BENT TO STRAGHT ) TWIST the BODY — Tug the SHourpees a) HIPS “The SHOULDERS OPPOSE Te HIPS Suave te HIPS FLOP the KNEE INCROUT TILT the BELT LINE FAVCUPNS fle LES THATS LOWEST FLOP “the FEET DELAY the Feet AND Toe LEAVING tu GROUND UNTIL Tae VERY LAST INSTANT TIP The HEAD OR MAKE iT GO BACK aud FORTH Dost HAVE EVERYTHING WORKING DOAY PARTS ToS cet AT The SAME TINE USE courteseae FAT, BUTTOCKS, BREASTS, DELAYED CLOTHES, PANT LESS, HARat. BREAK the JOINTS MORE UPS 20d DOWKS (FoR WeleHT) USE DIFFERENT TIMINGS av ex VERSUS APAKS VEesus VERSUS BODY Ete. TWIST The FEET- TAKE ah OFF The PARAL EL IF WE TAKE A NORMAL CLICHED ACTION aud LER ONLY ONE TINY PART- WE GET SOMETHING DIFFERENT! 163 | WANT 70 CLOSE OFF ON WALKS WITH THES EXAMPLE OF A ‘MILT KAdL TYPE! STRUT IN WS CAREER HE ANIMATED MANY ENERGENC SUPEROPMMISTIC ‘CAN DO’ A148. IN ADAPTED ‘ond COMBINED SEVERAL CF THRE INTO A COMPOSITE ONE (USING A GENERIC FIGURE -HOTA CHARICTER)) =A WMAQUETTE’TO SHOW The WORK PROOES OF A MASTER. ITS CERTAINLY NOT TO PROVIDE YET” ANOTHER FORMULA, BUT AS AN INSIGHT INTO HOW A MASTER WORKS au) THINKS ~ HOW HE STATS: (OWA SIMPLE BASIS WITH The CONTACTS avg) LOADS IT WITH DEPTH rd INTEREST AS HE BUIES, AND ITS FULLOF The STUFF WEE BEEN TALKING ASOUT: FIRST HE MAKES The. CONTACTS ~ ' 13 25 (LTE 2. STEPS ON IDS 164 THE PASSING POSHTICNS GO IN NEXT - Mea PAS Pes. Hoa 2 EE tee pmo Rei FS 5 - 73 3 x rs Lp (1 (THs WOULD ALEEADY MAKE A GREAT WALIC 4 [T IS - verter Bons iN MORE HE cRLoNs!) NOW WELL ADP IN The LOWS ~The PMN POSITIONS 165 NOW WE'LL PUT iN The UP POSITIONS ~ Tien AppItie ft # 2 os 3 M2 ae inBETumae (ore) Lele beetee! APT ANO Yolt CAN BET THEY'RE GOING } BE THOUGHTFUL INBETWEENS- NOT MECHANICAL ONES. EXAMPLE WAH The LAST 2. NETUNS The RASH LEGS HOT JUST (NBETMEENED. “the REST (3. NOW fhe WHole THINE: Is PACKED WITH VITALITY awd “CHANGE! "SOPHISTICATED USE OF The BASICS” ARE 3 DEFINITE CATEGORIES OF SNEAKS: 7) Tle TRAbMONAL SNEAK — @ The BACKWARDS SWEAK —G) Ta TIP TOE SHEA Boe LY & a )) KX fh ~ v gana MK ee Sane te Tetoes Se a LESAGE VRC 2A RAMS CHEER EXPRESSES Fab OR Msc ORE ad PAY UL CW. IG FRAMES Pe STEP MORE OR-LEES OPPOSITE SURE OF HHS LE RSCN 92. FRAMES FOR EACH SP. To A FORWARDS SNEAK. 10 FRAMES 12,13, Fees, WHATS WE WANT | REMLY RST ONES OW IS SLIGHTLY TULARMS POT ‘ OPPOSE tu Legs “THEY Jusr BALANCE. Generany VERY LITE 4 IcTICN, INThe ARMS ‘aud HANDS Ane UINATE oe Peer WITH EVEN SPACING: Boy fe 1 4 wo akg emo Ly} pp tts é es) eI * rer '§ 3 8 79 18 SIT 12 1 2) 23 25 m2 3) 38 AEN ppp! ee! 17% & GOOD EXAMPLE OF COUNTERACTION— AG HE MOYES ALONG, the HEAD GOES FORWAED aud The HANDS GO BACK “TAS (Sthe BASIS. IT WILL WORK NICELY JUST INGETWEENING the 2 POSITIONS AS IS— and NOT ADDING ANY FANCY BITS OF INNER ACTION. ~ De OF COURSE WE CAN ADD ANYTHING = WE WANT WITHIN - SuT THIS Dos TM. JOR aS JAS WITH [UST 3 DRAWINES enc) Peauee WE CouLb Use ARCS OR JUST STRAGHT eS OO Berrenen, MECHANICAL WM BETHRENS. TCH WORK WEL Bur OF COURSE, WE COULD DELAY PARTS ~ ROSSONER HEAD BACK aud LOCKING DOIN COULD STAY FULLY ON TheTORS ALL THe TIME To ENHANCE Tu FEBLING- OF CAUTION - E WHAT ABOUT, tn 34 yieW WE HiT Ae Gta 254. VIEW? DRANG PROBLENS - | PERSPECTIVE, VOLUMES, WAISTLINE SHOWS ok. WHICH IS WHY WHATS HAPPENING — LOT OF ANIMAS STAY IN PROFILE {1e Piast eres (1 AGooD IDEA iN PROFLE HERES AN APAPTATION OF A Bib)-TYTLA SNEAK - THERE ARE 4 PLANNING PRAWINGS. ITS ON 36 FRAUE = [2 SECONDS Pee STER Funny, SOON AS WE 6NE TAN BYE, IT SOINEHOW CREATES PERSONALITY © BECOMES ANTERTUNING OR ATHRACIVE ed WE STOP PAYING ATTENTION % “the, ANATOMY OF WHATS HAPPENING. Sheet can SAYS" PERSCNALITY. DS: EVERYTHING EIS. ee a ee ee 26 Mob SIM MAKING 1 it te reer » GUBSAT - er v a epee war ENTS WERE = ay Bur Look HOW CLEVER au THIS MAN (5! LOOK AT Cc SiS CHANGES OF SHAPE! othe AMOUNT OF CHANGE! eee THiS 16 WHAT HES Renuey PAINE ~ = GOING FROM CIRM OFPORIE CURE To STRAIGHT To CRED -To OPPOSE ete 170 AFTER. APT BABBITY FINISHED HIS FIRST MONTH CF INTENSIVE TRAINING AT MY LONDON SytibIO FOUR OF US SAT UP AL-NIGHT aud ANIMATED & QUICK SATIRE FOR Hiak CR HIS SEMINARS. | DID THIS HORSE SNEAK AS AN EXERCISE iy "O\ER'-ANIMATION - WHICH CAME CUT KIND OF FUNNY = SHOWS HOW FAR WE CAN GO SITTING RIGHT ON the BASES, Con Twor) , SiRsIING of 123 ad ws 71 HERS A NORE ConbeevanVe SNEAK cw 245 - | se. Foe HH SIE? / Kas HARRIS \ 113 Tea nape THSCNE) OF AND SPREAD APART ~ NOTE “te FLOT SWINGS FAST FRPOUEW “fs MIDDLE AND "os 2 9 8 eo a os Mosey bp teed aa Te Bown Gmiceey 7 t wf iF ae “fie: BAG MONE THRCLGH The MIDDLE INDICATES THAT THE Shaw HAVE SINGLE INBETWENC nd Be oN Off CBheknos SHAS) POUSHPY te SAME: PATTERN AS FORWARDS SHENK - BUT BACKWAEPS. 472 TIP TOE SNEAK , Selene iTS SOMETHING BETWEEN A WALK ad ARUN and A SNEAK. “he FEET WoRK LP and DOWN HIKE PISTONS HAS TO Bee ONONES, CAN BB AS QUICK ASA'S = 6 STEPS PREC. RON G's, 8's 105 125 14's, WHATEVER. BUT 17S MORE FIST TIMING — HERE'S The WELL-KNOWN FORMULA FOR the SACRT LEGGED CREATURE (QN4's) a@sh) 8 z 6 Ane Peres 2) mes. comer eae Spear NN cH errete Brat “hed? aoa BUT WITH A TALLEE Fl6URE WinH LONG LEGS WENE GOT FAMILIAR FRORLEMOF NICH ACTION IN"TEO SHORT A SPACE OF TIME. The FEET TAD To‘ FLICK’ —» \ DOWN WITH Tee TOP LEG CORE LiKe (7S INE THERE - GET AROUND THIS TAKE A BIT LONGER R the ACTION. 6S We CAN TWIST thee PELVIS ~ PLUS We CAN VARY Tic CYCLE POSITIONS. 11S. NOT MUCH OF A PROBLEM YITH ASNALOR- SHORT Creampie WITH SHORT LEGS = “Tae OWN ae WE CaN CHANGE The SILHOUETTES SLIGHTLY ON ALL PHASES OF EACH SteP~ LOWER the KNEE BTC. 173 HERE'S Ole THAT WoeKS - (ow S's = SSrept peesec.) ys uP nica FoR. Just one DRAWING 7 6 8 RE Ha ‘ Bae 3? Ea Ome pm LOW WE CAN GET SOME COUNTERACTION GOING ON A FAST SNEAK (Tas (8 ExAGGEENTED ) ANYWAY, THESIS The IDEA WHICH CAY APPLY INK A REDUCED WAY TO A LESS: CARRCNY ACKON 21d) FIGURE.) 175 HTT SRS \ \ \ \ RUNS AND JUMPS AND SKIPS ‘ INA WALK ALWAYS ONE FOOT IS ON the GROUND. ONLY ONE FOOT LEAYES the GROUND ATA TIME, INA PUN BOTH FEET ARE OFF ‘le GROUND AT SOME POINT FORI, 2 0&3 POSITIONS. ANDWE AT DOGSNT NAVE TORE THAT WAY, GUT THAT WOULD Ge The PIETPESUSHING CHARACRRRISTC GerwREN A Run ad A WAEK= 176 HERES he SAWE THING WITHA BIT NORE VITALITY MORE LEAN BIGGER ARM SWING BUT StL JUST Wir The FEET OF Tha. GROUND FOR OUR FRAME, A ‘NORMAL! PUN ON G'S (4 seps pa ee) tie UP HERES A SUMILAR THING WITH MORE'CARBON’ PROPORTIONS ~ A CARTON Rall ON G'S - BUT WIT the FEET CFF The GROUND Foe 2 POSITIONS Phas Wioveatr ARM Seine emt HigiTar W7 ANOTHER. RUN ON G5 - HERES he ‘REAL’ VERSION CF The SAME THING - NOTE “Thee REDUCED ARM ACTON - WITH HARDLY ANY UP aud DOWN CH The BODY — PUIS BOTH FEET ARE OFT GROUND FOR 2 FRAMES. wane ae nn, nw ¢ al , WITH RUNS WE CAN Po ALL “The THINGS WE PID WAH WALKS. “The HEAD CAN GO UP 2d DOWN, SIDE TO SIDE, BACK awd FORTH. “The Bopy CAN BEND sad TWIST IN-OFPOSITE PARECTIONS. , Thee FEET FLOP iN ont] Ou ele. Bur We CANT PO AS MUCH BECAUSE WE PONT HAVE <0 MANY POSITIONS TO DO ITIN BECAASE Ths. RUN IS FASTER (A Wauee CH (2's Migtir Rut ow 68) PULE OF THAME OW A WHEN We RAISE the BODY IN The UP rostroy RAISE IT ONEY ‘72 HEAD Of EVEN Vg OF K HERD NeMEe. A yuhOve READ. 100 MUCH. OF course, AS WITH WAHG, RUNS HAVE To Be ON ONES BECAUSEOF SO We CAN CORWS “he EODY MUCH ACTION (NA SHORT SPACE OF TIME. FANERSE IT CN“the OPPOSE SEP ‘ud KEEP IT STRAIGHT ON The PASS. POSITION. HEAD SUGHTEY UP Cb The PASSING PostTION - (02) wecan Ast le BODY SDENAS a Ae os way y ON the EXTREM RUAN) = CAN / ba Ben) . OCR eT 25 Bon ene INTERMED IS POSTION BUT STIL TREAT he: FRET The SAVE WAY 179 LieTS TAKE A TRADITIONAL CARBON RUN - ( SpReND APR) Coun BEQNAS- OR oN BS WEY INBETWFERS AS WITHA WALK FOR. VITALITY Jad MORE ACTON eagu wire a We CAM PLA ‘A RUN FROM 4 FosiTon TN The RON STARE Watt Ta, CONTAEES = A ta BES ‘Steel FROM ta POWN Posmans - Aetaee ereewes SIRRT FROM “heuP FOSITIONS ~ “the Fee SPREAD IN the AIR Posmens 15 emcees (68 sre wit he Pust-OFFS) 180 IN A FAST Run (44% 0845) #5 stow Nor BE ANID iA FAST RUN “The POSMTIONS EXACTLY the SAME SILHOUETTE AS IT6 CouNTER-# 1, SHOULD OVERLAP SLIGHTLY VARY ITSOMPHON - MAKE IT HIGHER OR LOWER. TO WAP CARRY The FYE. (eas /oveRLApP Ne CP. , 2 2 ot CREME) WW A'NORAML! RUN The ARIS (16 MA WAR) CounTER Im orHsR. NE, SM HA Sut foe Siac sr HERES The CLICHE’ (chavs ewes 0) Bur Te VARY IT WHAT ABOUT HAVING Tae LEGS EXACTLY OPPOSE 70 the STANDARD RUN? pape. LVRS Have’ A 4 pRAWIIG 2uN WHERE Tue NORMAL ANP ON The MIDDLE Position. Exsenie posirion 18 USED AS The POW ~ INELUDAG PHSH The Heed ind ROPY MORE FORMARD (fur KOT Tea Maca) PISS. FOB -UP pow 4 z 2 Pow ewes the bebren a oresrel 181 “THERE CAN BE & HUGE FORWARD LEAN - IN RRALITY ” . The FASTER the FIGURE RUNS The MORE IT LEANS FORWARD. ‘AND IT POESN'T HAVE TO BE ON BALANCE ALL The TIME OBWICUSLY, WE CAN TAKE THINGS MucH FURTHER - HERES A RUN GN GS (PLANNED FRONT. SPREAD Feer PoSiONS ) 1 2 BECAUSE OF “The LONE LEGS IT NEEDS AT HIRST G OSIRONS To MAKE AT WORK Gor 7 SP The HER. MOVINS WY AN ABC. THE HES IRUS ~The TOE FoLONS HOWABOUrTHIS Ol- ft ee 456 7 A. 6 DRAWING RUN het t Bopy ony Paes Roby OnLy INTERESTINGLY, AST BARBITT FELTTHAT G FRAMES IS REALLY A NICH RUN THAN A4 OFS DPAWING PUN. AND KEN HARBIS, ATOP EXPONENT CF WARNER’ FAST ACTION ALMAYS PREFERRED TO FO RUNS CHGS ab BS 182 WHAT ABCUT THE ARMS? — Do THEY PUMP BACK ve FORTH? Syme VicteY? DaNeLE LocsELY? PO THEY SWING FecM SIDE TO SIDE? PO THEY HARDLY MOVE AT ALL 2 NALCLICHE OR SrANDAR RUN LETS TRY A RESTRICTED ARM MGTION THE ARMS CAS INA WALKS “the ARM STILL OPPOSES The HE ARE OPPESMTE To The LES. But MOVEMENT 1S RESTRICTED. E A 4 [LA Abas — ON AVERY FAST RUN THERES A pancee OF Eo MucH ARI HME YN. IT CAN BE Teo po msrod CONFUSING. < THe LB ACTION SHOULD PREDOMINATE. ve Sy 2 183 HOw ABOUT The AGH SuliNGING FLOM SIDE TO SIDE - ann Fence the Pepspecave. WAT AGOUT VARYING EVERY OTHER PASSING POSTION AS THR Run PRCGRESSES ? HAVE EVERY OTHER PASSING POSMION GO POWN — EVEN THOUGH BOTH Fier ARE OFF The GROUND. pHs “the AMELINT OF ABA MOVEMENT WiLL HAE WB Be FesracteD Sitee Irs Pumper VERY 4 FRAMES G times a secow) WE CouLD Awe RON en (23 -AND PUT The ARM ACTION ON 6S A Punnps Rse0cKD) = Wout BF VERY EFFECTIVE, CONVERSLY- WE CouLt) MAKE A RIN AND HAVE The ARMS Gong TWICE AS SLOW AS Te FRET. We QuLD Apo Ps Pos R01 As wees, 4 0 36 RUN ONSS AND HAVE ~ mene O Qa \ g a SWINGING On 16'S BACKWARDS. Soa rea ste eee ata 4 onet7 ance Wecer SeuINe Wa Bie Ae bethaie We HAE Te rine ‘epo ir we we inet - HERES & 5 DRAWING RUN ‘SHOWING HOW WE CAN VARY The SILHOUETTES ON A FAST RUN ~ “AGAIN, SO THAT The EVie DOESNT READ IT AS JUST The SAME ONE LEG aud ONE ARM GOING AR‘ SxXTREME, NONE oF THE t counreR | POSITIONS fue ‘tre sane) sittouerne } v we Perea tO 8) ~ oar aie, ALEO The BACKS Go FROM CONCAVE TO CONVEX, The FEET TWIST aud The ARIS aud LEGS ARE cuifle DEPERAT 186 HERES A JOGGING RUN ON 6's - BECAME THIS RUN 18 SLIGHTLY SLOWEE. THAN-fhe PRECEEDING WADEE-CNE ON 55 AND BECAUSE The LENGTH OF The STRIDES 1S MUCH REDUCED-CEOTH ager ARE INTERAR FOR JUST ONE FRAME) ~"Ce CONVERSE SMHCUETIES CAN RE MORE ALIKE (Boe Sri. DFFRRENT) PASS Pos, arene “The FeeT TWIST aud "The AMUS PUMP AROUND IN ASWALL CIRCLE THe HsAD (PST GCES. UP AND POWN AYOANG GIRL ANGHT BIN ON B'S — REDICED ACTION - WITH ONLY ONE DRAWING OFF ‘the GROUND. 197 IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWS Tue UP PESITION.. “THEN HE HAS it LIFT HINGELE UP OVER ‘he NEXT 9 RAVES THEN HIS HEAD LEMS FORWARD 7 HELP The PUSH-Uf ‘ @ Ya uP TAKE A FAT MAN RUNNING ON E& - THERES GOING TO BE LOTS OF UP aud DOWN ON ‘the WEIGHT, BECAUSE HES So HEAVY Hie Down RESTCN IN ORDER Te FALL DOWN HEAVILY AGAIN. © AIL IMPORTANT THING ~ WHEN A PIUNNER ROUNDS A CORNER THEY LEAN TOWARDS fee CENTRE - WC THe Byecrten OF thc TURN Bo Tire wastes Or Eiiecrit ~ sur re EYE one tLe Te By (Del ENOING ON The SPEED) LIKE A MOTORBIKE, THEY LEAW On the THAN 188 SOMONE SAID THAT THECHASE’IS AW INVENTION THAT (S ORGANIC. % NOMIES. CRETAINLY THERE ARE THOUSANDS OF RUNNING APZOUND ‘CHASE’ PRODUCING ENDLESS avd INVENTIVE VARIATIONS ON FRET PONS eospecn d's ty jo 5s [av ee | ee #) on 85 “He FAST RUNS AGE Moke SUTASLE FORSHRT AND he LONGERLECED FIGURE NETS Uetoy FIGURES WHCH NEED FEWER POSITINLS TO MORE TIME TO FUNCT ~CNE CR TMD MCE FUNCTION LES TM BECABE ITALLOVERLABS. POSITIONS TS HELP CARRY THE EVE. Cae + DRAWING FORMULA RUN FFFECTVE FOR SHORT-LEGGED FIGURES THIS IS SO FACT (6 STEPS PeR SECOND) THAT THERES NOT ENOUGH TiMis 7 SWING “The ARMS ARCUND VIOLENTLY ~SO They FOUND f73 BEST TO STRETCH The ARMS CUT IN FRONT. THe LEG ACTION WORKS UNDER aud BEHIND The BOOY ( CK Te HAVE SUPRA ) VERY LITTLE UP an} POWAY OW HEBD aed BOY uP ANP ASAIN, WE SHOULD VARY wapoe tau he SILHOUETTES St SHTLY TO See HEL? The. Ee READ BOTH LEGS @ etd = TWS ONE 1s PLANNED FOU “ie UP Ate PoOTIENs Bur 1 VARIATIONS ON 4 BRAWINE RONG - Tr Ae Ae ncTBR the RECN ERI. poe arene Ge - m ‘Yes BODY Goee FROM CENYEK TO CONCAME = 6 ey HERES A VERY WILD ONE ~ WITH ARM SINGS = PLANNED FOO The FUSM COR ROSMONS But STL. EASED ON The PLEMAA Pato “The LEG ACTON CARRES 17 TIME FLOOR, ADDED APTERWARDS 191 INCIDENTALLY, ABCuT CYCLES — LONG CYCLES ARE GREAT. SHRI CYCLES CBVIOIRLY READ ASCYCLES - BUT IF We TAKE SEVEZAL STRIDES WITH VARIATIONS IN The: EXTREMES aid PASSING POSITIONS, t@.~THEN HOOK BACK To 4D), Iv STOPS OR DELAYS The EYE READING IT AS A CYCLE, (He 3 DRAWING RUN sT¥RE PER Second! WeCAN'T GET MUCH FASTER THAN THIS BECANSE— HV Te MAKE A WHEEL OB A SPOKE APPEAR To GO AROUND IN! & CIRCLE WENEED A MINIMUM OF 3 DRAWINGS /POSITONS. “Tho Howr Do iT: Ir JUST FLICKERS - AS SO WE NEED TO FIND 3 NICE WORKABLE LEG POSITIONS To MAKE IT GO ABOUND. / AL WPL | > he) “b ae ye oe saad E> XTREME IN &y IT WORKS OYT LIKE THIS: 1st Stews 192 ; — — BASICALLY JUST GETTING THE “THERE APE COUNTLESS VARIATIONS O8 THIS 2 DRAWINGS To GO AROUND. FATREME TRE BUTREME me pee Bese si ak OF Counce 1 noRESsim SORT CARrcONY FIGURES - EATREME 193 HERES The STANDARD VERSION FOR EROAD LEG ACTION ON A 3 PRAWING Run - coe) ts as“ A VARIATION — sur srup-cw toe Cae arnepal— fe as oun AnD wars Te StoP US BREAKING UP? BAve + DRAWINGS FOR ONE STEP - erate The LUM MTS ~ (AVERIUELY PREVIN: GRAVITY - GOING FASTER. yl FASTER FOR. HS SPLIT SELEND GAGS - wal THEY WanreD Te e ceabey, més ~ GFT 2. DRAWING RUNS WAT WORKED pisses orene MEGA GG A 195 WITH A TWO DRAWING RUN - “THE PROBLEM WITH he LEG ACTION IS THAT 1S GONG TO FLICKER AND LOOK LIKE WHAT IT 1S ~ JuST 2 DRAWGS SHOWING MORE CR LESS AT ONCE Pus fa) equas = (2/ iad ee tt ScteaN we —— a Bur THEY STILL WANTED To: Ger the HUMANEY IMPOSSIBLE SPEED — ONE SOLUTION IS NOT TO PUT=H PASSING POSITION CF The LH3S The MIDDLE - BUT TO FAVOUR TWO OF The LEG POSMONS CiCBER EGETHER.... SO THAT The EVE READS~1he TWO DRAWINGS ad THEN IT JUMPS The BIG GAP. Lem AND The WEIGHT” BEARING FEET ARE ALSO PRETTY CLOSE TOGFTHRR, very CLever! AND [7S “The. SAME THINS WITH A BACK CR FRONT VIEW ~ fe SAME IDEA WORKS PRETTY NICELY ONA 34 viEW - AHRDAAD Bur FOR A SIDE VIEW WITH A TALES FIGURE Wit LONGER LESS VS BRT Jo REVERT TO A & DRAWING RUN Bur FROM “the FRONT OR ‘he. BACK VIEW The 2 DRAWING DEVICE WRK ASTONISHINGLY WELL. NOT POSSIBLE, Bur BEHEVABLE,.. SHES im A Secon! — 50,-the. ACTUAL. PASSING POSITION (S OMITTED ~ IMPLIED ~8V The 2 ChE FEGEHER DRAWING AT EACH END ~ AND Tee BYE JUNPS The GAP WHERE TOL PAS. POSTION WOULD NORMALY BE 197 “Tlie SAME THING CAN RE { 3 HELPED ALONG BY OVERLAPPING I i % CONTRARY SHAPES - 2 2 : org ots ANOTHER WAY TO PO-te 2 DRAWING RUN 18°TO Kee? VARYING The SILHOUETTES _ AS WE GO ALONE “THEN The BYE READS IT AS A SORT OF Cctwilons Sceabie — ANOTHER. TACTIC |S TO FLAIL The ARMS ARCUND FRANTICALY— PROGRESSING “the. BODY 2) HEAD LEAN FORWARD AS SHE GOES ~ OR BACKWARDS - TO DWEET “Pi EYE 2ud TAKE Te CURSE OFF Tis. 2 PRAWING ‘ELICKERING' FexsT ACTION. “The HEAD COuLP MOM INA TIGHT CIRCLE - USING A MINIMUAA OF 4 DRAWINGS TO BO IT. ~ Ail THAT CIRCL ACTION CouLD ASO PROGRES: FORWARD -OR BACK 198 INCIDENTALY, HERES A SUGGESTION OF A PATTERN FoR ARMS FLAILING DUBING- A RUN- (IP TIE A RUN CNTWOE- THE ABMS WOULD FLA. THICE AS SLOW AS The Rit) FORA FINAL VARIATION ON A Z DRAWING Ru ~The FASTEST POSSIBLE RUN - we CAN Ger INTO BLURS — SS 2 WE CAN HAVE JUST TO DRAWINGS - (ow ones) BUT ITS QUITE EFFECTIVE TO FILM THESE CN 2 FRAME DESOLYES 50 THE DEAN INES ARE ON TWOS - RoR 2 FRAMES ACH SOPTENED: - Bur BY Tee DESOWES fa XY Se E/N scutes Har One FRAME f 3A. Soe Pete (hele eepoaob FRAME 1 earocae FANE AS Sofcoty FRAVE 515M focas ee ee 2 4S WHE CAN, OF COURSE, ADP MORE BLUR FOSIIONS. Btppne errcr I'VE FOUND THAT 2. FRAME DISSOLVES CAN BE USED IN ALL SORTS OF ACTON TO SOFTEN THINS ~ ESPECIALLY WHEN The ACTION 1S CLOSETOGHTHER ~ IT ACIS AS A KIND OF VARNISH SUMMING UP ON RUNS The RECIPE XK } RUNS ARE ALWAYS CH ONES. (enoacene rire pass ro) Mor an eh WE CAN DO EVERYTHING WE DO ON WALKS EXCEPT REDUCED - ROUGHLY BY HALE ISThe HEAD PUMPING UP aud DOWN? OR ROCKING SIDE 1 SIDE? OR REVOLVING IN A SMALL CIRCLE? ARE the LEGS PUMPING UP dad DOWN ? OR PUSHING OUT BROADLY? ARE The ARMS To BE CONFINED? STF DOIN The BODY ? OR ARE THEY THRASHING AROUND IN BROAD ACTION? WHAT (S The BELT LiNe DONG? SHOULD WE SPEND MORETIME IN The AIR? OL POWE SPEND MORE TIME CN The GROUND? We SHOULD BE INVENTIVE, DARING, TAKE Gualces! “THEN OF COUSSE - WHO IS RUNNING? FAT? GANGSTER? OD? CRIPPLE? THIN 2 BISHOP? YOUNG? FINANCIER? ATHLETE? THIEF? UNCO-CAD NATED? CHILD? SPINSTER? DRUNK? Giamour Que? — HIPPY? Cop? “The QUEEN OF ENGLAND? 10 ANP CF COURSE, WHAT ARE THEY RUNNING From — OR TO? AND To WHAT PURPOSE... WILL HAVE A DRAMATIC EFFECT ON THE RUN. 200 eee an sereNoe> Ol the Neer 6 PROES (ns on o¥es) “THIS OLD LAbY LOOKS & BIT LIKE AN ANIMATED ROAD MAP, BUT HER ACNON SIS PIT ON The BASIS BYERVTHINS WEVE BaEN TALKING ABOUT. FIRST WE BUILD HER STARTS RUN - ON 49 - BEGAWING WITH The. Conracns 1, 5 oud 7 Se SARIS Cr Tt A VERY COMTANED OLD PEREOHES RUN - LIKE AN EC-AMILETE. HER HEAD GOR UP od Dont aed AROUND IN A TIGHT ciRese «€SRS Cne on nose) (AND HER HAND ACTON Serbs 94 3 B- PUNCHES FORMARD—\F~ — LIKE A BOKER. HAVING. WORKED Our The BODY, HEAD, LEG td ARM ACTION, WE ADD The BORBWS PISTHIL ‘bd Cte ACTON a9 FLAPPRIS ANCIENT BRIBSSS LATER AS UCLAL, PONE ONE THI AT ATIVE 201 SHE GOS UP a) DOWN MORE AS SHE TAKES BIGGER STEPS - 202 AND SHE GOES LOWER AS SHE PREPARES TO JUIIP..- THIS OLD LADY MAY LOOK A BIT LIKE A WALKING ANATCMY LESSON - BUT SHES PEAHY A Duce/inouSe] RASRIT/CAT FERMUIA SHES A SranpaD 408 HOLLY WeoD PEAR ‘SHAPE , BUT WITH KNEES ad ELBOWS - ‘ad WITH We: FLOPPY HAIE-ETO. THERES A CONTRAST BETWEEN SOFT td HAgD BIS. HERES ‘the PATTERN OF HER GIRUSH SkiP— RUNS IN aud HOPS FROM HER LEFT FOOT AND LANDS ON The SAME LEFT FecT. 2 FRAMES LATER HER RIGHT FOOT LANDS AND SHE HoPS FROM IT 34) LANDS ON tee SAME RIGHT FOOT — “TIEN IMMEDIATELY PUTS DOWN flee LEFT FOOT dud HOPS FROM IT, LANDING ON Tle SAME LEFT FOOT, Then SAME WAH HERI, pr. (WER BODY Keeps REVERSING (SELF) Pus if aM a ha 2 Ss cer Sa @ jah ot DBaWiies % Ge ar Sate ae sews APH hp | epi co > HONS ON taser eh 208 SKIPS. A SKIP IS TWO BOUNCES ON ONE FOOT THERE ARE ALL KINDS OF SKIPS BUT “The BASIC ONE IS St60-HOP, StEP-HoP, STEP-HOP, STEP-HOP, ef. “ete (| WHEN WE GO FORWARD OWR FOOT IIPS A BIT. e eo OQ . Q if 4 ’ 4 . 6 sree HOP STEP ¢ WE STEP AND HOP ON ONE FooT- e THEN WE CHANGE FEET aed HOPON The OTHER Foot g USUALLY, WE TAKE TWICE AS LONG ON The STEP AS WE Do ON The SKIP. OR WE HOP BROADLY LiKE the OLP LADS SKIP (“HOPPING ON (ES — on ones) ah ag laahs You Go pow! AN YoU HOP OVER - Tysw You GoDCHN AND Yow Hop Ove ON ONE Foor LANDIS OW he SANE Foot ON TKe OTHER Fecr LANDING CN THAT FOOT” MANY THINGS CAN HAPPEN WITHIN The ACTION — MOVEMENT OF ARMS, HEAD, Fe. To. MAKE IT INTERESTING ~ “THERE ARE SO MANY VARIATIONS = VARIOUS TYPES So MANY POSSIBILITIES . A LITTEE GR SEIPPING ROPE USES A PoxiSLE BOUNCE. WITH Quite DEFINITE ACCENTS. ‘A PRIZEFIGHTER SKIPPING ROPE HARDLY LEAVES The GROUND. “HARDLY ANY MOVEMENTS. “THERES A DOUBLE BOUNCE CN GACH Fool —VERY SLIGHT, VERY SUCK. 209 ~ — ( Ler’ Say WE DOA SUBTLE SKIP WALK ) We WANT The FIGURE T STEP aud HOR CHANGE FEET, STEP ard HOP, HANGE Feet, STEP ad HOP, ete. ING ACTED IF OUT Cyuuel ve Just Done - HCPPNG ARCUND The ROOM To PO THIS) WHAT DO WE DO FIRST? Asien: The CONTACTS. WaCl ONES? THERE'LL BE SEVERAL... vee ainehe 2irsnées “The: (MPORTAKT. ONES « inst See AS WITH A NORIWAL WALK, MAKE The ‘covet Fae MAIN CONTACT POSITIONS OK, WHATS “the. TEMPO? Ausner: WEL, Te ACCOM ODATE the TOPS LETS Do ITON 24's Ci ‘spoons Foe CK, Now WHAT? Answer. WEL, WANE Gor 24 FAME. PAT INThe, NEXT 2 STEP CONTACTS. Wake THEM 8 PRIMES APART ~ THAT ONES US 3 CONTRCAS PRE SECOND UAICH IG ABOUT WAT IT AE WHEN. 1) HOPPE AROUND Tes, OM) °S Leave Out The ARM ACTION FoR NOW. (2, NOW AA WE HAVE DO 15 PUTIN “Tha PASSING POSITIONS BETWEEN EACH CONTACT uy But Wait A NUNUTE, LETS Be CLeveR- Lets BREAK The ACTION UPA BIT- £72 MAKE The ARM SWING AT ITS yy DEST ON The DMD CONTACT POSITION aifss AD THAT WL MAKE CenTAero 17 aud4f -< PASSING POSITIONS FOR- The ARAB. OK, NOW WELL PUT IN the PASWG POSmONS. FEY WOULD NATURALY GO DOWN A BT BETWEEN FAGH ConTacr. \0 THAT GIVES US 3 POMS PRSECOAD CUS A “TRIPLE BOWCE DURE EXCH OVERALL STRIDE - HICE. W ALL WE HAVE Te Do IS MaKe TELLIGENT INBETWEENS CUSHICWING ARM SWINGS AT EACH END. 5 WORKS WELLON THOS ( Bur we (a) POLISH IT FURTHER BY ADDING CHES 210 Ane sace wt) contac a We COULD ALTER ‘he TIMING ON A SKIP ((A SluP 1S KMD OF Like A RBYTUMIC DANCE Te WE HAD THiS - = A WALKING: DANCE. 8 res Bras 2 8 cfol 8 8B 8 8 HOP HOP . HOP HOP —_ P we 4 Hop Hop. HOP HoP aage Foor Coige Rot Bur TO CHANGE “the RHYTHM SLIGHTY, IT COULD RE - 8 6 (Orem 8 Change it @ 8 torn 8 io) ” HOP = HOP HOP He HOP HOP, HOP Hop Chige fest haage tat (aus) INA BROAD JUMP The PERSON STARTS WITHA RUN aud WHILE RUNNING WORKS IC AM ANTICIPATICN. (ACE TO HAVE the SPINE SHAPE KEEP REVERSING ) Mol OWN cones: ‘ON CaNIDINS uP Pus N SAME SRT CF THING IN A HURDLE, The RUNNER. MAKING PROGRESS — Bur PAUSES TURT LONG ENOUGH To CLEAR Tae HURDLE - QUITE SIM(LAR. TO A ACRSE IN A HORSE SHOW Prmke> Wer Foe ese ANTICIPATES Doral HEL. REACH aud STRETCH tud LAND aud GO INTO A RUN AGAIN, THERE IS ANTICIPATION BUT IT PORSNT LAST VERY LONG. 212 LOTS OF LEAN INTO The BODIES. THERES AN OLD “GOLDEN AGE” ANIMATION MAXIM = LD "WHEN You THINK YOUVE GONE FAR ENOUGH - GO TWICE AS FAR: THEN THEY Sy, iF (1S Tec PAR -Yeu CAN ALWAYS PULL IT BACK LATER ( Wht, | NEVER SAW ANYONE PULL IT BACK. Bein BELLIGERENT, I'D SAY WELL YOu CAN ALWAYS INCREASE IT LATER! (AND | NEVER. SAW ANYONE INCREASE IT LATER EITHER! ANYWAY, IT HELPS Te GET LOTS OF Led INT The BODIES A CARTOONY Juni LIKE THIS WORES Fine, ARM ACTION IS GCOD, LEGS ARE OK. egy FS 2 FseF Comat Couraer Conraer Bur Lets DELAY ONE oF The Ji 9 Connor ag conn HELPS BREAK IT UP WITH MORE ACTION WITHIN the JUMP WEIGHT) ON A JUMP Te AVeID FLOATING Dud Give WEIGHT - IF A PERSON JUMPS IN The. AIR WEE GOT TO GET ACTION WITHIN The GENERAL ACTION. Get The ARMS GOING Ob the FEET GOING WITHIN Te GENERAL JUMP THIS HELPS GINE IT WEIGHT aud AVCIDS FLOATING. LETS TAKE 2 JUMPS STARTING FROM A STANDING POSITION: SOTH TAKE ABOUT “The SAME TIME = 1/4 SECONDS TO DO The Juul, PROPORTIONS, THIS IE JUMP IS ONT WES, (Burcr COURSE, ONES) COULP BE ADDEDIN Te “VARNISH? IT. NOTHING WRONG WITH IT~ IT FUNCTIONS WEH-- | LIKE IT BECAUSE ITS NOT OVERANINATED. ~ SIMPLE, CLEAR. 2d SOLID, "18ST u Sur NOW Lers LOOSEN “the WHOLE THING UP- WE CAN GO QUITE FAR BY PLANNING ITONCNES aud ADDING IN MORE STRETCH MORE COMPRESSION - DELAYED PARTS - HORE ARM REVERSIS- FECONDARY ACTION SHIRT, AY EXTRA BITS. “The RQUET IS MUCH MORE FLUID 20d LOOSE (od cartoeny) ITS ALLA MATTEROF TASTE: ITS WHAT YOU LIKE ou HOW MMICH Oe HOW LITTLE YOU USE THESE DEVICES bsp Sok 784 1 WH RBM te TO GET YOUR RESULT. qi {pt \ | ial ey = Wo 1S Feit 1s Bur MARRY Sexe 214 4 27293) 33 37 > f Hi 3s ae 6 4 29 21 2 Pa 2a se rh 3) 3s BL HBL BAO Agin,720, tI ryt * " ppd Leh bt ie ree Bur : ARDY SER Cries) 215 FLEXIBILITY AS | SEEIT, THEREARE 2 BIG ANIMATION FLAWS - WE EITHER HAVE The KING KONG’ EFFECT WHERE EVERYTHING MOVES AROUND eae AMOUNT EVERYTHING (S FLASHING ARCUND AL OVER Tis PLACE ®& We WANT TO HAVE A STABLE IMAGE aed STILL HAVE FLEXIBILITY eo THIS IS HOW We GET IT: “The FOLLOWING DEVICES ARE GUARANTEED TO LIMBER UP, LCOSEN UP aud GINE ‘SNAP’ 20d VITALITY TO OU: PERFORMANCE WHILE KEEPING The FIGURE: STABLE 2ud SOLID. WE'VE ALREADY INTRODUCED SOME OF THESE DEVICES WITH WAL aud RUNS, RUT | WANT TO TAKE GACH OF THEM SEPARATELY 2d DIG INTC THEM. Fest, (fle BREKKDONN A GREAT WAY TO GET FLEXIBILITY IS WHERE WER GONG PLACE he BREAKDOWN Deane OR PASSING POSITION OR PAIDDLE POSITION OR INTERMEDIATE POSITION Cwanrever You WANT 1 CALL IT ) ~ BETWEEN 2 EXTREMES WHERE DO WE GOIN The Mindz? CRucit! AS WE'VE SEEN WITH the WALKS, IT GNES CHARACTER To the MOVE. ITS A TRAVELLER ~ A TRMISITIONAL FESITION. AND WHERE WE PUT IT I< SO IMPORTANT, ITS The SECRET OF ANIMATION, | TELL YOU! 1 STOPS THINGS JUST GOING SORINGLY Feom A te B. GO SOMEWHERE PLSE THATS INTERESTING EN ROITE FROM ATO B EMERY HAWKS, A MASTER ANIMATOR OF 'CHAVGE’ SAP To ME, “PICK, DONT GO FROM AT 8. GO FROM At? Xto B. GO Fem A te G to RB. L GO SOMEWHERE FIs IN the mioDLE!” A SIMPLE, POWERFUL TOOL = | FIRST GOT Olffo THS BY WORKING WITT KeN HARRIS, WHEN HE Cur uP My DRAWINGS, OR RITS OF THEM, awd HE'D STICK THEM DOWN. IN A DIFFERNT PLACE. | ENDED UP FEELING SO STRONGLY ABOUT The BREAKDOWN THAT FOR YEARS WENT AROUND RANTING dud RAVING THAT [COULD WRITE A WHOLE BOOK ABOUT (T: CIT WAS ONLY JUST OCCURRED To ME THAT TAS 1S in) LETS TAKE CUR Soe —_~ ol ie and \S) oO ONG FROM HAVPY fo SAD PUTIN The. MIDDLE PoSimion Oo WHERE Ir woupp BE Nw] LOGIcAlly ~ 0K, But Dube. EXTREME — BREAKDOWN — EXTREME S\N 5 co = MORE INTEREST (6) (8) MORE CHANGE : “_—~ a = A QUICKER CHANGE ©) (é) - MORE VITALITY — = A Quek UN HAPPINESS. 4 = tT WOULD AFFECT The CHES 200 Males the EYES AND Givi MORE CHANGE TO UNHAPPY tT WOULD DISTIEND The FACE STRETCHING “The CUgens, NOSE, EYES 4 = A TOTALLY DIFFERENT CHANGE GULP... ne (B) - om ie LOWER = leer 219 Extreme = BREAKDOWN — EXTREME DO Wie GO uP. ao oO = THINKS ON ONE SIDE? & (8) (6) ABOUT IT. INCREASE, a) Gp 2 FASE the SMe? oO CONFIDENCE wy PEDUCE IT? 3 oOo = HAMM, eS SN bers 5s pePoce = 1 KNEW Ir. UNHAPPY oem (Kaew Even Jos = GIES Sole A SIMPLE BLNK MOBILITY We CaN Saar = oops. 1 STRETOM THINS Somerdine (ET? "0 Be oR. IMAGINATIVE -- HAD A BRINK ? = Your Seeger iS SAFE WAH ME 220 EXTREME BREAKDOWN = EXTREME We CAN GO. ON Like THIS FOREVER ae ion) iW REVERSE... © JOE GS S LY — a ©) © () TILT Te (Foe Ler the mass? ) (3 ©) ITS ENDLESS HERE We GO WITH The MIDDLE “TeAVELLING’ POSITION HAS A PROFOUND EFFECT ON Te ACTION xd CHARACTER. 1 HANG MY HAT ON THISS MAKE The EXTREMES (Ce Conraers) THEN the BREAKDOWN (oR PASSING POSITION.) THEN MAKE The NEXT ERENCDOWN BETWEEN The EXTREME 200 The MAIN BREAKDOWN. (KEEP BREAKING (T DOWN INTO EVER SMALLER BITS. (THEM DO SEPARATE “STRAIGHT- AHEAD’ RONS CH SEPARATE BITS) 221 3O YEARS AGO WHEN | WAS FIRST CATCHING CW To AL THIS STUFF | WORKED BRIERY WITH AGE LEVITOW, Ken HAPRIS's ZARLY PROTEGE. ABE DREW BEAITFULLY aud 1 WAS (PRESSED BV FOTH Tue Quacity AXP The QUANTITY OF HIS WORK, FAST AND GoD! WORKING ON Tousit STUFF, ABE PROPKED 20 25 SECONDS A WEEK WHLE The OTHERS MANAGED Te STRUGGLE THROUGH 5 SECENPS. AND ABES WAS BETTER. | ALWAYS REMEMBEE ABE SAYING TO Me ON A TUESDAY + ’ DICK, (VE DONE ALL The. EXTREMES TOMCREOW I'M GOING TO BREAK THEM ALL DOWN, “THEN “The REST OF The WEEK I'LL ADD IN-The BITS Bad) Pieces” A — ACAN, a \ LETS SAY Suse AHEAD . ° Arne . i Tut i” foes Bearer A FORIND MDD ABT- te DUEL a 8 SEPLING LIKE THS - 5 L Ee x } = 1D START BEING CLERR ad THROW “the BREAKCONN OFF LIKE THES = aed one Ww ON Kat WOULD FREAK cur, “GODDAMM IT, DICK, | JUST WANT A STRAIGHT INBETHEEN I i THERE! JuSr GNE ME A STRAIGHT INBETWEEN! THe Gul¥ Just RELAXES HIS HAND, ay | DONT WANT ALL THIS CRAZY FLASHING AROUND ALLOVER the PLACE IKIND OF STUER! C Kes HAD Avi Fuied GooP PETE.) Bur WHEN | Dip GET 7 KNOW HOW, WHEN aud WHERE TO USE IT, { CAN ALMOST SAY | MADE MY LIVING WITH The. BREAKDOWN DRAWING: 1 OFTEN HAD TO PRODUCE MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF FOOTAGE AT The LAST MINUTE. | BECAME’ The TELEPHONE ANIMATOR’ ANIMATING AT The SAME THe AS EOIG The. BUSINESS ON The PHONE. CLIENTS WOULD PANT, ‘We CAME TO You BECAISE OF HIGH STANDARDS ~ We DONT CARE iF Your. MANS IN The HOSPITAL OF IN TIMBUKTOO ~ ITS YOuR. SHINGLE ON The. BOOR, BUSTER , — YOu FIX IT!” WE USUALLY HAD GOOD STORYTELLING KEYS and BETREMES, SO AIL | HAD PO WAS JOIN A LOT OF STURE UP IN AN INTERESTING WAY. | FouND THer ALMOST ANYTHING Wit WORK, PUTIT SOMEWHERE ELSE IN The MIDDLE, FAIRLY INTELLIGENTLY. IT NEVER Let Me TOWN. OF COLRSE, THe WORK WOULDNT BE AS GCOD Aa IF 1D HAD ‘the TIME Te ANALYSE Oud THIN WHAT The HELL | WAS DOING, BUEr AT SiN The MORNING, WITH JET LAG, HOLDING The JAB BATH oue) A GRUMPY CLibstr PHONIAS IN 4 HouRs, IT GETS YOU THROUGH. 225 NON We COME To A DIFFERENT THING WITH A SIMILAR. NAME - (Over. aPene ACTON THIS IS WHERE THINGS MOVE IN FARTS. ~ WHERE EVERYTHING DOES NOT HAPPEN AT The SAME TIME, TAKE A HOLLYWOOD Built DOG TURNS QUICKLY ARCUND Tes SEB SOMETHING ~ \ iis Jw With. HIS HEAD ARRIVES. Bur HIS JOWS adtaps Wen Sere Moor tee ASHE ATS kee LATE odin To NORMA. THRE DESTINATION 24d KEEP On GOING. (en AGHT KEP EM \ (een sR ) Te JARGON (S$ "The. JowLs ag) FARS' DRAG" “Tie: tex ROUT che Moet ACTON aud THEN THEY FOLLOW THREHGH? —~Geieet=> By ‘a. MAN ACTON. ‘OVERLAPPING ACTION’ MEANS Olt PART STARTS FIRST and OTHER PARTS FOLLOW. Les TAKE ATYPICAL UTTERLY BLAND, BOBWG DESIGM LIKE THEY HAD FRRTV COMMEROAS WThe, EOS Tals Puss. y Nor Auch CeERTRE To Week is Gone wir, TOTURN as ir? ud FACE US. 226 We COULD CONtEIBUTE To The BOREDOM EY PUTTING IN| AN EQUALLY PULL. BREAKDOWN RIGHT IN The MIDDLE ud GO HOWE, AS MILT KAHL SAID,” “Te, MOST DIFFICULT THING TO POIN ANIMATION IS NOTHING. (CU KNOW, THATS A VERY TRUE STATEMENT. Riear, bur deeds vow WE CAN MAKE NOTHING’ AT LEST INTERESTING... WE CAN TAKE ‘the CURSE CFF THIS VEY ORDINARY BIT OF ACTION BY SIMPLY BREAKING The ACTION INTO PARTS. FASS Pos. . By = Ta isg wow sovers Ly MOE Simp mone mad tan ht Les noe ry exe fies ce Wercrrasr "hater rE, Bur ne hea acd in Bes rae soe tao BUT THROM N ABINK — FOUONS LAST SINCE MOST OF OUR BODY ACTIONS START FROM The HIPS... Past Pos WELL MOVE the HIPS and TAKES ASTER OTH FROT St STOMACH DS, STL Dey CVER. WILE HEDIS Fest. “The HERD. IN MD THEN. THEN A SIC BLING: 27 WE HAVENT EVEN TILTED HIS HEAD OR CHANGED HIS EXPRESSION — BUT ‘SINIPLY BY CUERLAPPING PARTS WE'VE INJECTED LIFE INTO A PEDESTRIAN SITUATION. 1 eae urane He One-reor weiegt odes ey nscar — “Sowmue” CGR wu 4 rors ms ote our wins Aine ASRS hes as at tines paartcuad ‘baa ke HEAD FO RINAED HEAD SL DELAYED 228 ZAK BA Ror FORWARD 48 He SCTE. NO MATTER HOW DEADLY “The ACTION IS THATS CALLED FOR--WE CAN WAKE IT MORE INTERESTING BY OVEELAPPING- V\ “Wy IN M \ (4 No eA AW “Wy La Lem Tua tie NOW Lens HIPS Foulcd GUIDES OT HEAD FIRST «MOVE WHAT = “The SHOULDERS Feesy SLIGHTLY ane BLINK —“SHoUIpERS AS He SrEFS id SEtES HE HAS SUST ONE LITTLE DETAIL THATS: DIFFERENT Wit CHANGE EVERYTHING - SHIRTS WEIGHT SPT. wisIGAT ARKS. SPE Foot 6 ONE SDE “TO OTHER SIDE FALANCE, Qui SETTLES AS He TURNS bers BLiic HEAD. ti FeOT1S SLIDING OVER. 229 $0) TO MAKE EVEN the DULLEST ACTION OR. FIGURE INTERESTING, WE BREAK ‘he BODY INTO SECTIONS ~ INTO DIFFERENT ENTITIES ‘aed MOVE SECTIONS ~ ONE AT ATIME, CONSTANTLY OVERLAPPING: then | Ge the SHounpees “he CHEST The ARMS the Peis DRAPERY the Lacs “the FEET. S 2 AND Wie CAN BREAK IT UP INTO EVEN SMALLER SECTIONS IF Wie LIKE CCOnCHSION PROPLE UNFOLD, ONE PART STARS FIST, GENERATING Te ENERSY FOROTHER PARTS TO FOLLOW — WHICH THEN 'POLLOW THROUGH! WIEN A FIGURE GOES FROM ONE PLACE Te> ANOTHER, A NUMBER OF THINGS TAK PLACE 2ud EVERYTHING (SHT HAPPENING AT the SMe THM. WE HOLD BACK ON AN ACTION. THINGS DONT START OR END AT The SAME TIME. VARIOUS PARTS OF The BODY OVERLAP EACHOTHER, SO THIS 1S wHarS CALLED IN The CRAFT - ‘OVERLAPPING ACTION” (SIMPLE COunTERACTION SINE COUNTERAC . “TheRES NOT MUCH TOSAY ay ABCT COUNTHRACTON, fj OBYICUSLY eh _, A ; Ay) 230 TO BALANCE OURSELVES. OME PART GS. FORWARD AS ANSTHER PAET BALANCES’ BY GoIne BOK. -OR ONE PART GORS UP AS SHOTHEE BALANCES BY GOWE POWN, NOW WE COME To ONE OF ‘lie MOST FASCINATING DEVICES IN ANIMATION — BREAKING OF JOIN TO GIVE FLEXIBILITY & CCERSIVE BepAKinte CF Te fee WE KEEP ON PONG IT To LOOSEN THA UP. 178 Quine A MOUTHFUL. THE Pioneer. DISHEY ANIMATORS DISCOVERED THIS DEVICE aud All the GOOD GUYS WERE DONGIT, BUF ART BASEIT WAS Tle ONE WHO GAVE ITA NAME. WHEN I NOTICED MILT KAHL DONG IT! REMARKED ON IT ud MILT SAID “OH, WELL, YOUVE GOT To DOTHAT.” THINK IF 1b SAD! OH, (NOTICE THAT Youee BREMING “The. JOINTS HERE SUCCESSIVELY IN) ORDER TO GIVE FLEXIBILITY, “HED HAVE THROWN Me OUT OF tlie FCOM. ITS NOT WHAT ITS CALLED - Bur WHAT IS IT? PUT SMAPLY, ITS THES — ANAS The Haw WiLL wey AN AB dates aad eur “We ELBOW JOINT BENDS O8 BREAKS’ Gone BACK Nhe. OPPCBITE PIPECTICN = STABTING ON ITS WAY BACK Don. ISGONSTC op Come Back DOWN AGAIN — “BREAKING MEANS BENDING The JOINT WHETHER OR NOT IT WOULD ACTUALY BEND IN PEALITY. AND THEN WERE GOING TS KEEP ON DOING IT CONTINUOUSLY “SUCCESS IvELy = TO MAKE THINGS LIMBER 231 GPit NATWICK, The FIRST ANIMATOR. To REALLY DRAW WOMEN, ALWAYS SAID, “CURVES AGE EEAUTIFULTO WATCH IN The 1920S G2WIS FRIEND, ANIMATE BILNOLAN DEVELOPED 'RUEBEZ HOSE! ANIMATION. IT WAS NOVEL 20d FUNNY SINCE NCBODY HAD ANY BONES and EVERYTHING FLOWED WITH ENDLESS CURVING ACTICNS,- LOTS OF VARIATIONS ON FIGURE 8S, ROUND FIGURES MAKING ROUNDED ACTIONS. BUC NOW We CAN GET CURVES Wir SHRAIGHT LINES! Sue’, VE BREAKING JOINTS ENABLE US TO GET The EFFECT OF CURVED ACTION BY USING STRAIGHT LINES. WERE FREED FOREVER FROM The TYRANNY OF HAVING TO ANIMATE CUBEFRY FIGURRS, | ALWAYS. FIGURED THAT ‘DRAWINGS THAT WALK aad TALK’ SHOULD BE ANY TYPE OF FIGURE IN ANY STYLE, MADE OF FLESH AND BOWES. THIS OPENS UP A PANDCRAS BOX OF StuiZ WHAT AOL! WE CAN HAVE BONES ud STRAIGHTS IN OUR-FIGURES auc) STILL HAVE FLUID, FLOWING MOVEMENT. SAY We )) INBETWEEW ty quae | aoneup. 14 STRAIGHT in BETWEEN ITS GONG Te BE STIFFAS ABOARD, 1S STILL AWFULLY RIGID. 232 WE WONT DUCK the PROBLEM WITH 4 RUBBER SED ARM- ur WELL dil BREAN deeat eno) race, pf ne Sea spuen the j¢ JOINTS: J ra ° West Seated ey aie ac PRRNES The HAND Fest BeesicDewl 8 PASS FER ah L0H HERE FWSHAND IS I THIS EXAMPLE ALL The BENDS ORRREAKS ARE PHYSICALLY POSSIBLE. __ We HAVENT HAD To ACTUALLY BEND OR BREAK ANYTHING The WRONS Wh Yer 5 eur wecen 233 LETS DO IT AGAIN: “The BLBOW LEADS wud The JOINT? BREAK IN SUCCESSION ) OE COURS is [Sopy Witt Mae’ EGE Mons 234 A THING TO REMEMBER IN BREAKING The JOINTS SUCCERSIVELY IS WHERE DOES The ACTON STAeT= WHAT STARTS MOVING FIRST? 1S IT the ELBOW? The HIPS? The SHOULDER? HEAD? IN MOST BIG ACTIONS OF The BODY the SOURCE the START OF The ACTION IS IN Te HIPS. DANCERS SAY, “Go FROM Your HIPS, LOVE, FROM the HIPS, DEARIE. ” TAKE A MAN SLAPPING A TABLES “The ACTION STARTS FROM HIS HIPC os r & N AS op LENS FoRHAeD HIPS START fren ELECW BREN DOWN es “ANTICIPATING HIM OVER aed UP AS HAND CONTINUES UP. His move MEN Tue “le Baby = ERWAEDS aud UP = SLECW LEADS. STARTING BONN NOW. WE HAVE LOTS OF LEEWAY 1o ACCENTUATE 2ud EKAGERAATE BREAKING JONTS BECAUSE (T HAPPENS ALLfhe TIME IN REALITY. 235 Lets KEEP ON HITTING Tee TABLE- 17S AN AWFULLY GOOD EXAMPLE OF HOW WE CAN ACHIEVE The SAKE FLEXIBUTY AS" RUBBER HOSE” ANIMATION BY BREAKING The JOINTS WHEREVER WE CAN - GOING UP ~- “The ELBOW LEADS qudnte HAND PRAGS. Loon At -the SUE GOING ON IN HERE ~ “Tite LAST THING Te HAPPEN IS. “The. ARIA 'S PORN BUT The. FINGERS dae SOUL DELAED. 236 ONE MORE TIME - SHOWING The IDEA Simply. NOW HES GOING To BANG HIS FIST ON The TABLE - srt. ARM GOES Dewi HANDS SLL FOREARM GONG uP AS HAND ConTHUESUP GOINS UP SNAPS DOWN Beet on ren, —Peeaseey Fa } / - | ! AS Ol The PRECEEDING PACE “The ELROW HITS The TABLE FIRST FOLLOWED BY the FOREARM ad FIST = MORE UNFOLDING. IF ALL the JOINTS LO NOT BREAK AT The SAME Ti WELL Ger Ali The FLEXIBILITY WE'LL EVER NEED, ITS LIKE WHAT We Do WHEN WE MAKE A PRIGL APPEAR 2UBBERY. AND IS JUST WHAT A BALINESE, HINDU OR CRIENTAL TEMPLE DANCER 2 A VAUDEVILLE ECCENTRIC DANCER DOR - AND FeeD ASTAIRE! THEY ONLY Gor STRAIGHT BONES aud TONTS TO WORK WITH “Te GIVE The ILLUSION OF CURVACFOUS, LMEER MOVEMENT 237 BEATING CNA BASS DRUM HAS A VERY SIMILAR ACTION TO SMACKING “The. TABLE. THIS BENT JOINT BUSINESS CAN LOOK AVIFULY COMPLICATED AT FIRST Bur You QUCKLY Ger USED To Maud USE IT EVERY CHANCE You GET. IT BECCMES SECOND NATURE aud BIMPLE. INC REALISM 238 OF COURSE, DRUMMERS DO ALL KINDS OF SPINS aud FLOURISHES - Bur THIS 1S The BASIC PATTERN ~ Gone up Come DOYIN- \ / erence an 0% OB ADDIK #74, eceeaeucouse ARNE SERS BUT DAY te a a AN DRUHSTER. “Ti Jefe PATTERN ~The. IDEA: \ (1S Nat WeRYGqOOD SPACE ‘ Wied NES MORE VARY. CURVACECIS, UNFOLDING MOMEMANT — MADE WITH A RULER RESULT ( Cc) CY a aon Ay WK Ye ree cult fi AN ORCHESTRA CONDUCTOR. BREAKS JOINTS IN SUCCESSON LiKe CRAZY. rerreewe wer = fl 2 3 Ve 6 o NS + _ q- < ™ ELBOW GOR FORWARD 46 Wall ad BATON GO BACK. ——_ WRIT Beyaks FeRWAeD AS ELBON, Files, EATON 0 BACK. LetS TAKE The VERY BROAD ACTION CFA MUN SLAPPING CUT A MUSICAL BEAT. 1S HAPPENING Wid A DES Foor - SFM AND THIS 1S A REDUCED ACTION FOR A CONDUCTOR ++ 0 u as a >) Ds qo (Ei pl: goss Foznae WRIST Bees BACK As Faces HAND ad WRK €O BACK 8 ELEC GCOS BACK PRETHERR 0d BATON CAUTINJE FORWHED AS ELECWARENES FORWAED ‘sub ELBOW STARS FORWARD IT Leos Comericar@>, Bur WHEN You START TO THINK THIS HAY, I AINT. 17S BASICALLY “The SHE ACTION AS HITTING: (eowcatty 4871) The TABLE OR BExTINS The BASS DEL Gy OF A FIST BROADLY KNOCKING ON A POOR - Sass Vac PARI 0 iri) 241 THERE ARE LOTS OF SIMPLE LITTLE ACTIONS WHICH CAN BE ENHANCED WITH JuSTA TINY BIT OF FLEXIBILITY: SA, AHAND CLAPPING ~ noe ~w f y, WRIST LEABS~TIP DRAGS GONG-UP WRIST LEADS “TIP DRAGS Gols DOWN ALSO, {7 HELPS TO [PT von et u The PALM SLIGHTLY ON The HITE IF The HAND STAYS IN OW the ConTact. fle SAME PLAS TWH WOT AFTER TWeHIT }, LACK VITALITY. ~ DISPLACE The WAND THATS WHAT WE FEEL IS Tho BEING HIT SLIGHTLY. UY DISPLACEMENT oF the HIT” AGAIN, We CouLD Do THIS: = Fe) gL a ZZ eZ « BREAKDOWN AS PREVIEIS ie WRIST BREAKS AS MAY Pe HAY OR-COULD HAVE ONE KEEP RISING: 1 EES wl INBETWEEN Gey DOWN “Sy — SS feplitcnc tre WT Ove INBETHEC The WRIST COULD ARRIME FPS 242 OF Course, APPLAUSE (MAY BE LIKE THis” SPANISH FLAMENCO PERSON CLAPS BO Web DRAW IF THIS WAY, OBVIOUSLY - DIFFERENTLY. TIPS OF FINGERS HIT PALA NS S IN ; Aub OBNOUSLY A WRESTLER CLAPS DIFFERENTLY \ FROM A DRUNK OF & DIPLOMATS WIFE-OR A BABY. Bur The PRINCIPLE IS STILL THIS - A NUMBER. OF JO NTS BREAKING, ONE APTEZ ANOTHER, HAND CONTINUES UP AS (NC Pow “Ten fa West $ i; i LEADS WM uy AND Ws fekot Ne We BiSpiee GOs UP ee HiT SS SS NK 2 A VIOLINIST - y GONE UP The WRIST Lemos J Come Rows The. Weise Smt HEADS aucitice Zz Y HAND DRags A DiHsH A HAND FLAPPING Cats rata ) es te VERY RAPIDLY IN ONES: Ie T 243 EVEN IN A LITTLETTHING LUKE THIS WE GAN GET FLEXIBILITY - : ad iz To OPEN THiS Fees & Sreair = Bur OW he WAY DOWN = IE WEMAD ABE = Berek Gon INEETHEN GWG UP WOULD BE Baie ne NscveEN — Febunieorcnteet — “Whalqusroeetio: NSE Phew eo. te ne Peste ibe Denn ie Baceasp. oN a HAMMERING A NAL ~ Have the weIST APRIE Bur ‘Delay The HAND - AGAIN, WE CAN TAKE ALLTHIS Too FAR. Bur the THNG 15 Te KNOW ITSO WECAN Ute IT WHEN ves war (WHICH Wits BEA LOT) Takk: SOMBCHES HANDS os T AND (- FaVCueine = woud TE ANTICIPATE BE FINE- 244 (T MIGHT NOT, BE NECESSARY 7 ‘OvERAMIMMTEL IT WITH BROKEN JONT - BUT MAYBE IFS Ga0P, bers Tey i 3 SS 2 2 ) é ase Ni “The WeRTS LEAD CH Cou NOW HOW ABOlir THIS FOR PULLING tr APART? - Le ELBOWS Go FIST - Alp Cone in & BIT THEN WRISTS LEAD Gur AS HANES FLOP Ove, @ Iv MIGHT BE NICE TO HAVE Just CE BREAK - < > SPV ON aE | So 1S AL A MATTER OF EGR RE - WERE SHOWING THESE DEVICES ard PRINCIPLES IN The RAW IN “The CRUDEST POSSIBLE STATE TO MAKE IT CLEKR — TO LIMBER THUGS UP — To STOP THINGS BEING STIFF OR STUTED- WE CAN USE THEM INCREDIBLY SUBTLY O8 OVERUSE THRH 30 THINGS GO RUBBERY Ce MUSHY. BUT ITS SURPRISING HOW FAR. WE CAN GO WITH BREAKINS JOINTS Bug HAVE IT WORK BEAUTIFULLY. 245 — ( FLEXIBILITY IN The FACE TilERE'S A TENDENCY To FORGET HON MOBILE Oule FACES REALLY ARE IN ACTION ANID IFS ALWAYS SHOCKING To SBE HOW MUCH DISTORTION THERE IS WHEN WE LOOK AT LIVE ACTION OF ACTORS’ CLOSE-UPS FRAME BY FRAME. NOT TOMENTION WHAT A FACIAL CONDRTIONST CAN DO (IN Ste OF the TaUlS ad TEE Aprpat) K G 246 THE SKULL OBMOUSLY REMAWS the SAME BUT THERES LOTS OF ACTION HAPPENING BELOW THE CHEEKRONES. OUP UPPER TEETH DONT CHANGE POSITION #8 BEY RE LOCKED Oft1O Olle Skil. “THE HINGED LOWER, JAW ACTION IS PRIMARILY UP md DOWN WITH A SLIGHT LATERAL MOTION: hs NA TeNDRNCY our oe Bn @ @ FoRGeT KANO’ cust HOW How a BIG Out Bie Out CANTY, 1S. AND HOW SMALL IT CAN APPEAR “fe LOWER AW IS HINGED (Nl FROKT OF “the Zh ART BARBITT OF TEN TOLD OF HO) AMRROR ON The WALL’ SCENE I AFTER ANIMATING “he. UTIFUL EVIL QUEEN MAGIC (OW WHITE a0 The SEVEN DWARFS” (A DRGRRE OF REALM THAT NO ONE HAP EVER, ATTEMPTED BEFORE, LET ALONE SUCCEED IN ACHIEVING.) HE BECAME INHIBITED WHEN ANIMATING CLOSE-UPS ON Tie 7 DNARFS. HE GOT HELP FROM Tie OTHER TOP MeN IN DARING TO COMPRESS and DISTEND he FACES. AE ALWAYS SAID,” BE SEAVE. Dow BE AFRAID To : CSS and COMPRESS IT, STRETCH The. co THERES A TENDENCY TO HAVE A BIMPLE MOUTH SQUIEMWNE AROUND = FLOATING ON The FACE STRETCH I-70 MAKE IT AN INTEGRAL PAET OF the FACE. THERES A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF ELASTICITY IN OUR FACE MUSCLES. A MAN eit, = = A PIPE > oO cS ir z (ee) & NY SUCKING: IN PUFFING CUT 247 TAKE CHEWING, FoR EKANPLE: es Ages ye & o WE CouLD GO FROM ANY OF THESE POSITIONS TD ANY OTHER IN ANY SEQUENCE, VAdviNG IT. B6o058 Te CHEW CAN PULL Tle, NOSE AROUND - eae, AGKiN, WETH SQUASH Oud STRETOH, WE TRY To KEEP The SAME AMOUNT OF Met: 1F YOU TOOK IT OUT oud WEIGHED IT= IT WOULD WEIGH The SAME. AN UNCOUTH FELLOW = a Rumeie BURP. SO, AGAN, MS whta 1S CHaUING 2 FAT, SMALL, OLD, CRAZY, INHIBITED? A SOPHISTICATED PERSON CHEWING VERSUS 4 TRAMP WHO HASNT EATEN FOR 2 Wea®? 248 HERES ATHNG You OPTEN SEE GOOD ACTORS DOING: SAY SOMEONE GETS FRIGHTENED - Za WK iS CRUDE oS ¥, FROM OWE Fish GO 5 TO The OTHER. IT CANGO IN SECTIONS - Ms LE “he Quek arene A % © OR 532 fs FIRST He EVE THEN He NOSE Hel Tia. QUT THE Te HAR GB) vice veRsA - WORKS WAY UP The me S32R FIRST thu MOUTH. THEN The NOSE. ‘THEW Tue EYE THEN The HAIR « Ue FROM SQUNT - (AE a RA A mm ot os 8 EYE ORAS FRET. NOSE STRAIGHTENS - JAW FAUS ud) OPENS 249, SAKE Wt he ER = THe EP Gon “The CHANGE COULD TRAVEL ACROSS Tle. FACE “ae g ~ SAY SOMEONES DISAPPOINTED - “SLomy IEG res TH He ig sreou wd Bow 35 ina abe IN. WE AL KNOW AR = te on d‘@ © gy j Parris rouse race (| © N® |) ruc (| FA) eens = ( A BRAVE WHERE \ J 0 FACE Oj iT ewe | \N ~ CowrADIcnions @ 9 ID LIKE 7 ANIMATE ONE SIDE SEPARATELY ord THEN ANIMATE fhe OTHER. 250 STANT READ - PROPILES TOR READABILITY ) THI HAS TO GO IN the BOOK SOMEWHERE aud IT MIGHT AS WELL BE HERE... oR. Burne THis Peery CLEAR. Whar , THIS, 1s F WE WANT OUR AUDIENCE TO READ AN ACTION FAST ~ SHOW (TIN PROFILE, . 3 “4 a sur’ WE CERTAINLY DONT HAVE ANY TROUBLE SEEING WHATE HAPPENING HERE hited AND FROM the POINT OF VIEW OF FLEXIBILITY-LOOK HOW JUST A SIMPLE REVERSAL OF Hee BACK ARCH GIVES TERRIFIC SUPPLENESS. DRAWING DE BACK IS ABOUT AS. CONCAVE AS You CAN GET ~ STAYS THAT WAY OW (E) ed THEN REVERSES TO CONVEX ON (E) 323@,. “The HAIR 18 DELAYED oud ONLY DROS ON ES. NICE. TS ALWAYS A GOOD IDEA TO TRY TOGET A CLEAR OPPOSE FROM NHAT WelRE GOING 7 CHANGE TO - WHETHER ITS A FACIAL EXPRESSION OR A CHANGE OF SHAPE LIKE THIS. 254 “TO FINISH OFF THIS SECTION aud AS A Kip OF Review — HERES AN EXAM IN PLEXIBILITY ~ AN ASSIGNMENT ART BABEITT GAVE US TO PEACTICE SUCCESSIVE BREAKING JOINTS 1) TAKE the FRONT VIEW OF A FEMALE SWAVING S/DE 1 SIDE. 2 Have The HIPS WORK INA FIGURE 8. @ HAVE the HEAD COUNTHR Tie BODY. @ HAVE The HANDS WORK INDEPENDENTLY andl BEFAK The JONTS HERES The SCR IRLE | MADE AS ART SET our ‘the PROBLEM: KIND OF & SCARY PROBLEM aud AS | WANTED TO DO Ir SORT OF REALSTICALY - HEN SCARIER, OK, Wik BO We Do FR? (rulNks) Dud ih. HEY, OF Counce “the. (EY) = Deawnis(D) “The ONE THAP TELS the Seay @ 13 oy huge near? é 6 ou é s 1 Opmouty.. - \ the wear pareeie A Tote GtHee SIDE. caret BECAUSE WHEN 9 TACT IT Our J TAKE ABOUT "A SECOND To Swing "JO ONE SIDE aad Ve SFT SWING BAK = | SECOND OVERALL 252 NOW IT LOOKS + - + LIKE (75 Atl. GOING TO WORK- aed WE CAN KIND OF RELAX, BEEAKING IT DOWN FURTHER tid ENJOY TAKING PUTTING IN The HANDS CiRCLING ud OTHER Curvy Ens. ~The CHARS ARE SIMPLE Os? 2 uw B GOING OVER —> ie} —} 3 5 and COMING BACK 6421 23 25 © a Te 254 Th fen’ Ape | W tes Heo ir THEYRE IST TH THINGS COT FURTHER: Te Quest} reo EPS oie ts. cone ee DIDN'T NEED ANY CCERECTONS) Est Le way ee 2s 255 WEIGHT THE FIRST QUESTION | EVER ASKED MILT KAHL WAS: “HOW DID You EVER GET THAT JUNGLE BCOK TIGER. TO WEIGH SO MUCH?” HE ANSWERED, WELL, | KNOW WHERE ‘the WEIGHT IS ON EVERY DRAWING. | KNOW WHERE The WEIGHT IS AT ANY GIVEN MOMENT ON The CHARACTER. | KNOW WHERE The WEIGHT 1S, 26d WHERE 8 COMING FROM aud WHERE ITS JUST TRAVELING CHER- aud WHERE The WEIGHT IS TRANSFERRING TO.” Wee ALREADY SEEN THAT INA WALK WE FEEL tie WEIGHT Cn the DOWN PosmoN WHERE The LEG BENDS AS IT TAKES The WEIGHT, ABSORBING The. FORCE OF The MOVE. But HOW ABOUT OTHER KINDS OF WEIGHT? CBJECAS LIGHT? HEAVY ? HOW Bo Wie SHOW THAT. ONE WAY WE CAN SHOW HOW HEAVY AN OBJECT /S - +18 BY ‘he WAY WE PREPARE TO PICK IT UP. TO PICK UP WEIGHT WE HAVE TO PREPARE FOR IT ~TO ANTICIPATE the WEIGHT: CBVIOIBLY PICKING UP A PIECE CF CHALK, A PEN ORA FEATHA® DOESNT REQUIRE ANY PREPARATION - UT 1 a WE CAN SUGGEST WEIGHT RY JUST HAVING-HiM BUrA HEAY STONE: WALK ARCAIND IT ~ SIZING IT HP» Loa thet NO FRELING OF WEIGHT. HONS HE Gowe-To DOTHIS? HES CONSIDERING ITMUST BE A PORYSIYRee ROCK: WHATHES GOING TO PICK UP. HOW HEY IS IT: HES ANTICIPATING WHAT ITS GOING WEIGH 4 256 MAYRE WE Dotty HAVE Th OR MOTHER, HES GOIN J ( HE'> CERTAINLY SPREAD HIS FEET FRST AND BEND HIS KNEES - AND GET AS CLOSE To Tha WEIGHT AS POSSIBLE, & OS we ADJUST HIMSELF Gogs BACK TE Tor panic PY TEES 70 REN TIME TO HAVEE HIM. WALK AC @ AVTICH TE “Bre. Wel CHT- Agee Eee itso Sreawetens oer AS He LIFTS UNDERNEATH The BACK ACH HoPMSELE, HE PONT WEIGHT-micHT REVERSES WANT A’ HERNIA. ADJUST FEET IN AS He TAD Lime Bits - GETA BRRATICALY PURCHASE - S (C80 Eu u ‘Ky Le ) Peas STPAGHTENS - KNEB sue FMS BACK OR UIHATEVER, 257 if “oO A AUW CARRYING A SACK CF POTATOES ON HIS RACK BENDS DOWN TO COUNTERBALANCE the WEIGHT THE WeAGHT FCECRS HIS BODY CLOSER To The GROUND, KeRPING Te KWEES BENT 2g) MAKING The FEET SHUFFLE ALONG, The FEET ALSO SPRAY CUT TO FORM A SORT OF TRIPOD TD SPREAD The WAGHT OVER. A LARGER AREA Foe APART eer DoW Kae 'y COME OFF ALHANS NT “Tie Geousp WeRY MacH A_LOTOF DIFFERENCE IN THESE WALKS CR BUNS IS DETERIMINED EY The WEIGHT The PERSON INGE Be OURYING IEA PERSCW IS CARRYING A HEAVY ROCK- “The WEIGHT WOULD LOWER. The: SHOULDERS vad STRETCH the AQME. BeNEAD aul NELK Cour CORE ROH. (Peso ssc smery 17 Et Hele Mone AGAN, The MERE SLOWLY Pasille Foor aed the BODY with HARDLY Wil Raise Lee The. Gun OnLy Suisiny ud Nhe. “The KNEES Wilk. PASSING POSITION REWAN Ban Pure The TINE ee Notes FROM The WEIGHT, AT ALL, “Me TiN OF The. Fee COULD BE ERRATIC ~ (S STEP, PAUSE, STEP, STEP, PAGE, STER PMISE, STEP, STEP, STER Pais, el G@® le COULD GLIDE RAPIDLY 213 THEN DROP IT- 258 A HAND PICKING UPASILK HANDKERCHIEF LYING. ON fhe GROUND ENCOUNTERS BuT_A HAND PICKINGEP 4 BRICK LETS CONSIDER WHAT HAPPENS TO We WHOLE BODY - Mig cRueD OPPOSE SHOULDERS. ~The WEIGHT. oP TE BRK 7 “ioe. SHOULDER Ny tI ( the eM 1 Her Pne aN | Babdate The BRICK fe Rick HAND. STRAIGHTEN | “he ARH | / 2d PS, “] PICKING UP A FEATHER. ISNT GONG TO HAVE ANY EFFECT OW The Body. iS a, L ca SS REVPRSING The FEATHER SHAPE A To Se IN“Ibe MOVE MANES The FEATHER EVEN LIGHTER. OF Covace, Otte WAY 7O GET WEIGHT |S To BE CONSCIOUS OF IT. The GREAT ANIMATOR , BULTYTEA BAYS ~ The FOWT 18 THAT YOU ARE NOT MaRELY SWISHING A PENCIL ABOUT BuT You Hare WEIGHT IN YOUR FORMS. 140 You DO> WHATEVER. You POSSIBLY CAN Wid THAT WEIGHT CONEY SEATON, IT IS ASTRIGBLE FOR ME ed | AM CONSCICIIS CF iT Aub hee TM, 259 SAY A HAND PREIS t A BAND PRESSING ae - abe The ARM PrIGHT on Jane | f fa sw we nspace Sone — “Tu WATER BUT We RERLLY HAVE LTRs ReRSCT ON THe WATER “ETS DROP A FEW THINGS WHICH FALL AT’ DIFFERENT SP2EDS BECAUSE OF THEIR WEIGHT and) WHAT THEYRE MADE OF. A Stik HANKY A HEAVY, wigu> exten A f once cera) snout The OF AIRAS IT FALS \ DROPS ¥ SS eS He crepe Tho wie TAHT OAT wees ¥ PAST = IT o > WONT LINGER IN The AR nies - AOE er bee ZN EEX \ Tae Lo \ “TAIE A CHINA CuP = \ IN REALITY Thee CuP WOLILD PECBABLY SHATTER. ON IMPACT BIC WE CAN HAVE IT Bounce ARCUND A BIT. TAKE LIBERTIES WITH REMITY Eur WAKE IT APPEAR BELIEVABLE. * 8 THEN (F SHATTERS ‘pone — Bowes. “Ces 260 A Faun Lear wuninace nmene- — Y SAMESOR OF MING Hi pol AIR CURRENTS WL AFFECT IT- ITS FAH- AA Pie OF PAPER PROPPING Ll IS BEING RESISTED BY The AIR. LI 6 C®y, Re yp 4 & fe Ga Ge a ad cig SO eSMIT v Sy, 2 y A = - “eT O€-HS @ WOiid ae Sew & Did GRACFPUL. — A PAW SMA = Sage ces tt ~ - SS he ches a SS ZFS Ink LANDING 1S RESISTED DISSIPATE ay ware 1A SLON SKID TOA HALT. ° A PEBBLE PRCPPWG INTE WATER.» COED DOUGH FALLING -~ OY A BALLOF NuD~ wee, eres Set eRe ne <2 waves sat Bee oT we Ne WEEREEN Ge iz See ral Sue 261 Press “Te, SiR © “yee Poe ‘reqwones renee” < “B FLATTEN END STRENGTHEN Fok PRESSURE 7 IT PUR RER SUPPOSE the SURFACE IS SOFT > Chom oR RUBBER ~ IT WOULD GIVE. or mace Seip e PRESSURE FINeReS HERE Je Ge I) PRESSURE AGAR, IN PICKING UP SOMETHING HEAVY, The WHOLE BODY Wilt HELP IN PICKING UP A PENCIL Ae SCURLE oF The ACTION AND The SOUREE OF “Boe ACTON IS IN the BPS [6 Ne BLEON, 2 ORVCUSLY Nor q] | Prom the HIPS | | NOT AUCH PRESSERE 262 AVERY HEAUY BOK FALLING A HARD GOHF BALL FALLING ~ A. STREL Bat. OR BOWLING BALL FALLS ~ Vane ueit Bewce Stiet fou. ea, Treysncr seas wig gate apes eh Ser Aaa WeNrTTs Ne rT guns a ESAT Raut TA Be To Feet IMPACT The BOIS PARTIY Chat ‘ot Recon Rat Ba AF tho MOMENT CF IMERCT, Ap neon ate, AN Gh Hid SQUASH OH RET ew pega its Belew Buare PRESSURE IS PART OF WEIGHT - ct Oc Cer a. \ a au | Due AMS Wes BAD de |_| CUR PERT Hie SLIP Ox? GUISE. -Téatchns WW) S SY THERES REISHCE COMNE FROM he THING WERE TRYING To MOYE- 263 HOW (AUCH EFFORT DO WE HAVE TO EXPEND © To Move SOMETHING? @ TB CHANGE IIS DIRECTION? @® O& To Srp iT? WILL INDICATE HOW MUCH IT WEIGHS. COMING TO A STOP IS PART OF WEIGHT? ues DE, WE: THEN WE GO INTO CORNER ACTION Conte Tote MO CRASHPE, BERETS TN eli Cw MEN ATOR. ’ FRAN THOMAS. SAYS ~ "Weve GOT TO DO SOMETHING TO STOP The FORWARD PROGRESSION OF BELIEVABLE WEIGHT. <€ Ss wore BF eo we seer Ws I eTION SN BITS rn aor each air Tolere Inpicariner “te Wei ARMS, HAD, OF SEL. Hans, HAR, Dray, HERES MILT KAHL ON IT STOPPING THINGS CONVINCINGLY 15 ONE OF ‘he DIFFICULT THINGS TO PO IN ANIMATION. WHEN You COME T>A STOP PICK A GCOP PLACE 7O STOP. HOW YOu CHOOSE TO SroP- WHAT KIND OF A STOP - WHETHER ITS AN ALERT STOP OR A LAZY CHE, CHCCSING WHERE “To. DO IT IS AN IMPORTANT CHOICE, | HATE 16 SHEA FOOT COME THROUGH ac LAND LTHINK. WHEN IT LANDS We CUGHT 7D GO AHEAD 2ed, THEN NOTHING HAPPENS TO [T. cud PUT the WEIGHT ON IT - OR ROCK FORWARD ~ OR RAISE The. OTHER FCT.” 264 So, Hon Much EFFORT IT TAKER TD STOP SOMETHING SHAMS HOt MUCH IT WEIGHS AtS0, the SPEED OF AN ACTION WiLL DETERMINE HOW ViOLaNT The DRAPERY iS IF A MAC IS RUNNING WITH A CORT MADE OF THIN, LIGHT MATERIAL 2ad HE COMES To A SUP, STOP The MATERIAL WILL CONTINUE TS FLOW, TO KEEP ON GOING. ~ To GO AHEAD OF Hi INDEPENDENTLY 2d THEN FLOP BACK 90 SETTLE fe sre (Gieste) > AY / = STOPS MATERIAL CONTINUES ud) Serres A WOMAN INA SUKNIGHTIC... “the MATERIL Wie BLOSSOM dud FLAP VIOLENTLY. BB cS (¢ 7 Spots - mare conrives ad a Set ate Broseaning, aS SO WHEN SHE STOPS, HER CLOTHES ad Hal FOLLOW THROUGH ARRIVING LATER THAN Th MAIN ACTICH, AND OF COURSE, HER MAIN ACTION ALSO STOPS IN PARTS, FineSHIAG UP AT DIFFERENT TimMeES HAS THERE BYER BEEN AN ACTION WHERE ALLThe PARTS CEXCEPT IN ROBOTS, 2uc) PROBABLY NOT EVEN IN THER) AGAIN, FOLLOW THROUGH (S “the RESULT OF aud 1S GENERATED BY Thee MAIN ACTION ‘A BODY MOVED UMIFORILY, 265 Bur the ONLY WAY WE CAN Really SHOW WEIGHT IS WAH The ACTION. SAY WelRE PICKING UP A HEAVY BATCH Ce HAY WITH A PITCHFORK ITe-SLOW LIFTING - ANrcipares the THROW BV Gowns POW - L \ 266 BACK 7 LIFTING A ROCK MCAN~ WITH SUGGESTIONS OF HOM To BREAK THINS UP INTERESTINGLY — conte IT Ns Het Boeke eas Ace. Fie. apower BUTE Bean FRERE Ss ge He De Hise cones SIDE SIPE ae MOE ‘el VE Pong S008 * Bowe ae ee VIBRATE Ta Bory, meager" eee Sear, , yy asowe Sie fe te sree. He Gee: To THROW mr. A (AN WITHA HEAVY MALLET 1S GONG T THROW ITCH AN ANVIL “sere ets, im ACOs ER, Cem Ae : on ie Paves meant iT comes “Tue counp (on tie ‘accent ) Cones. AN THE: REBOWD BETES “Te Conbmicr Seteeneced ee) (WNREE THE MALLET Lees “Ta dwlL- So We TRY To FIND ALL Tie VARIOUS POSSIBILITIES To CONVEY WEIGHT VISUALLY — CAN WE DeLay PARTS? GO FAST AND SLOW? USE UP AND Dou) ? BRENC The Joints? REVERSE The BODY ARCH? Shier the WEIGHT? — AND SELECT WHAT WE NEED TO PUT OVER WHAT We WANT. AND WHEN WE HAVE ALL THIS STUFF IN OUP Bt STIERAM - CONCENTRATE ON PERSONALITY. WHO Is DOING IT aud IN WHAT SITUATION? 268 FUNNING 2ud TRYING To CHANGE DIRECTION SHOWS the WEIGHT” INTURNING A CORNER CHARLIE CHAPLIN PID A FAMOUS SKIPPING OR HOPPING TURN. HE SKIDS ROUND The CORNER itt A CURYE ed RUNS OUT -Hhe OTHE WAY. “TWEL ANWIATES cut: LIKE A MORRBIKE HE LEANS INTO “he Curte CF Te TURN, THE FEET ARE CFSE OW The IN ANIMATION ~ 16 He SDS FER ABcUIT A SECOND ~ IERIE To MAKE Re SD. 4 WAY Te BO THIS IS To MAKE A SPRIES OF DRAWINGS FROM 2. To 24 (EVEN NUMBERS ) THEN NUKE ANOTHER. SERIES, OFFSET SLIGHTLY FReM 3 to 23 (OnpMuiB=RS) THEN WE INTERLEAE THR. (FOR MORE CH THis Sze" VIBRATIONS’) DANCING) “TO FINISH OFF TAKS SECTION ON WEIGHT We SHOULD INCLUDE DANCAG. “The REASON IS THAT The ESRENTIAL PART CF DANCING IS NOT HHATS HAPPENING To he FEET BUC WHATS HAPPENING TO The BODY ~the WEIGHT ~The LP aud FOWN OF The BODY. KEN HARRIS aid ART BABBITT WERE BOTH SPECIALISTS IN DANCE ANIMATION 20d THEY BOTH SA(D EXACTLY The SAME THING? ITS The UPAND DOWN ON the BODY 2d HANDS THAT ithe MOST IMPORTANT THING IN A DANCE. ITS WHATS HAPPENING TO The BICPY WITH The WEIGHT MOVING UP ud DOWN IN RAYTHM IN ATAP DANCE ~ (paseo aner) IF WE BLOCK Our the FEET aud JUST GET The UP dud DORN OF The BODY RIGHT- THEN WE GAN PUT The PRET ON ANYWHERE: 269 LETS ADD FEET TOA SIMILAR UP aad DOMN BODY PLAN. “The BEAT Is CN 12/8: (TH WcRKS WEALON TUNCS) ANTICIPATING “the BEAT NOW HES CENT The UP nd REAIY THPOW tae BOY UP dad DOWN ad SWING Thc ARMS ARCUND. ‘THe BEAT Is ON IGS EVERY 4 DRAWING Ig All EXTREME. is (S ALL ON ONES aud Feist NDS 3 SINGLE MORE 3 LESS STRAGHT INBETWERNS BETWEEN PACH EXTREME, + + Down a oe OFF BAT ANTCAPRENG he uP + + + + 270 ON A DANCE-USUAUY HIT the BEAT ON The DOWAL. WE Feel The WEIGHT AS-Tla BODY Cals OMI. + wine + toe Bear WE CAN ACCENT JeUTHER “the POWN CR The UP OF ‘the BODY. ON A DANGE I We Ger Most (CF the FIG SPATS RIGHT THEN WE CAN ALMCST IGNORE Whe LITILE BEATS OR SECONDARY IVES. DONT SPEND TE ON The INFIN TESA. ~ ANY THING LESS THAN OF FRAMES WONT BERD. GET the MAN THinG RIGHT - REALLY RIGHT. TEN SUPPORT IT wit SECENDARY RUS EN a own en ie cer Bear To owe 2 WITH DANCERS “NOTICE he Tir Wl The SHOULDERS AS THEY OPPOSE The TWIST IH The. HIPS, € Ce 7 NG “he HIRS nud SHowHES B\\ Foe couse a y Goes ALL he Tie SHOULDER DOWN, HPUP SHOULDER UP HIP DOWN. Twist fhe Bopy- 4 HEAD AT DIFFERENT ANGLE "n> Shou bes \ By F roxsem consront \ Ey Gite Soe Cr a eT \ ai cou Sue Aas Te fis eon ON SYNCHRONISING “The ACTION To A MUSICAL BEAT, THERE ARE 2 RULES OF THUNB: ( € HAVE-the VISUAL ACCENT POSITION OCCUR 2 FRAMES AHEAD (Rae oF mane F1”) OF “The ACTUAL SCUND ~ PRECEEDNG The SOUND BY 2. FLAMES. Say TSA i rewe ‘ear SO WE CAN EITHER ANIMATE the HIT 2 ERANES AHEAD OF ‘he SOUND OR, WE CAN ANIMATE LEVEL WITH “he SOUND asd ADVANCE The PLCTRE nV tHe EDITING, LATER Dud GET ITSO ITLOOKS RIGHT. (UNC PREFER THIS) RULE oF Tuma 2 ) MANY Live ACTON EDIRS OFTEN Pat-the WISAL HIT AHEAD BY J The Lene OF The OVERALL BEAT( wird A (2 FRAWE BEAT Tian + FRAMES AHFAD Ce We SCLND)) AS WITH DIALOGUE, I THINK The BEST WAY ISTO ANIMATE LEVEL WITH te SOUND ~THEN FIDDLE WITH IT INThe EDITING TLL IT LOOKS JUST RIGHT. ALSO WE LENRN THINGS THIS WAY, AS RULES OE THUMS ABE ONLY WHAT THEY ARE “RULES OF THUNB «TRY IT aud SEE WHAT WORKS BEST MAYBE ITS BETTE ONE FRAME ADYANCED, MAYBE THO, MAYBE © OR +. MAYBE ITS BEST LEVEL. (il6 NEVER BETTER. LATE.) 272 ANTICIPATION 1S THERE ANYBODY WHO DOESN'T KNOW WHAT THIS Gu’ GONG TO bo? “fhe. GREAT ANIMATOR, BILL TYTIA SAID, “THERE ARE ONLY 3 THINGS IN ANIMATION - 1 ANTICIPATION 2 ACTION 3 REACTION AND THESE IMPLY The REST LEARN TO DO THESE THINGS WELL aed YOU CAN ANIMATE WELL.” CHARLIE CHAPLIN SAID, | TELL'Et WHAT Youle GONG TS Do. 2 Pom 3 “TBLL'EM THAT YOUVE PONE IT. 273 “The GREAT FRENCH MIME, MARCEL MARCRAU SAYS, “USE BIG ANTICIPATION” WHYE BeCAUSE IT COMMUNICATES WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN. “The AUDIENCE SEC WHAT IS GOING To HAPPEN - THEY SEeThe ANTICIPATION aud SO THEY ANTICIPATE IT WITH US, THEY GO WITH US. WHY? BECAUSE FOR ALMOST EVERY ACTION WE MAKE THERE IS AN ANTICIPATICN. WE THINK OF THINGS FIRST -THEN DO THEM UNLESS ITS A PRE-PEOGRANWED RESPONSE LiKE SHIFTING GEARS ON A CAR OR GETTING DRESSED, WE KNOW THAT WE THINK OF SOMETHING FIPST-THEN PO IT. AS WITH SPEECH, WE KNOW THAT Oule. BRAIN FIXES UPON “he SENSE OF WHAT IT WANTS To SAY ~THEN GOES INTO A VERY COMPLEX SERIES OF MUSCLE SELECTIONS TO SAY IT. 50, ANTICIPATION IS The PREPARATION FOR AN ACTION. ( wHici We ALL REGEN ae) ANTICIPATION TAKES PLACE IN ALMOST EVERY ACTION — CERTRINLY IN EVERY BiG ACTION. oe AwnetPares Action Reacren SG = Vigtares ad Semmes “The ANTICIPATION (S ALWAYS IN fhe OPPOSITE DIRECTION 6 WHERE the MAIN ACTEM IS GONE GO. yey Awne iPass Acton Gore pono (=) ANY ACTION IS STRNGTIENED BY BEING PRECEEDED GY 1S OPPOSITE. ier 274 JF ACTION 1S Wthe, WHOLE BODY THEN WE HAVE ANTICIPATION OF TREMENDOUS LATENT FORCE USUALLY he. ANTICIPATION IS SLOWER LESS VIOLENT THAN “The ACTION SLOW ANTICIPATION fees ‘ZIP! = FAST ACTION Wome: A Wotan - ess Go Anne = Of A sawt.cHsD wn"rigow wrmicuT USNS the Beprimass STARTS SLOW WIND UP “THEN PLITS Ths BODY INT IT FoR The THROW TS HELP fee TRO. A RUNNER WILL Ge BACK BeFcRE Gone FeRWARD WE GET A MUCH STRONGER ACTION — EDD ANY ACTION CAN BE ENHANCED IF THERE IS AN ANTICIPATION BEFORE We ACTION, @ WE Go BACK BEFORE We Go FORWARD WE GO FORWARD BEFORE WEGO BACK. WE GO DOWN Before WEGO UP. WE Go UP BEFORE WE GO BOUIN. The RULE (S:’ BEFORE WE GO ONE WAY - FIRST GO The OTHER Way.” 275 wees aNreiPanE OF Course, WIM A “CARRDON' CARTECN es Tie eo 4 — we » somentie ANTICIPATES IES BT No RNAS Gone Cur — Hes FST Gene ANTICIPATION HAPPENS WITH SMALLER. Md UNDERSATED MOVEMENTS. GETTING UP PREM A CHAIR WE GO BACK BEFORE WE Go RRND advo A) / i dS Z Ny 880Re WE Go UP. Gort poenAeD ad POWN TOGO avriclnarae Bac Te Goreensep SOWECNE MAKING A POINT - ai xe MF NOM, MAKING The ACTION STRONGER. - B00) BACK Suey —BOPY FORWARD GOW BACK FIRST (nthe OPPCRITE PIRECHON /MAGAIFIES Ya PESULT, TAKE A SIMPLE THING LiKE STARTING A WALK aed WEAK POINT PRerAeinG 11S UNNATURAL 10 START A WALK wart the PARTHBST Foot Fan the DIRECTION WERE GONG. 276 “The OBVIOUS WAY "GOTO HIS HEET (S70 Sma Wei HIS LEFT Foor: oO SRT fle WALK Wo the FOOT NeaREST 1S WHERE Hes Going ~ Bar He CouLp “ANTICIPATE The WALK wT HIS Rl@dt Focr bike THis = His Rieur Foor COULD ACK UP rN ANTICIPATE ~ @® ALTERNATELY HE COULD ANNCIPATE HIS WALK BY BACKING UP To STEP OVER. GA Ss A Bauer PLE { 1S. AN ANTICAPATON WW) BEFORE JUMPING / ~ [otsenecee UP IN The AUR ¢ | (Be, To Do AN ENTRECHAT | | > WIGCUNG FEET Wie GO Dov BeroREWEGO UP A ANON A PIVING BOARD~ 5 Area Staer wind WcRer/ Lea 277 FRCTLY CLEAR Wes Hate. Zt oe BUP JUST BY PUFTINGIN ASMALL ANTICIPATE CP BEFORE HE WRITES - WE FEEL. tue PERSON THINKING. 7 WECAN USE Fi east THEAT GESTURES AS ANTICIPATION. a's S SHOWBIZ. (8 GOWS SO Par HER HOD ON HER HIP (eA ieee 8 ) as Xs By 4 SY ® § DP Bee eH 7 > > ie DS AEE ER Qe AY \ \ \\ \ Lge es pp f j Sa _ ¢ SON 4 he * f- me f/f |} ale f 78 _ a as f 2 S ' \. IF SOMECNES Gone SEEN cll “he ANneIpATION To HIT SOMEONE eeu TELLS US EXACTLY ANTICIPATE BACK WEARS GOING TO BEFORE SHINGING Ke HAPPEN. FORWARD. IN he EARLY DAYS CF ANIMATION he. CONTACT WAS LIKE HITTING (+ PUDDING — &e 2 telus , ‘ — sy xe yee st yw = GEM, NATHICK SAID, “AT DISNEYS ( LEARNED HOW ID DELIVER A PUNCH FROM ART BARRAT ARTSAID, ° DONT EVER SHOW the HAND HITTING The CHIN. SHON The HAND APTER: ITS PAST The CHIN aud The CHIN HAS MOVED Our OF PLace!” WE Leave Our Tope we Just “Th. CONTACT SHOW The RESULT aed SHOW THERE Is Tend NO Fone ining oF con. PONT lorimes. “tlie IMPACT. IGEN HARRIS TOLD Me THIS 1S WHAT THEY DID W OLD WESTERN FILMS. THEY WOULD EDITOUT “Wee FONT OF CONTACT” FRAMES TO JUST SHOW The RESULT OF The HIT 340 PUT A BIG BANE CN IT: SO, WE PUT fer SOUND HIT WHEN The FISTS PAST “The. FACE ~ WHEN ‘Tlie CHARACTER IS DISLODGED 20d'tle ARM SHINGSTHRAIGH, WE GET the. IMPACT, Thue STRENGTH FROM the, DISPLACEMENT. AGAIN, The ANTICIPATION IS~ We PREPARE FORTie ACTION. WE BROADCAST WHAT HEIs GONE To Do. “he ONFY TROUBLE WITH ANTICIPATIONS iS THAT THEY CAN BE CORNY. y “fhe AUDIENCE GOFS,“AW SURE, { KNOW, ( SBE, NOW YOURE GONE T DO THIS ue BORING... SO THEN The GREAT THING (S TO DO SOMETHING DIFFERENT- A SURPRISE - WHICH CAN BE VERY Funny (OR SHOCKING.) JUST PONT TO WHATS EXPECTED. 280 WE COULD SAY THAT AM ANTICIPATION 1S AN EXPECTATION OF WHAT WL OCCUR THE AUDIENCE EXPECIS SOMETHING Te HAPPEN BEFORE IT ACTUALLY HAPPENS. A SURPRISE GAG WORKS WHEN The AUDIENCE READS The EXPECTMTION rad EXPECTS A CERTAIN THING TO HAPPAY 0 THEN SOMETHING QUITE DIFFERENT HAPPENS ~ 4 “The nnave 1s ACTION “he ANTCAPATON ) oy) 4 % < YY, if . Ve ) ) \ XY WE Y INHALE “ANTICIPATION ACTION INHALE = MORE MORE ACTION ANTICIPATION bg ze EE, rer! Yh WS a OK Zy ~ (7 MORE (NHALE ACTION FEACTION MORE YET ORE = MORE ANTICIPATION Oe RESuer REACTION REACTION. 281 ——. Gurepes awrc PaTIONS sreowsee Auneiene —— Avrieibare LUE, 282 A WAY TO Get SWAP! WHICH ANIMATORS ARE ALWAYS TALKING ABOUT IS THIS? SAY A CHARACTER SEES SOMETHING MILDLY SURPRISING dud LOOKS UP SLIGHTLY — aN — (3 2 Qe WE Put INA VERY FAST ANTICIPATION ~ A DRAWING OB TWO IN The OPPOSITE DIRECTION FROM WHERE WE WANT TO, GO. [7S Too FAST FOR The RYE TO SRE IT ~ ITS JUST FOR. ONE OF TWO FRAMES - 17S INVISIBLE TO He EVE BUT We FEEL IT. THIS GINES IT The SNAP SAY A SOCCER: GOAHE 1S GONG T STOP A BALL WIR A CIRCHLAR FECT FLOURISH ~ ANCE NSS soreck! WAP OWES 0 OPROSITE DIRECTON OF CouRSE, the FOCT FLOURISH IS ITSELF AN ANTICIPATION OF CATCHING “Hee BAL 283 “THIS DEVICEGINES AN EXTRA PUNCH To AN ACTION BY INVISIELY ANTICIPATING ANY ACTION. 11S The SAME THING AS A WATURAL ANTICIPSTION — JUST GO he. OPPOSE WAY FIST — BUT ONLY FOR ONE, THO OR: THREE FRAMES. A BASEBAY. PLAYER HAVING CAIGHT A BALL COULD ANTICIOATE The ANTICIPATION CF HIS THROW FOR JUST 2. FRAMES ~ IP ap A < hk ANTIC. FORWARD FOR ZFEAMES~ NOW GO EACK INTO Tee NORIMAL' ANTICIPATION - a <4 CONCLUBION = WHENEVER POSSIBLE WE TRY TO ng AN’ ANTICIPATION/ oe amerpite) BEFORE “he. ACTICN “YTLA SAID, “hie fs So [ff os “ge SIMPLE. BE DIRECT. |, we CLEAR.” » BE VERY SIMPLE. MAKE A STATEMENT- ue FINISH [T= Smpty.” AND SO, 1 We ANTICIPATE he ACTON 2 Poir 2 avd SHOW WEVE Dave IT. eee ANTICIPATION LEADS ON NATURALLY RIGHT (NTO ‘TAKES! aud ACCENTS’ ~ 284 TAKES AND ACCENTS A“TAKE IS AN ANTICIPATION OF AN ACCENT WHICH THEN SETTLES. WE 5 "Cl % j= q ox . 5 _!) » \ THE IS The. BASIC PATTERN CF A CARTCON ‘TAKE! HERE FOLLOWS A BUNCH OF FORMULAS aad VARIATIONS ON HOLLYWOCD THES WORKED OUT IN The |YBOS ad 408... 285 SUT WHILE WEIRE ATT, WE CcuLD STRENGTHEN Oug BASIC TAKE BY APDING IN A-SLIGHT UP ANTICIPRTION OF the DOWN ANTCIPATON AL HE THES A CLOSER Leow A SHeRT HARDEE Look a y ¢ 6\\ ANTICIPATE ai 2 os DOH Goes uP =X P l Eu hee wale Arcipate Dever HERES A FORMULA FOR-AN ORDINARY SrRAISHT UP 24d) DOWN TAKE (lasts | Feet Ff G-) (qusis DiSwey- Tyee TiMINe) * 8 fi saegecmur%e for DRAWS |g, ! s rey Foe rene sere jG Suen tos & be7 68 B10 12,16 La p+ itd OWN ON THES UPON CHES 77 BeNN ON Twos uaeay = A Saat 9 ew i 5 a 2. Gs SA RES eA Down OMS | tt 678 9 9 nese 1 2 34 I @ UP ca oes own cums Hese's the SAME THING BUT WITH (4 Feawes= :) ip. AGAIN, The ACCENT HORTS TYPE ~ [rusroe is ‘s oly rex WARNER: SHORTS “TYPE TIMING ~ | FUST Ore fe SEC, Les iB city Fes foo enRowe 4 \) Pane a por ‘ OWN FRO Bq 10 Wo Ria ati bf b+} ames Tee POWN ON ONES - 2 F& SME THING FeOM the SIDE - ot 4 é : 7 SQ ey Y, jp ¢ Y Sr /\ > Ke a Poe - 857 Bq0 1 pet Dow From 9 ontwes K++ T8 | ———__ DOWN ON OWS ‘SAME THING Witt the BODY-BUT ALL ONTWOS Cranes One Feat =% se-) 4 357 4 Twos | -——f}—-+-4 Tacs. We CAN EXAGGERATE EVERYTHING AS. MUCH AS WE LIKE IN The DRAWING BAT THESE ARE STANDARD TIMINGS: 287 AGAIN, The ACCENT) (STRUT LNead encom SHEER ad ITS usBADY Of gimme HERES A SIMILAR ONE- “The CHARIS ARE The SAME AS The MOUSE - ALL ON THOS - t Sa 7 For FW IB ISAT Twos |__ fd TF 4444 THESE ARE SOLID WORKING FORMULAS - RUT WE CAN START BEING MORE INVENTIVE — Le Tae ONE THAT LASTS JUST OVER-A FOOT (19 FRAMES) "Ue (KEEP “Nhe BYES ud Gunite A 19 a Wo 8 wel -—}—+H DOWN ON TWOS 288 NOW LETS MAKE IT KIND OFA DOUBLE TAKE. u (@ Poptin deed WELL KEEP the SAME CHARTS But DRAG tu HEAD SBME, BYES FROM SIDE TO SIDE ad KEEP IT ‘SQUASHED’ AG)\ 33 wear CALS WAY UP TO #11 owe Be " Wis 9 (th Hf Loy Dow auTios GONG UP ON ONES ———> aid BACK DOW OF THOS MAYBE ITS CLEARER SHOWING IT THiS WAY Ho 12 5,219 ih WE SHOULDN'T WORRY ABOUT DISTERTED PRAWINGS OR IMAGES. LIVE ACTION HAS TERRIGLY DISTORTED FRAMES: BUT We SHOULD REMEMBER WHAT he. OEIGINAL VOLUME OF A CHARACTER IS - ANP NOT STRETCH 2d COMPRESS FORGETTING THIS VOLUME — SO THAT The CHANGES OVERALL. SIZE. MILT KAHL SAD," KeeP The SAME AMOUNT OF MEAT IN A TAKE” Bar We CaN ge PusH IT ARCOND Z ( HIKE MAD ~ x WE SHOULDN'T BE AFRAID OF DISTORTION IN-tie INTERIOR OFAN ACTION OUR PRAWINGS CR IMAGES MAY LOOK SIRANGE, BUT WE REMLY ONLY SEE The START oud END POSITIONS: WE FEEL the DISTORTION WITHIN aad THaT® WHAT COUNTS. THERE IS WitD DISTORTION 20d LEAN N LIVE ACTION aud WE CAN GO FURTHER — GONG Down wo aw ANTICIPATION Youd exrecr THis Bur Lert DeLAy-the STOMACH AREA FOR JUST 2 FRAMES OR Z FRAMES OR 4 FRAMERS - a f & , hon L ue 4ccavrar The Bay Gees OWN de Deaey. IT 23.8 Ries Bay “the sTompen Gees Dow ArT he HEAD ad BODY Hae STAYS PAT Gee TERNAL SPATE STAD Tie ARMS COULD MOVE AR ad COMPRESSION. (A JOSITION To TAR The CURSE CFF The HOLD. The HEAD COULDGO UP AS The LEGS GO DOWN WHICH ISAM ANTICIPATION OF AN ANTICIPATION ~ aur, (Hehe BO) BS aur. Lf A see : L ~X y, A / r THIS 1S HOW Tex AVERY DID HIS WILD, CRAZY THES - EXTENDING CH A SeRIES OF ColfPouND ACTENS- DELAYING BITS, OFTEN JUST 2 FRAMES APMED ~ A SERIES OFACTINS #4 CUMLLATWEE RESULT: 290 ART BABRITT HAD A GREAT EMBELLISHING DENICE FoR The HANDS AT The END OF A TAKE. WHICH LOTS OF ANIMATORS UTILISED AFTER He TAKE, WHERE HES COMING BACK 70 NORMAL. (IF WE HAVE the TIME FoR Ir) HAVE The ARMS MAKE AN ELARORATE FLURRY ~ON ONES-VERY FAST. os Ges os SWING AROUND AS LONG AS THEY (COUNTER. WA CIRLE Re ore EACH OTHER, The. LEFT ARM DOES The SAME AS The RIGHT - BUT STARTS LATER aud COUNTERS ITE FT reve PELAYED. WAHL His A 1SUP. _ ANOTHER LITLE REFINEMENT- ‘The ARM CoULD KEEP KNCCKWNG HIS HAT OFF aud ON AGAIN (2 ) Cre: ARM 2 Cones uP. ro y ud KNOCES BS The HAT-the 2 ~ (OTHER WAY , ~ Op Pars i Web NEED BACK ON A MINIMUM, (OF |2 FRAMES: HIS FEET COULD FoR THS STUFF - PEDAL IN Te AIR ( le ~ ENDLESS VARIATIONS ~ 291 Ir8 4 GCOD IDEA TO LOOK FOR AN EXTRA BREAKDOWN’, L Let SAY A MAN G2 SOMETHING OUTRAGEOUS and YELLS “wHAAAAAA rH! LooKs : PHD Fonte Vy — POSHTEN fel aceent (OR FOR e ANT. RB /e “This WILL DO The JOB OK - BUT LETS LCOK FOR ANOTHER BREAKDOWN - ANOTHER, POSITION THAT With STRENGTHEN IT" aud GIVE US MORE CHANGE. MORE VITALITY. recs DR AS/ SO WE LOCK FOR WHATEVER CAN GNE US MORE CHANGE OF SHAPE WITHIN Thre ACTON. Ler PUT 1M ANCTHER. ONE. HAVE Hind LOOK UP BEFORE Tie: DOWN ANTICIPATICN. AGA, HS ANTCIPATE “fic: ANTICAPETION = Wes = beens CoccRe » d LM [AX l ( es < ; f a / SVN VA \ ARD k CUA / / ar Y r / / [ y MAYBE WE'RE In DING OF CYERANIVATING - OF GRDNG-The LILY HERE - BUT ITS ALWAYS WORTH SEEING I= THERES ANCTHER MOMENTAEY POSITION POSSIBLE TO CREATE MORE CONTRAST - MORE CHANGE WITHIN. (AGhiN, THERES NETH LiKE RY 15 IT. 292 HAVING TOO MUCH ANTICIPATION CAV BE CORNY SOMETIMES 2d CRAZY TAKES UNNECESSARY, QUST TO CONTRADICT ALLTHIS WILD, UP, DOWN ud AROUND ACTION, ONE OF le STRONGEST TAGS I'VE EVER SEEN WAS IN «FILM WITH BASIL RATHBONE AS the VILLAIN. HES SHACK N-the MIDDLE OF the CINEWASCOPE SCRE oud HES BENG GEN INFORMATION BYAN AIDE WHICH SHOCKS Hil, THERES LOTS OF ACTION BEHIND HIM aed AEOUND HIM WHICH COULD DEFLECT GOR ATTENTION, YET HIS TAKE JUMPS RIGHT Our AT YOU. HE HARDLY MOVES ANY DITAACE AT ALL, YET You REALLY See /T! THERES NO ANTICIPATON DOWN >dNO STRETCHED ACCENT PART OF THe REASON We See IT IS BECAUSE HIS HEAD IS FROZEN IN ‘the MIDDLE OF the SCREEN- (Te 'sAceay ceAITEAL. OVAL!) HIS HEAD MAKES A SHORT, SHARP MOVE UP THEN CUSHONS BACK A B/T caston ee & & 781! 0 o & +k Be. 2 \ am % So, If We DEFINEA TAKE AS A STRONG MOVEMENT TO SHOW SURPRISE OR REACTION, HESS SUCCEEDED WAHQUT AL CUR. ANIMATION DEVICES, HOWEVER USEFUL THEY ARE TO US, LIFE DORSN'T FOLLOW CUR CONVENIENT ANIMATION FORMULAS. (Tu8T STUDY ANY HUE ACTION) GETING ACCENTS RIGHT WAS the THING THAT GAVE MME the MOST TROUBLE IN ANIMATING. | REALLY HAD TO WORK AT |T— IF (TWAS A SOFT ACCENT WITH A HEAD OR A BODY-OR ‘he WeAD GOES UP 74 Ge sccent) I.2 Fear THEN CUSHONS BACK TOIT WA ViETUAL HOLD. “THE TARE, THEN, & & FRAMES LONG HTH A CUSHION BACK. Yar’ . 2 3 tlcer ) The SPRINGS TOHOLD A HAND OUT THERE ons READ? rus » GRC | See. “TRY To PONT 4 TMS INA SECOND 4 AQDENTS. “TEX AVERY BAYS 118 S FRAMES. YOU ITS PREMY HARD To DO. + static HOLDS OF NBED & MINIMUM OF & FRAMES 7D READ 6 FRAMES EACH -AND HOW PO YOU GET FROM AHOLD. TEXS SUPE WENT SO FAST ONE 10 The OTHER? ANYWAY, VE FOUND THAT THAT ( GUESS T WORKS. AS ENOUGH OF YOU NeeD ATLEAST GFRAMES TO EAD MIYAGI. A PAUSE IN The CONTEAT OF ALL THAT SFFRD. 293 FINALLY | CAUGHT ON- AS USUAL, the SECRET 18 KIND OF SIMPLE! ITS JUST GETING The DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A HARD ACCENT aud & SOPT ACCENT A HARD ACCENT RECOULS ~ IT BOUNCES BACK - Sipe Basa ees — ‘nd YOUR. FINGER, HAS TO OUNCE E4CK, CGO UP AIRS 02 DOWN OR SHAME A BIT it WONT StAY ST#TIC, OFT ACCENT KEEPS CN GOING. _Sramite Ast & IF Wee Poyr MORE ee GAY He HAND a =r : WiLL CASHEN AS IT SIOWS To ASO WITH A HARD ACCENT — IE WE RIT AN ANVIL WMH A STEEL HANMER, The AINIL 1S OBVIOUSLY NOT AFFECTED BY The HAMMER aud WHEN The HAMMER. COMES DOWN IT Bick. ANY “is BOWE BAK HN oer 2 “the Sounp 1s. Heme, ~~, | Fee AETER ashi 1S WHERE WEGET tee SOND Conner 7A MNEDaRY 7 ~ FoR | FRAME © BOUNCES BACK (20d SLOWS INTO AHOLD) SAUE WITH A HAMMER HITTING A MAIL ~The ACCENT IS AOT WHE ‘the HAMMER CoitAcrs tie NAIL . Aaa he So the SOND ISON Bounce BACK os - "Se ae fe “the CONTACT, Wor ec et: ~ A SOPT ACCENT WILL KEEP ON GOING - THINK OF AN ORCHESTRA Swiane mene heel EE 26d Ta HND — ~ CONTINUES ON “ Sr He ELT” S bs 294 A HARD ACCENT BOUNCES BACK |) Aeon MAN POWTNG = ot oS ng4 6 © HE FINGER EIMPHATICALLY— “ie Asean (CAP HOUH SOMERES & HARD 410M SORE ABEOPIY—CR AS ABRUPRY HS TAN.) one ‘A SOPT ACCENT CONTINUES Gone our rag ——— > heer 24 & de 12s “A THINK OF Coben aca 7 87 A WALTZ. — 5 W KEES GOING: We FeeL © mie —~ “2 WE STILL SPEED INTO OUR ACCENT BuT the: MOVEMENT CONTINUES . 295 A KARATE FOOT, APTER SNAPPING OUT, WIL BOUNCE BACK IM A HAD ACCENT. f AFTER SPEEDING Our INTO The “FELT” ACCENT? 3 579 Ge “THEN BOUNCE? BACK Anan i 3 579 oid we'pean’ 4 We GET the Sod OF the SHOT AS The GUY POPS BACK BOUNCES BACK TO ORIGWAL FORCTION WITHOUT ANY INBETWEENS aud THEN SLOWS BAC TO NORMAL sa LY A SOPT ACQENT “ib Be HAPPY TO" Ob \ fos ! 7 25 EET 88 IF 9 ans 1s Hf ten) p pt tH secant 296 z iW IMPACT a BACK ACCENT Could Bie SFr meme CEH “yay gee tay” “gi Tees Curie c VY ' Wn 19 ‘g7 4 i" far qs [fff ad. Bur USUALLY HEAD 3 aa is if (‘eat’) Ste ‘piaLlogue! Bouyee Bick gas TIMING, STAGGERS, WAVE AND WHIP WE HAVE The ART THAT CAN PLAY MOST FREELY WITH TIME. WE DONT HAVE TO USI NORIMLTIME, WE CAN EHHER Go Teo FAST-To GET SPISTIC HUMOUR ad FRANTIC ACTIVITY OR GO TOO SLOW aud GET BEAUTY oud DIGNITY. YEARS AGO A SCIENTIST FRIEND OF MINE SHOWED (ME FILA HE MADE AROUND The. WORLD OF MEN bud ANIMALS ~ NONE OF ITSHOT AT NORMAL SPEED. IT WAS ALL INTENTIONALLY FILMED Teo FAST OR TOO SLOW. HE HAD ELEPHANTS RUNNING LIKE MICE au) VICE VERSA, PEOPLE IN RELIGIOUS RITUALS RACING AROUND AS IF PLAYING TAG, PEOPLE KISSING IN SLOW MOTION, ET. AFTER AN HOUR CF THIS YOUR MIND TURNED INSIDE OUT— GIVING A IND OF GODS EYE VIEW OF LIFE ond ACTION. THERE WAS A SHOT OF A TEAMP ON A PARK BENCH PUTTING A MATCHETICK IN HIS EAR IT WAS FILMED SLIGHTLY IN SLOW MOTION, 30 08 32 FRAMES 4 SECOND. AS HE FIDDLED WITH The MATCHSTICK You SAW LITILE RIPPLING MUSCLES OF PLEASURE SPREAD ACROSS HIS FACE WHICH YOU WOULD NEVER SEE AT NORMAL SPEED. ‘STRANGE , BuT COMPULSIVE VIEWING. ‘SINCE THEN I'VE ALWAYS TRIED TO AVOID NORMAL TIMING, ALWAYS TRY To GO JUST A LITTLE Teo FAST 2ud THEN SWIMCH TO GONG JUST A LITTLE eo SLOW — COMBINE IT. GO FOR the CHANGE, The CONTRAST. The SLOW AGAINST The FART. KEEP SWITCHING BACK 2d FORTH. IS HARD To DerEOT Bur MAKES COMPUISIVE VIEWING. STAGGER TIMINGS} THERE ARE SEVERAL WAYS To STAGGER DRAWINGS BACK ayd FORTH To CAUSE THINGS TO SHAKE OR VIBRATE, To MAKE HANDS TREMBLE OR HEP Witt LAUGHING oR CEYING. WE MAKE 4 SERIES OF DRAWINGS OF NORMAL ACTION and INTERLEAVE THEM. BACK oud FORTH IN DIFFERENT WAYS TO MAKE THEM SHUDDER ‘nid SHAKE. 297 THE SIMPLEST FORM OF SHAGGER VIBRATION /§ THIS - SAY We WANT A LEAF ON ATREE TO FLUTTER IN The WIND. -- bg 2e 56797 #1 oud #9 ARE the 2 EXTREMES au) WE JUST MAKE 7 EQUAL IN CETWEENS 1 THEN WHEN WE EXREE = “Zz = WE SKIP ONE aud GO orsKip _L ITON OUR X- SHEETS = 3 FORWARD td) THEN AROUND INSTEAD OF the USUAL- “S COME BACK ef. — FOR A HORE < viowair bt PFECr 9 “pttetessb bl AND WEIRE NOT LIMITED ~~ VipgATONS, ASD “0 JUST THAT, FOR VARY = —S— C HOLD Some oR 20R2 ones FRAMES tu) OTHERS FORO, —E ITS AN ERRATIC EXROSURE- IT DEFENDS HOW VIOLENT We WANT IT 10 Be. ANY COMBINATION CAN WORK. THIS. 1S the PRINCIPLE OF STAGGERED EXPOSURE +] Bl bl Md ANOTHER Way — ' TAKE A DIVING BOARD VIBRATING APTER The DIVERS LEFT IT — Weare 71,4, mdIT L 7 (OF COURSE WECAN MAKE: z MORE FLEXIBLE PASSING x x POSITIONS WITHIN The 537 a PXTREMES ay oS Bar jr | Hed is 17 WILe WORK WELL c tela! g EITHER Way. I 7 Is 7 os hee Zr THESE ARE The. VIBRATIONS HOST 11% SURPRISING HOW MUCH You ae ANINATOPR USE — FOR FACK OF A NAME | CALL IT he UP oxd DON? G 4 “AN REPEBT BACH END, #1 TOT ere. a OR ‘BACK 20) FORTH’ VIBRATION. AND WHEN IT SLOWS TO A STOP 298 THIS CAN BE USED FOR LAUGHTER OR CRYING: OR SHIVERING WrTH COLD: SiMe EECHUSE Th, HERD FORRES Ae6 KNEES FAR APART oe near OF PONG WRASO. THE OMY PROBLEM WITH THIS MEtHOD IS THAT IT TENDS TO BE A BIT MECHANICAL — WE COULD BREAK IT UP BY DOING: MORE INTERESTING PASSING POSITIONS WITH IN IT: But Tle REMLY GREAT METHOD IS The ONE DEVELOPED BY NORMAN FERGUSON Ar DISNENS, KEN HARRIS SHOWED IT 70 ME ud KEN GOT IT FROM SHAMS CULHANE WHO GOT IT FROM FERGUSON. FOR LACK OF A NAME, IM CALLING IT SAY WE WANTED © HAVE & HEAD WOBRLE FROM SIDE TO Side - WE MAKE A SERIES = OF DRAWINGS. FROM I to Say, 33 - THEN WE MAKE A CAREFUL AND We GET “TRACING Cee #33 A SIDET SIDE JUST SLIGHY OFFSET WOBBLE BY WO WE MAKE A NEW SERIES -& HAVING 2 SreIPS (OF DRAWINGS ia 70 BEA & OF Aeron. GONG uP The OTHER BIDE. 2 paren [XTERLEKVING TWO SERIES CF PRAMS PRLENED- GWES US ALL KINDS. OF POSSIBILITIES FOR VIBRATING ACTION. KEN HARRIS ANIMATED & SCENE WHERE “the CHARACTER HAD AN" EARHQUAYE” VIBRATION GOING UP HIS BODY FROM WIS TOES, TO HIS LEGS, on HIS BACK, USING THR SYSTEM IT WORKS LIKE THIS 9 “a ' iA RS SERIES INTERLEAYED 1G WITH SERIES (WORKS, tA te 9A (Mee oe on, SAY WE WANT AN ARK 25 RAISING IN TRIUMPH 4 ORIN BABE, 2 VIBRATING ~ AS IT GOES UR- ‘ (Alo OF COURSE WE CAN BE MORE INVENTNE WITH QUE PASSING POBITIONS ad BREAKDOWNS WITHIN fascren) SERIES A mee OOD So, BASICALLY IS JUST Wlo SERIES OF DRAWINGS DONE SEPARKIELY aud INTERLEWED WiH EACH OTHER ~ GIVING ENDLESS POSSIBILITIES OF WOBBLE, JUDDEES, QUIVAR bd SHAKES. WHIP ACTON “the Wan ew G18 Gout BACK UP OREO L tie IM cr 7 cae “he YE +E ‘SWAP OMY FoR Owe FRM ws PLAGE He SOUND ON FRE See ewe oi ce el (wavzaction) SAME KIND OF THING AS the WHIP Bur WrHoUT Te SNAP KEN HARRIS. USED THE EXAMPLE: A MAN SWINGING ON A ROPE f yen / he ROPE WOUD hulp saat BY fhe WEIGHT \\ OF the may: GONG OVER ud) COMING BACK. 301 Heel tue WHIP ACTON APPLIED TO A WOMAN BATTING HER EVES - (ExAGGeeerr®) HELPING US OUT ON the LAST 2 MONTHS. CF '& CHRISTMAS CARCL/ ABE LEVITON ANIMATED A WONDERFUL. LITLE LAUGH ON TINY TIM. AT DINNER ABE aed | WERE DEMOLSHING The WINE avd | PATILED ON ABOUT HIS. WORK 14d The GREAT LAUGH HE'D JUST DONE. ABE SAID,"WELL,|dn AWFULLY GLAD THAT YEARS AGO KEN HAR2S SHOWED ME THAT WHIP PRINCIPLE AS A PATTEEN FOR & LAUGH. “wyar? SHOWME, SHOW ME! “We STUMBLED BACK To The STUDIO ad ABE SCRIBBLED SOMETHING ye (Ewes we i (ee (TON “wHar?”| BuRBLED, *) DONT GET IT.” “COME ON, DICK, ITS A WHIP PATTERN -LOOK, LIKE THIS... “ * THATS WHAT YOu DID ON THY THM?” * YEAH, YOU KNOW, “the WHIP ACTION - LIKE THIS. ARES LAUGH IS ON The NEXT PAGE nd IM INCLUDING IT TO SHOW Jit HOW SUBTLY THESE BASIC THINGS CAN BE USED. The SHOULDERS GO UP aud DODIN WITHIN The LAUGH wd YOU CAN JUST ABOUT LL Leu IT LOOKS LIKE HE'S SAYING," 1 LOVE You,” DOESNT ir? HE'S NOT. HES SAYING, “ELEPHANT Juice! (AY 11 YEAR OLD DAUGHTER BROUGHT THIS HOME FROM SCHOOL.) TRY IT, IT ILLUSTRATES the ROINT THAT WE DONT HAVE STANDNEDISED MOUTH SHAPES FOR EVERY CONSONANT 20d VOWEL. WERE ALL DIFFERENT. ue MOUTHS ARE ALL DIFFERENT Qu) WE USE THEM DIFFERENTLY. THERES NO SET WAY TO FORM INDIVIDUAL LETTERS aud VOWELS. The ACER , Tih CARREY, MOMES HIS MOUTH DIFFERENTLY THAN The ENGLISH QUEEN. OF COIRSE ALL CUR. MOUTHS OPEN FOR The YOWELS A,E, |, 0,14( AY, BEE, EYE, OH YOO. AND THEY CLOSE FOR The CONSONANTS B,M,P.F,T,¥. ( SEE, EM,PEE, EFF, TEE 20d VEE) AND “The TONGUE IS UP BEHIND “he TEETH FOR N,D,L,TH 26d T (TOUsH We DOIT ALN SE Ir But A LOT OF the POSITIONS IN REAL LIFE ARE MIBIVALENT a0 INDIVIDUAL. 304 HOW NOT TO DO LIP SYNC: [HAD AN ENTHUSIAGTIC tt GRADE TEACHER WITHA WIDE MOUTH FULL OF VERY LARGE TEETH SET OFF BY BRIGHT RED LIPSTICK. FNERY MORNING SHE HAD US ALL STAND UP oud VERY SLOWLY Ee - NUNN - SEE - AYTEN: \ “MOO VAH BULL LIPSSSSsS, MOO VAH BULL LIPSSSSSS, ARR THUH VEHREE BEH€SST LIPSSS ‘# TOO TAWK ANNND SSSING W/THTHTH. FOLLOWED By- ‘ GOoOD MOKRRNNING Too Yooo, GOCOD MOURENNING Bo Yooo- WEER OLL INN OWRR PLAYYSEZZ WITH SSUNNSHEYENEE FAYSSEZZ. OHHH, THISSS IZZ THU WAYEE TOO STAHRRT AHH NEEYOO DAYEE.” SOMETIMES SHED HAVE US SIT ond SAY “P* (PuH) FoR AMINoTE «=O G0 | KilD OF ENJOYED HEARING ‘te LITTLE EXPLOSIONS OF AIR. & 3 PEOPLE DoN'r TALK LIKE THis! WE SMUDGE FROM ONE WORD SHAPE To The OTHER. “The ANIMATORS CALLED iT LIKE IN MUSIC - YOu SMUDGE OVER A FART COMPLEX PASSAGE HITTING JUST the MAIN THINGS —YOU DONT HAVE TO MACHINE GUN EVERY NOTE EQUALLY Yeu BLUR. OVER IT WHEN WE SPEAK WE PONT ARR TICK YOO LATEH EVERY LITTLE SIL AH Bul Bui) LETTER ond FOP, SOME PEOPLE HARDLY MOVE THEIR LIPS WHEN THEY TALK. The THING IS TO THINK OF the WORDS, WORD SHAPES 2rd PHRASES -NOTOF LeTtERS. OU MOUTHS ARE ALL DIFFERENT. MOST PEOPLE HAVE EITHER. The TOP @ée) “The BOTTOM TEETH ARE TEETH VISIBLE MOST OF The TIME- FEATURED MOBT OF The-TIME. = 305 “the MOST FUN IVE HAD WITH LIP SYNC SO FAR WAS WITH VINCENT PRICES VOICE - BECASE HE HAD SUCH A MOBILE FACE, MOUTH, JAWS 0nd THROAT. FROM The SIDE HE LOOKED AS YOUD EXPECT, BUT WHEN HE TURNED TO The FRONT HE LODIED LiKe A FISH. HBLO RIGHABD- 1 A FRIENDLY 7 MONEE VINCENTS DENTIST TOLD HIM HE HAD A GIANT VOICE BOK WHICH GAVE HIM THAT AWFULLY RICH THEATRICAL VOICE. BUT the GREAT THING WAS THAT HIS FACE WAS SO ELASTIC THAT FOR A SECOND OB THO , the TOP TEETH WOULD FEATURE.» DY see \ DY ote AND BECAUSE HE SPREAD OUT HIS DIALOGUE You HAD the TIME TO ARTICULATE ALL The POPS, CRACKLER, SLOW VOMELS nd CONSONANTS — (HIKE BEING BACK IN GRADE SX.) YOU COULD OVERANIMATE IT ax) IT STILL LOOKED NATURAL. “MOSTLY WE HAE TO HOLD DOWN CUR. MOUTH ACTION , UNLESS WERE SHOUTING OR SINGING. “The IMPORTANT CONSONAMIS ARE “the CLOSED MOUTH ONES - ® 4 e og f© ¢ SS IN ORDER To READ THERE POSITIONS WE NEED AT LeaST TAO FRAMES. ONE ISNT ENOUGH. CIF WE DONT MAKE THESE POSITIONS “the VOWEL THAT FOLLOWS WILL BE VITIATED.) 306 FOR. GOOD CRISP DIALOGUE We SHOULD POP INTO OUR VOWELS - (NO INBETWEENS ) DON'T CUSHION INTO IT CUSHION BACK APTER ‘he ACCENT. HIT IT BIG, THEN SOFTEN IT. HIT Thee DIALOGUE ACCEWT- he. “B ANGI” E4992 WE COULD CUSHION A BIT ATThe BOTTOM OF The ROP- aad HAVEA SHALL POP TO The'NG” ‘ES H9Ge \ cushy “Take the Wor “BAYS BOLL” Wirt Two VOWELS HIT the. FieSt VOWEL HARDER TH fe 2 ey 7 PPELLE oe Tok cusmownta BAK cussion AGAIN, IF SOMEONE SAYS A BROAD VOWEL LiKe Hey! “oR wow!” Don't ASE INTO The VOWEL FROM The “W WITH SEVERAL DRAWINGS. he. tt os = VERY MUSHY ond SOFT Oo Oo (seg AMONG ANIMATORS ° e (sree on Bar SAL ‘Bir bor LOSE He MIDDLE Peamors ick Bist IN IT roe GET MUCH MORE VITALITY. Compress: ® (3 8 pier Ont Fae - STRETCH IT: A PREVALENT FAULT IN DIALOSUE 1S THAT the ROTIOM OF “he FACE PORNT STRETOH ond COMPRESS FAOUSH, WHICH MAKES OUR ANIMATION STIFF 20d STILTED. 307 “the (KEY) LIP SYNC IS GETTING “he FEELING OF fhe WORD ad NOT the INDIVIDUAL LETTERS IDEA IS NOT 70 BE 100 ACTIVE - GET The SHAE CF the WORD 2d MAKE SURE We SEE IT SELEGT WHATS IMPORTANT ard AVOID FLAPPING the MOUTH AROUID ANMATING EVERY LITE THING. ACTORS FITTING DIALOGUE OVER FOREIGN FILMS HIT ONLY the ACCENTS 20) GUS CHR the MIDDLE Si “THEY MATCH he FIRST VOWEL AT The START OF the SENTENCE 21d The. LAST ACCINTOF The SANTENCE- Bud WHATS IN BETWEEN WILL WORK (oR TEND To WORK.) “THINK OF IT THIS WAY: ME fhe woe" roeruNe- neruy Doni DO THIS = Fa = DONT OPEN IT TWKE TUNE Do Ts: JUST USE 2. POSITIONS. = g) ° \ Go FROM ONE 7 the OTe - Ss Boll. IT DOWN SO mE SIMPLE. 2 FOR A CHOON bers Take HEWO* “/; NON 2 > vr OS C : same tng ye a 5 = DONT CRN ir Tweet 7 a GO STRAGHT FROM ONE tothe OTHER - HE +O. WE CANT BE LITERAL IN READING Que SOUND TRACK, MEMORY” IS HOT 2 OPENS ~ ITS ONE iS Nor: & ORY ORY we S PS NS We Dor MEM GH REE yr Yn ANIMATE YNLES THEYRE SMOING —) mn pre EVeey P MEM - O- REESE SAGE its “MEM-REE” * hose cae VOWEL. ote Ib Cro%e The MOUTH EN ZoUTE 4 \aE 308 KEMENGER. The UPPER TEETH ARE ANCHORED To The SKULL aid DO NOTANIMATE 240 The LOWER. JAWS ACTION (8 MOSTLY UP aud DOWN — WITH The LIPS and TONGUE FORMING The SOUNDS. 2 ; aod A RULE: NEVER INBETWEEN the TONGUE IH SPEECH, CUR TONGUES WOK SO FAST, THATS JUST UP OR JUST DOWN NEVER SEEN EN ROUTE (OF couse ir Pues.) oe ISNT TREA SAKE S The TonGUE We\Ews NOTHING YET $0 FEW OF US CAN HOLD IT >? mont Net! racuae ei’ oben tur “Tite. TONGUE IS HOOKED ON The BACK OF The LOWER TAW aud IS NOT FLOKTING AROUND IN LIMBO OR STUCK IN the THROAT. ASO THE JIS 4d TEETH ARENT RUBRER. BE CONSISTENT ABOUT TEETH. HOWEVER, THERES SOME AWPULY FUNNY SHIFF BANG DONE THESE DIYS WHERE THEY JOST SAY, SHELL, IS A CARTON - LER HAVE IT BE A CARTOON.” AND THEY TREAT The TEETH AS’ RUBBER id PO FROM P its VAUD WSO mms @ \e &S ‘is @ ae cone - BUT NOT Via WEREON ABouT| Hee ANOTHER RULE: WE SAID WE NEED Ar LEAST 2. FRAMES 1D READ IMPORTANT CONSONANTS — LIKE M, 8, PF, V oR T (op'tn’) IF WE DONT, The VIEWER WONT SEE IT, 16 ON the SOUND EST sons READING WEONLY IT FROM The 4 HAVE ONE FRAME PRECEEDING INDICATED Fe, SOUND. AWM? SOUND - GNE IT ANOTHER —>. EXTRA FRAME - ITS Nor ENOUGH. IN FRONT OF Ir To REGISTER- NER METER... PICTURE 3d SOUND SYNC) THIS BRINGS US TO the THORNY PROBLEM OF: Po We ANIMATE LEVEL SYNC OR ANIMATE The. PICTURE ONE FRAME AHEAD OF the SOUND MCDULATION ORTHO FRANES AHEAD OF tte SOUWD, 2 WHAT? ANSWER: Work LEVEL. = EE = = 4 Pur ound” DRAWINGS *G a0) 7 “FRIGHT ON THe MA! SOUND. ~ 1 10 @e) IF WERe ONTWOS - wud IT WORKS Out THAT Wey — Lf EE WORK ONE FAVE AHEAD, Flr cup.“ DRAWING #5 ONE FRAME AHEAD OF TleYW” SOUND i “Cee 'Y Dees 1 FRAME 4 SE HEAD OF Tee'y'SOUND eb, THERES A CRUDE RULE OF THUMM THAT IT LOOKS BETTER Witttie- PAVE LEADING ‘Te SOUND BY 2 FRAMES. BECAUSE OF THS, A DISEASE SPRANG UP WHERE SOME EDNORS SET UP Ta. TYRANRY “THAT ANIMATORS MUST ANIMATE EVERYTHING 2 FRAMES AHEAD OF Ties SOUND SO THEY COULD JUST PLOP IN The RESULT 21d GO HOME. WRONG. THERE ISN'T JUST ONE RULE, SOMETIMES LEVEL SYNC WORKS BEST - SOMETIMES 18 BETTER WITH the. PICTURE ONE FRAME ADVANCED, OF TAN IT IS BETTER 2 FRAMES AHEAD (HENCE The DISEAE) bud SOMETIMES (KO BETTER WITHYhe PICURE EVEN 3 FRAMES AHEAD OF the SOUID. 4 Be” pRawin “Boe IE YOU ALWAYS ANSWER, ent “In 2 FRAMES MEAD” F< aNomige ee DRAWING YOU GET A CRAZY SITUATION “7 Br ») HOLD IT HOLD IT WITH SOMETHING REAL THAT THEY CAN IDENTIFY WITH.” CONCLUSION? WE TRY TO MAKE ITSO REAL, SUPER- REAL, THAT 17 COMPULSIVE VIEWING. WE EXPERIENCE The EMOTION 2d MAGNIFY the RESULT. IVE ALWAYS BEEN EMBARRASSED BY ANIMATORS HMIGING AROUND the WATER COOLER TALKING ABOuT HE ACTING! (1S WELL KNOWN THAT A LOT OF ARTISTS CAN TALK A TERRIFIC FIGHT, Bur WHEN YOU SEE THEIR: DRAWINGS, ITS A DEAD GIVEAWAY OF WHAT” “THEY'RE REALLY LIKE. AND HOW MUCH MORE SO WHEN THEIR PRAWINGS. ARE ACTUALLY MOVING ABOUND. YOUCAN SEE A PERSONS STRENGTHS 20) WEAKNESSES RIGHT AWAY. (F WERE A COLD FISH, SUPERFICIAL PERSON OR EMOTIONAL WRECK , THERE IT'S FOR ALTO SEE. ' SO WE CAN ONLY EXPRESS OURSELVES AS BEST WE CAN WITH WHAT WE HAVE TO OFFER EMOTIONALLY ond TECHNICALLY. A REALLY GOOD PROFESSIONAL SHOULD BE ABLE TO HANDLE A WIDE RANGE OF ACTING MATERIAL, WHATEVER. HIS/HER EMOTIONAL STATE OF MIND. THERES THIS STORY ABOUT A SERIOUSLY DEPRESSED MAN IN GERMANY WHO WENT TO SEE A PSYCHIATRIST? “The PSYCHIATRIST Says,“ YOu\E LOST YouR SENSE OF HUMOUR IN LIFE YOu NEED To HAVE A REALLY GCOD LAUGH. GOTO The CIRCUS - THERES THIS GREAT CLOWN, GROCK, The FUNNIEST MAN You\VE EVER SEEN.” “the ANSWER COMES BACK,“ ! AM GROCK,” FRANK THOMAS, A MASTER OF ANIMATIVG EMPATHY awd PATHOS, ALWAYS CRITICISED ME (CONSTRUCTIVELY) FOR SPENDING TCO MUCH TIME ON SPECTACULAR SURROUNDING ANIMATION 2ud NOT ENOUGH OF GOING STRAIGHT FOR, the EMOTIONAL CENTRE. PART OF the REASON WAS THAT | FELT WE WEREN'T YET GOOD ENOUGH AT IT, S0 WE'b WORK ON the" WORLD” OF the PIECE ond LEAVE The "HAMLET" STUFF TILL LAST - BUT FRANKS CRITICISM IS VALID. 317 ANIMATION WAS KIND OF IN The DOLPRUAS, WHEN WE STARTED MAKING ' WHO FRAMED LOGER. RABBIT! ud FRANK WROTE ME A WONDERFULLY ENCOURAGING LETTER INCLUDING, "IF YOU BRING THIS OFF, YOU'LL BE A HERO.” | CARRIED FRANKS LETTER IN MY CHERT POCKET THROUGHOUT The 25 YEARS OF PRODUCTION PRESSURE arc) WOULD PEREAD IT EVERY TIME THINGS GOT ROUGH. WHEN The PICTURE CAME OUT aud WES A HIT, NOTHING FROM FRANK. 2 MONTHS LATER. ITS The BIGGEST PICTURE OF “The YEAR , NOTHING FROM FRANK. 3 MONTHS LATER | RANG HIM UP “HL, FRANK, Js Dick? we YEAH. “HI, FRAVK, J WELL, We mape ir! IT a ur, FRAN! rio a Hr!” oo YEAH. ” MEAN, WeLL, WE DID -The BEST WE COULD 2nd ITS & HUGE Success! ENORMOUS!” YEAH.” “WELL, | KNOW, FRANK, IT COWWD HAVE BEEN BETTER , BUT WE REALLY WORKED HABD ond EVERYBORY LOVES Ir!” See YEAH.” “WELL, 2&, um, | GUESS THAT YOU COULD SAY THAT WE RAISED AGIMMICK TO “The LEVEL OF A NOVELTY, BUT ME AHIT!”” SL YEAH.” Aw, COME ON FRINK, | KNOW YOU ALWAYS CRITICISE ME FOR NOT GRABBING The AUDIENCE EMOTIONALLY - BUT YovVE Gor To GE IT TOME, WHEN The VILLAINS GOING TO KILL THE PABBIT BY DIPPING Hi INthe VAT OF ACETONE, ALL The KIDS Whe AUDIENCE YELL ,"DON'T Do it! DON'T DO IT!” (Lone Pause)."./ wis THEY HAD. 7 WELL, | KNOW WHAT FRANK MEANS. IN MY DEFENSE, | HAD TO PUSH VERY STRONGLY FOR SOME ANIMATION | DID AT “the FRONT OF ‘he OPENING CARTOON WHERE WE COULD AT LEAST SEE WHAT the RABEIT LOOKED LIKE BEFORE HE STARTED SHOOTING AROWND LIKE A CROSS BETWEEN CHEWING GUM aud A FIREWORK. Bur THERE WAS A REAL OPPORTUNITY FOR PATHOS THAT WE MISSED. THERE WAS A SHOT OF ROGER SITTING ON A GARBAGE CAN IN A BACK ALLEY CRYING ABOUT WHAT HE THOUGHT WAS HIS WIFES INFIDELITY. 318 LIKE GROCK, | WANTED To SHOW 4 COMPLETELY DIFFERENT SIDE OF the RABRITS PERSONALITY BEHIND HIS PROFESSIONAL MASK. 1 WANTED Teo ANIMATE IT MYSELF, BUT | HAD Too MUCH ELSE DO. WE HAD A FINE LEAD ANIMATOR WHO WAS AT the TIME VERY LONELY xd | KNEW HE WAS The MAN FOR The JOB. & TOP EXECUTIVE COMES IN aud SAYS BY the WAY, DICK, SO ondSO REMLY WANTS JO POTHAT SCENE. | SAID, “OH NO, HES A SUPERB BROAD ANIMATOR and INVENTIVELY FUNNY, EXCELLENT, BUT | THINK HES WRONG FOR THIS SCENE. Hes GOT A GREAT GIRLERIEND, HE'S VERY UP ond NOT The PERSON FOR THIS Jog.” “eur HE REALLY WANTS TO DO IT, DICK, HE® BEEN PHONING ME UP ABOUT IT.” “eur Hes WRONG ~ IT'LL BE OK- BUT IT WON'T HAVE THIS OTHER SIDE To IT The OTHER GUY SHOULD Do IT.” “BUT HES DYING To DO IT. | LOSE The ARGUMENT. OUTVOTED. ITS WEONG, BUT the PICTURE FEELS LIKE A HIT and ANYWAY | CANT AFFORD TO BE FIRED. OF COURSE The RESULT WAS JUST LIKE ALL The OTHER. MANIC. SCENES - dud. WE MISSED HAVING ANOTHER DIMENSION 7 ‘the CHARACTER WHICH WOULD HAE GIVEY A MUCH STRONGER EMOTIONAL PULL WITH The AUDIENCE. WIN SOME, LOSE SOME, (N AN INTERVIEW IN 1972 AT The ZAGREB FiLm FESTIVAL, FRANK THOMAS TALKED ABOUT A MAN “WHO NEVER HAD TALENT FOR ENTERTAINMENT, HE WAS ONE OF the BEST ASCISTANTS We EVER HAD. HE KNEW EVERYTHING YOU COULD TEACH ABOUT MOVEMENT, MOVING “the CHARACTER 28 WEIGHT nd DEPTH ond BALANCE and ALL THESE THINGS. HE COULD DRAW THEM LIKE ANYTHING, BUT HE HAD A VERY WEAK SENSE OF ENTERTAINMENT sud HE HAD A VERY PCOR CHOICE OF WHAT TO DO IN ANIMATION — SO HIS ANIMATION WAS ALWAYS FLAT. IT ALWAYS MOVED NICELY, BUT NOBODY WANTED To Look ari: ” MILT KAHL ALWAYS SAD, ITS A MATTER OF PICKING The. RIGHT THING TE DO and MAKING UP YOUR. MIND ABOUT THAT. AND THEN NOT LETTING ANY OTHER (DEAS INTERFERE wim IT. PONT LET YOUR MAIN IDEA GET BURIED CR INTERFERED WITH BY SOMETHING ELSE,” CONCLUSION: WE THINK ABOUT IT IN “The OVERALL, JUST AS IF WE WERE AN ACTOR POING IT HOW DO WE DO IT The BEST WAY To PuT The BUSINESS OVER Tee BEST? BEFORE WE AVIMATE WE FIGURE OUT IN ADVANCE EXACTLY WHAT WERE GONG DO KNOW WHERE WERE GOING. IN PLANNING LOCK DOWN “the IMPORTANT POSES. 319 ART GABEITT SAID THAT The GREAT BILTVTLA (RENOWNED FOR-The EMOTIONAL POWER. Ded HEARTFELT PARSION INHIS WORK) SPENT DAYS WORKING ON TINY “THUMBNAUS. HE HAD EVERYTHING ALL WORKED OUT IN MUNIATURE BEFORE ANIMATING, CAND the END RESULT StiLL. CAME OUT JUST AS CPUICKLY AS OTHER. ANMATORS) GRIM NATHICK ALSO TOLD ME,TYTLA WAS A VERY, VERY CAREFUL PLANNER, CHANGE OF EXPRESSION / WAS VERY TAKEN WITH WHAT DISNEY MACTER ANIMATOR/ TEACHER ERIC. LARSON HAS TO SAY IN FRANK THOMAS 30d OLLIE JOHNSTONS "THE ILLUSION OF LiFe” HE SAID IN The BARLY MICKEY MOUSE SHORTS THEY DISCOVERED THIS PRINCIPLE: IP YOU WERE LOOKING AT & PORTRAIT AND - \ THE SUBJECT GRADUALLY LOWERED HIS BROMS INTO A FROWN - PAUSED- AND THEN LIPTED ONE BROW AND GIANCED 0 THE SIDE, YOu IMMEDIATELY WOULD SENSE A CHANGE FIOM ONE THOUGHT TO ANOTHER. SOMETHING VERY IMPORTANT HAPPENED! THROUGH A CHANGE OF EXPRESSION The THOUGHT PROCERS WAS SHOWN.” | THOUGHT, OK, LETS JUST SKETCH THIS Our MI AS SIMPLERT FORM 30) SEE WHAT (TLOOKS LIKE - q we \ od LINN “Grauauy LOWERS PAUSES —THEN AND GLANCES BROWS WO AFEOWN- LIFTS ONE BROW To THESIDE.” GREAT. HES THINKING! THEN | WONDERED - 18 THERE ANY WAY7 STRENGTHEN THS FURTHER? OK , Lee HAVE The ErezeoWs GO UP WAN ANTICIPATION SEFFORE GONS DOWN. 320 THAT WORKS. CAN WE STRENGTHEN IT Fuemer STIL? WHY DONT We ANTICIPATE The. BAISED EYERROW BY LOWERING IT FURTHER? OLOLG, ( DOM, ANA GO DOWN BEFORE IT GoES uP “THAT WORKS TOO. ANYTHING ELSE WE CAN DOP A SLOW BLINK ENROuTE , GT HELE IP MAYBE WEVE OVERANIMATED (T BY NOW oud MAYBE ISA Bit CORNY -BUT (-SHONS WHAT Ii CAN CO BY LOOKING FOR EXTZA PORITIONS = MORE CHANGE -MORE BMG FORT BUCK, LOOK FOR the CONTRAST. MULT KAHL ALWAYS SAID DONT CHANGE “The EXPRESSION DURING A BROAD MOVE. HE'D USE THIS: EXAMPLE: SAY WE HAVE A PERSON READING 4 BOOK - ty HE HEARS A NOISE FORA START WED NEED SOMPTHING TO CHANGE FROM -SOMETING OPPOSME- SOMETHING THATS A LOT DIFFERENT FROM WHAT WE'RE GOING TO CHANGE TO. LEMS LIFT The BOOK UP ad PUSH Hak DOWN DEEPER. WTO IT: sai ~ GINE HUM & COMPLACENT OR AnUSED : 0 EXPRESSION — THEN WEVE Gor A BIGGER CHANGE - r. A STRONGER CHANGE. Bie WE DONT WANT 7 CHANGE HIS EXPRESSION DuRINS the MOVE WHERE We CMT SEE IT SO WE INSERT A PORITION WHERE We SBE the CHANGE BEFORE Tue MOVE. the AW PRPRES! Wn a fm Xi Bf o— rN AG HAVE HIM MONE 34d CHANGE the EXPRESSION AT tke END OF HI MONE WHERE WE CAN SEE IT. wy > & “se 7 \ | MORE EFFECTIVE, The IDEA (8 TO Put the CHANGE WHERE YOU CAN SBEIT~ NOT DURING the BROAD MOVE - UNLESS the MOVE (© Quite SLOW - THEN We COULD READ iT, AGAIN, Me MIND 1S the PILOT. WE THINK OF THINGS BEFORE the BODY DOS THEM. THERES ALWAYS. A SPLIT SECOND OF "THINKING TIME” BEFORE The. CHARACTER DOES the ACTION. 322 (AN ACTING PANT) A BAD ACTOR. WILL POINT AT The SAME TIME AS SAYING - BUT WE CAN TAKE IT OU OF The REALM OF the CLICHE SIMPLY BY POINTING FIRST Gud THEN SAVING (7: OR, SAY IT FIRST THEN POINT- “THERE HE GOES! ” ~~ Nd INCIDERTHLY, WITH POINTING - ITS A GOOD IDEA To LEAD WITH the WRIST > —y ded) HAVE the HAND aid FINGERS NAY Come uP LAST. AND ~A VERY MINOR. TH NG IN A FAST MOVEMENT- IF WERE GONG FROME THE) \ Es We Coup wseRr | FRAME Soe Bn nee ® DIREEREN. on Fis Ste BODY LANGUAGE Te BRIAN DSINEY ART DIRECTOR/ DESIGNER, KEN ANDERSON SAID, “PAVIOMIME IS The BASIC ART OF AUMATION. BODY LANGUAGE (8 the ROOT 0) FORTUNATELY iT 1S UNIVERSAL,” WAS WITH KEN IM TEHRAN JUST BEFORE The REVOLUTION oud | HAD A NASTY SHOOK tid A BIG LESSON WHEN THEY RAN MY 12 HOUR OSCAR-WINNING ‘A CHRISTMAS CAROL’ FOR AN (RANIAN AUDIENCE. WE HAD TRIED TO HAVE AS MUCH BCOY LANGUAGE IN The FILM AS WE CouLD BUT We STILL WERE LEPT WITH DICKENS’ L(TERRMTE STORY. OF COURSE The AUDIENCE DIDNT UNDERRTAID A WORD. A CHUCK JONES CARICON CAME ON APTER 0 BLEW US Oltt OF The WATER. SO FORUS, We SHOULD KEEP WORDS 7b A BARE MINIMUM oud MAKE EXEPYTHING 48 CLEAR AS WE CAN THEOUGH PANTOMIME. VE SHOULD FEEL WE HAVE ONL Th BODY To Telit STORY. [7S A GREAT IDEA To STUDY SILAT MOVES. ALTHOUGH MUCH OF The ACTING (S LAUGHABLY HANMMY 24) CORNY ITS ALL VERY CLEAR. ALMOST A LOST AT, AN ACTOR. HAS To BE SPONTANEOUS To A DESREE - Bur 11% NOT SPONTANEOUS FOR Us: 178 ANYTHING BUT. WE CANSIT DOWN aud GIVE IT A LOT CF THOUGHT. WE CAN TRY THINGS, “TEE THEM ud MAKE CHANGES, WIEVE GOT the BopY CONTeOL 9d WERE NOT HMITED BY PHYSICAL DEXTERITY, OR GRAVITY, OR AGE, OR RACE, OR SEX. AGAIN, WE CAN INVENT WHET DOBSN'T EXIST IN REALITY wud STILL MAKE I’ A PPEAR- BELIEVABLE, { ‘SYMMETRY CBW NING” | FEEL THAT SYMMETRY HAS GOTTEN A BAD PRESS BECAUSE OF BAD ANIMATION ACTING. PEOPLE SAY ‘AUOID TWINAING’— WHERE BOTH ARME ad RANDS ARE DOING the SAME THING. nA AED BUT JUST WATCH ANY POLITICAN, PEEAGHER OR LEADER OF WHATEVER , OR EXPERT ON TELELISON. WHEN THEYRE LAYING DOWN fhe LAW THEIR ARMS 2d HANDS WILLTWIN: SYMMETRICALLY. HERES Tie BROAD PATTERN - (Fie) Ap eee “WE NEED BALANCE, — — HAPPINESS. AND (ts UP To You sonar sean SUES HaRuoNY, ARINOMICE, FOR AML. TONG FORME Riese nomy — Guokows Sate ABNDACE BALANCED Line ete. 324 THEY MAY DO IT i A REDUCED VERSION - vis os Pyar “i Oe, Honest, Sz. = AND IL NEVER IW ORDER LIE YOU- TO BRINGA GLORIOUS, THCLUSYE = AND WATCH YourSiL WHA) YOURE LAYING DOWN the LAW ABOUT SOMETHING » WE Tir Do IT NATURALY, U THINK SYMMETRY 1S AN EXPRESSION OF HARMONY, BEAUTY, BALANCE, ORDER aud AUTHORITY ud PEOPLE USE ITALL The TIME (BREAENG ITUP To ROWT oR WHETER.) 2) THEN RETURN TO IT TO EXPRESS fe WHOLENESS THEY Re TRYING TO CONVEY. SO, A JUDICIOUS USE OF TWINNING 18 EFFECTIVE BECAUSE ITk EVERYWHERE. ITS ALL DO WITH HOW We USE IT: A WAY TO TAKE The. CURSE OFF TWINHING IS JUST TO DELAY ONE OF The HANDS OR ARMS BY + 0.6 Frans ARSE A Hs LIKE A DANCER WOULD DO- OR TILT ANOTHER PART - nusnanbng SEN IN A MARVELLOUS TV MASTERCIASS ON ACTING, MICHAEL CAINE SHOCKED EVERYONE BY SAYING, “IE YOU SEE SOME ACTOR DONG A PECEOF BuSMESS THAT You ADHIRE— STEAL IT.” (Cpasse ree permcr)* STEAL IT!” (audience shock, Homeoe) “BECAUSE ... THEY DID.” Sowa ADVICE CAME FROM The DISNEY STUDIO ZARLY ON = (P YOURE SHORT OF TIME, SPEND ITON The EVES.~THe EVES ARE WHAT PEOPLE WATCH. OF COveSE THIS (S TRUE. The EVES ARE The VISIBLE PART OF tle BRAIN — DIRECTLY CONNECTED To 17 e© ITH THATS HY We SiaE pee Bou CR PERBON REVEALED IN the EVES. ITS SCARY. WERE LOOKING INSIDE BACH OTHER. 325 SS eae \ h A o oe OUR EES ARE SUPREMELY EXPRECRIIE ou) WE EASILY COMMUNICATE WITH he EVES ALONE . WE CAN OFTEN TELL Tie STORY JUST WITH! The EVES, "SS aup How mace MORE DRAMA 71S TO JUST TURN The EVES INSTEAD ~ OF the WHOLE BODY! CoN HERES SOMETHING NE SFE ALL DAY EVERY DAY—2ud IDNOT GaN IT Ba ANIMATED UNTIL | STARTED RANTING ABOUT IT TO ANIMATORS 5 YERRSAGO; oo. eT BASSEODH AGES — | ey uistenne oWthe PHOME the EYES FLICKee ry { u AROUND INA STACCATO FASHION REFLECTING The 9 LISTENERS SHIFTING THOUGHTS IN REACTION. KE RES Ou BYES ARE RARBY STIL «a ITS GOOD TO DISTEND tue PUPIL TO SHOW FORM ~ FEEL PAET OF tic EYE, CQOSSOES > a SS OVE PAP Da DAF 8 He RONG FPN “THERE'S AN INFIN(TE VARIETY OF BLINKS, BUT HERES A SIMPLE FORMULA. \\ _ 2 So 4 5 6 7 \\ OO 68 @O-L- GOSS GO > ‘GAT 14¢E9 Sf 41 “TH IS CRUDE, BuT EFFECTIVE —WORKS WELLON ONES OR TWOS, be We CaN GO ON FoReue. Mtour ACriNe (aud We pO) BUT OUR OB IS- ve © Pur OVER The PONT OF the SCENE CLEARLY. AA @. GET INSIDE Tie CHARACTER, OR. CHMACTERS. Ge) Coud EVERYBODYS ReALY DIFFERENT) A (Show CLEARLY WHAT THEY RE THINKING. Breeae ea 028 — AA , OO aw Fe AD Op é & 6) « => Sy © ») 7 ANIMAL ACTION FOUR LEGGED ANIMALS WALK LIKE TWO OF US JOINED TOGPIKER - Otte SLIGHTLY AHEAD OF The OTHER — TWO GETS OF LEGS SLIGHTLY OUT OF PHASE. WE LOOK FORALL the SAME THINGS ASE DO WITH A HUMAN. START Witt The CONTACT POSITIONS (PROBABLY STARTING ON the FRONT Foot) WHERE ARE The UPS 20 DOWNS? WHERE JS the WEIGHT? WHATS The SPEED? CHARACTER? DIFFERENCES IN BUILD? A rode iracep wai — PELASUP CHEST Ron HAS TWO MAW _ EXTREMES ~ [ne (cxaccecnaren), BS cP ‘yp Te terpc BUT WITH THO. SETS CF LEGS WORKING, THERES A LOT OF WEIGHT TRANSFERENCE GONS ON- WHERE The WEIGHT IS COMING FROM, WHERE IT (S aud WHERE ITS GOING TO. 327 IF WERE GONG To BE “REALISTC i OUR ACTON WERE GONG To HAVE To Bo The RESEARCH HOW Yhe ANIMAL IS BUILT, ITS SIZE 20 TYPE - WATCHING end WATCHING UNTIL WE KNOW IT” /E ACTION REFERENCE STUDY FILM ind VIDEO awd The EXTRAORDINARY MUYERIDGE PHOTOS oF ANIMALS WHERE The HIGHS sud LOWE 208 CHANGING MUSCLE SHAPES ARE CLEARLY DISFLAYED AGAINGT BACKGROUND GRIDS. A MAESTRO OF ANIMAL ACTION, MICT KAHL SAID He DID THOROUGH RESEARCH ON ANIMALS ud ALWAYS DID. HE SAID HE SPENT HUNDREDS OF HOURS STUDYING ACTIONS OF VARIOUS ANIMALS 24d WALKS 24d RUNS WHATS HAPPENING - WHERE The WEIGHT IS 240 HOW You DRAW THEM. HE SAID HE DIDNT THINK THERE WAS AN EASY WAY OF ARRIVING AT THERE THINGS: WEE JUST HAVE 10 Go THROUGH IT- MILT SWORE BY Thea. MUYBRIDGE BOOKS - FOUND Tia EXEN BETTER THAN FILIN, BECAISE OF the GRDS. KEN HARRIS ALSO SHORE RY MUYBRIDGE. He BOILED DOWN A SIMPLE FORMULA - SOMETHING WKETHS — ANIMES ALL WALI HEAD TURNS Ww OB AAW The Tin ot MOMS. aed Tie RST WH SAK HGS ANTE HCE A WIP BACALY ALIKE peo ror er SUTTAKE DRAWING , | os giats INTO CONS IDERATON, y : ) yy — “a. FROM AzOK. SWUCE WOST ANIMAL WALKS APE PREMY SIMILAR, IF We UNDERSTAND fh WALK CFA MEDION BLIET ANIMAL LIKE A HORSE, DOG OR LARGE CAT We CAN APPLY ‘tie, SAME KNOWLEDGE TO OTHER ANIMALS DEPENDING ON THEI SIZE, WEIGHT, DESIGN aud THEIR TIMING “The INTERVALS OF THER FEET LANDING. IF WE GET DOWN ON ALL FOURS WE CAN FEEL HOW THEY WALK. 4 ois ie f ms ABE LEVITOW ARKED AN INTERESTING QUESTION — DOES A HORSE WALK LIKE AN OSTRICH AND A MAN? js Se 3 eh WI courser conracr DOES AN OSTRICH AND A MAN WALK LIKE A HORSES 329 BASIC ANIMAL WALK PATTERN APPLYING 7O NORT ANIMALS - USING & MEDIUM SIZE DOG. . THERES SO MUCH GOING ON THAT COLORS HELP ~ 2 I BENS ABAL BLACKER REDRR — HUERR au) CER. Gennes PARR tenn) ie UP a @ FOLDING a0) UNFOLDING ae Sa Sa - \~e 5 as > = om SS { 330 VMAS ABO 331 Heed A FUNNY “INVEN TEC! WALK CN A DONKEY ON TWOS - WALKING ON 16.5, [7S PLANNED WITH he FRONT LEG aud “The OPPOSING BACK LEG TWINMetS TAKE the STEP TOGEIMER. The PXTREMES* tad "17 ARs LEVEL on} the PASSING POSITION 72 ECON an) HEAD ARE RASED SLIGHTY. The DOAN (SON7S aelthe UP (Ss N*I3, Swe, SELMVABLE, BUT ND ANIMAL WALNS URE THIS. oa se pawe rete CCRC aC aC SCC + + + vertu ©) 5 te bom! 7 ‘ + + 1 4+ + + ZL PASS Pos. a“ J3 the uP 1s - + + + * + exe D) / 1” arene 23 + + + + . + + 35 sss, on 24 We uP 2 OS 332 DIRECTING 1 THINK THERE ARE ONLY A FEW INPORTANT THINGS TO KHOW AROUT DIRECTING - But WE'VE GOT TO KNOW THOSE. “the. DIRECTORS 308 (STO MAKE IT ALL WORK. | HAVE THREE RULES: © BE SINPLE. @ &F CLEAR. @® Pur EVERYTHING WHERE You CAN SEE IT. “The DIRECTOR IS. A 2 FACED CREATURE WITH A FOOT itt 2 CAMPS, The. SUATION DENN IT whe FRONT ROOM “the. BACK ROOM 333 Se, “17% A BUSINESS, GOD DaAMw iT! ” “irk Nor & BUSINESS ITS AN expression {7 (Avon, execomve) EMERY HAniKWNS CANIMATER) OF COURSE iT BOTH- BUT DO YOU KNOW tne GOLDEN Rube? WHOEVER, HAS “the GOLD MAKES ‘the RULES, WERE BEING HIRED TO DO ARB wd WE SHOULD DO Wiér WERE BEING HIPEDTO DO. We SHOUD FOLLOW the ROLES, IF WE WANT ARTIC FREEDOM THEN We PROVIDE CUe Onn GOLD. (Che BRIEF’) (SSO IMPORTANT! | ALWAYS WME ON ONE SHEET OF PAPER WHAT the. GOALS ARE — HAT WEIRE SUPPOSED To DO. FOR EXAMPLE, the" WHO FRAMED ROGER RABBIT “Fit: FIRST, MAKE The MARRIAGE OF LIVE ACTION on) CARTOON REALMS BLAID TOGETHER CONVINCINGLY. SECOND, USE @) DISNEY ARTICULATION: WARNER TYPE CHARACTERS © Tex aveey Homeug (Bur Nor so Reva.) OUR JOB IS TO ALLAY The FEARS OF The EXECUTIVES and INCITE GREED BY CUR TALENT DISPLAY— SOLVING The PROBLEMS UP FRONT. DESIGN The STUFF oR SELECT WHATS GOOD >u) SHOW IT WORKS. “fhe LEICA REE.) OR ANIMATIC, OR FUMED COLOUR. STORYBOARD WiLL SHOW WHATS WORKING — (AND WHAT ISNT) IS SOMETHING FOR EVERYONE 7O HANG THHRHATON 2nd CALM DOWN, “THEN WE MAKE the CHANGES 70 THAT LEICA REEL -NOTTO The ANIMATION. TIS WAY The AWMATERS CAN GET ON WITH THEIR WORK IN SOME KIND OF PEACE. (SEPARATE the CHAGACERS ) SHOW tha DIFFERENCE RETWRN THEN. [78 ALL To Do WIT CONTRAST: SIZES, SHAPES, COLOURS , VOICES. PUTOPPOSITIR TOGETHER: Bie od LITTLE, FAT bud) THIN, This bud SHORT , ROUND and SQUARE, OLD and YouNe, RICH md POOR ote. 7JuIs: 18 So vERY mMPORTANT! A SUCCESSFIL EXAMPLE I DISNEYS 'LION KING’ WHERE ALL The CREATURES SOUND, LOOK ond BEHAVE Qure DIFFERENTLY FROM EACH OTHER, (BEST FOOT FORWARD ») Pur the BEST ANIMATORS ON The OPENING, ENDING 24d AS PILLARS SPOTTED THROUGH The MIDDLE — LIKE ACTORS WHO KNOW the IMPORTANCE OF STAGE ENTRAYCER ud EXITS. Pur the BEST PEOPLE ON CLOSE UPS ud LONG SCENES, LESS EXPERIENCED PEOPLE ON 2 FOOTIONG-SHOS ud MIDDLE PEOPLE IN The MIDDLE. CASTING ANIMATORS) EVERYBODY HAS THEIR THING "THEY DO WELL. IT UR JoB TO CAST THEM FOR WHAT THEY CAN DO aud NOT WHAT THEY CANT DO. MAKING CHANGES UNLESS THEYRE ASKING FOR. HELP, ALLOW The ANIMATOR T GIVE BIRTH UNIMPEDED. ONCE THEYRE PREQNMIT WITH A NEW SCENE THEY WONT MIND MAKING CHANGER 7D A PREVIOUS ONE, WERE ALL The SAME. (say! say!) Keep the DOOR OPEN FoR CONTRIBUTIONS FEOM EVERYONE Cd the. TEAM. IF YoU CATCH THEM MUTRERING, ASK THEM To'SAVISAY!”” They MIGHT BE RIGHT ABOUT SOMETHING, (VOICE RECORDING ) IF YoU CAST the RIGHT ACIOR FoR The JOB ITS The EASIEST THING IN The WORLD. THEVLL USUALLY GIVE IT TO YOU ON TAKE ONE, THEN JUST GET ANOTHER TAKE FOR INSURANCE, ACTUALLY THEYLL USUALLY GIVE IT TO You ON the REHEMSAL — SO TELL The PECORDIT To RECORD EVERYTHING. ITS ONLY IF YOu HAVENT MADE CLEAR WHATS REQUIRED THAT YOU CAN END UP WITH FIFTY TAKES- HOOK-UPS irs Olle RESPONSIBILITY TO ENSURE THAT ONE ANIMATORS SHOT HOOD UP PERFECTLY 10 The NEXT PERSONS SHOT. THEBES NO EXCUSE FOR AN ANIMATION DIRECTOR TO GET THIS WRONG AS WE CAN DRAW PERFECT MATCH -UPS. RESEARCH ) VERY, VERY VERY (MPORRWT. RESEARCH EVERYTHING TILL YOU KNOW “The. SURJECT INSIDE OUT. DONT WING (77 ( BbITNG WE SHOULD KNOW EDITING TECHNIGuES. { STUDY AKIRA KIROSAWA the JAPANESE DIRECTOR , WHO | THINK (S The WORLDS GREATEST EDITOR. AS WELL AS DIRECTOR, BELIE | IN IN YOUR. MATERIAL |) ANOTHER GREAT THING ABOUT KUROSAWA IS THAT HE RELIEVES IN HIS MATERIAL. HE TRUSTS The AUDIENCE ard TRUSS HIMSELF To TELL HIS STORY oud ALLOWS “The. AUDIENCE TO COME TO The FILM. So AS A DIRECIOR. YOu HAVE TO BELIEVE IN YOUR MATERIAL. 335 ITS AMATING WHAT YOU CAN GET AWAY WITH. AN INTERESTING THING HAPPENED ON “WHO FRAMED RosER Rageyr.” HE ACTOR, BOK HOSKINS HAD A GREAT ABILITY TO CONCENIPATE ON A NON-EXISTANT RABBIT WHO WAS 3 FEET HIGH. UNLIKE MORT ACTORS WHO LOOK THROUGH Ob PAST “The INVISIBLE CHARACTER, ROE, COULD STOP HIS EYES EIGHT AT The 3 Roo LINE WHERE The RABBITS EYES WOuLD BE. ONE DAY ANIMARR. SwiCN WELLS (Now! A TEP PIRECHR) CANE INTO ME AND SAID, “WEVE Got A PROBLEM - HOSKINS [3 LOOKING AT A. 6 FOOT HIGH RABBIT — WHAT PO. WE DO? HE WAS RIGHT, HOSKINS HAD TEMPORARILY LAPSED AND WAS LOOKING 2d TALKING TS A WALL ABOUT 6 FRET CFF The GROUND. | THOUGHT, “Welt The RABBITS. Gor THESE HUGE FRET - ters JuST STRETCH Hit UPON HISTOES AGAWST The WALL * FOP NO REASON?” ar BSE Abe WE GONG To DO? ‘THE RABBITS NEURON - IT SHOULD WORK.” THEY EVEN USED The SHOT IN Toe PROMOTONAL TRAWLERS AND NO ONE eve GMESTIONED IT. | ALWAYS SHeTCH EVERYTHING CUTSMALL FIST. The LIPILE PRAWNS, BeCAute THeYlae WRN KING DRAWINGS, AUN ‘SEEM TO SHOW Othe IDEA IS WORKING CLEARDY CR NET: 337 AND IN CONCLUSION: The REVIEW “fhe PROCEDURE) TO MAKE The SOuP: STORYBOARD (pewiene> Aremoy? on RavcH) LEADS To TEST The LE(CA’ REEL of ANINATIC’ oe FILMED STORYBOARD poe + CAM EVEN FER PLANNING DRaMNs (sun om nsuis) SRAET> PLANNING: THEN Cae UNDERSTAND NG OF SHOT 5 ee aN Bis BOG Test POSITIONS “The. BIG DRAWINGS OR FORITIONG THAT HAVE “Te BE THERE, EXTREMES = ANY OTHER ROSITONS THaT HAVE TO BE THERE. USUALLY ‘CONTACTO’ PASSING POSITIONS (PERRHKPS usr Ww RoUeH ) DO SEVERAL STRAIGHT AHEAD RUNS - “the PRIMARY THING “the SECONDARY THING “the THIRD THING Ye FOURTH THING ANY OTHER BITS -LIKE DRAPERY aad Wie CAM KEEP CN TESTING, 338 AND T© DO THIS WERE USING © “The: INGREDIENTS Good KEYS FOR CLARITY WEIGHT = “CHANGE 200) ANTICIPATION. TO GET FLEXIBILITY: WE'RE USING OVERLAPPING ACTION Pee ees ae) ad WERE UNG SHCCESSNE BREAKING OF JOINTS ACCENTS - HEAD, BODY, HANDS , FEET (Ger-nwze wey) STAGGEE VIBRATIONS COMPRESSION axe DISTENTION (SepUH 2d Graercl!) DIFFERENT WALKS ad RUNS = WEE Srresonc The DIFRERBCE BETWEEN THINGS 2d PEOPLE, ‘INVENTED’ MOVES Tar caylr HAPPEN (Nt The REAL WORLD BUT WE MAKE LOOK BELIEVABLE. FOR DIALOGUE WE'RE PROGRESSING IT SOMEWHERE WE'RE USING ALL THESE THINGS BROADLY OR yey SuBmy. ALLTHIS IS the ANATOMY TO ENABLE US TO GIVEthe PERFORMANCE, ‘SUSTAIN IT ad MAKE IT COMPULSIVE Vie WING. AND ONCE ITS ALL ABSORBED INTO The BLOODSTREAM — TO FREE US TO EXPRESS! “THe PLAYS The THIN! 339 Start with the things that you know and the things that are unknown will be revealed to you. Rembrandt, 1606-1669 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Now I know why authors profusely thank their editors! So thanks to Walter Donohue at Faber and Faber for dating to think there might be a useful book here and for his enthusiasm and patience as | struggled endlessly to complete. ‘And thanks to the production team: Nigel Marsh, Kate Ward and Ron Costley for coping with my unorthodox format and crazy demands. Linda Rosenberg of Farrar, Straus and Giroux has been an ener- etic enthusiast and supporter of the book all the way along. I'm also very grateful to Roy E. Disney who has helped me in many different ways. ‘The Disney Studio has been very generous and co-operative as they always have been during my life-long ‘one-foot-in and one-foot-out relationship with them. Special thanks to Howard Green for his consistent. help and encouragement. | think the book already shows how much | owe to my teachers and friends: Ken Harris, Art Babbitt, Milt Kahl, Emery Hawkins and Grim Natwick. But | want to especially thank Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston ‘or thelr kindness and advice over the year. I's been a privilege to have these men as alles and friends. Thanks to author/animator John Canemaker for his advice and long term support. My 25 year collabora ‘tot Roy Naisbitt saved the old artwork I would have thrown out and that’s why we have the illustrations. Thanks Roy. Animator/director Neil Boyle started out as my protege and ended up giving me sound advice over the three and a half years it's taken. Catharine and Andy Evans at Dimond Press went far beyond the call of duty as we pushed their laser copier to its limits. Thanks to Chris Hill for his help with ‘the computer images on the cover. | want to thank my son, animator Alex Williams for constantly telling me the book will be useful. My old school friend, animator Carl Bell has been helping me with stuff for years. Also my friend, author Ralph Pred, has been extremely stimulating and encouraging. ‘My photographer friend Frank Herrmann took the early photographs. Thanks Frank. The ‘old man’ photos are by Jacob Sutton. Thanks, Jake. Thanks to builder Dennis Nash for building me an inventive place to ‘work on the book. ‘And thanks go to the following who all helped in different ways ~ Chris Wedge, Tom Sito, Morten ‘Thotming, Miguel Fuerte, Jane Miller, Nicola Solomon, Sue Perotto, Dean Kalman Lennert, Di MeCrindle, {ym Nalsbitt, Julie Kahl, Heavenly and Scott Wilson, Phil and Heather Sutton, John Ferguson, Ted and Jill Hickford, Marilyn and David Dexter, Ellen Garvie, Mallory Pred, Saskia and Rebekah Sutton. ‘The cover on page x appears by kind permission of Animation Magazine. Roger Rabbit © Touchstone Pictures and ~amblin Entertainment inc. used by kind permission of Touchstone Petures and Amblin Enertainment, ne. The photograph is by Jacob Sulton; The photographs on pages 2,6, 8 and 45 are by Frank Hermann: The sills on page 4 end page 10 ftom The Charge ofthe Light Brigade © The Charge ofthe Light Brigade, courtesy of MGM: The photograph on page 7 Is used by kind permission of Disney Enterprises, Inc; Thesis on pages 1B and 19 from Steamboat Willie, The Skeleton Dance, Flowers and Tres, Thve Litle Pigs and Snow White and the Seven warts are used by kind permission of Disney Enterprises, ne The poster on page 21 i used by kind permission of the Bish Fil institute; epitaph ofan Unfortunate Artist from the Complete Works of Rober Graves, cour: tesy of Cecanet Press Limited, 1989, The photograph on page 26 appears by kind permission of Disney Enterprises Inc The photograph on pege 39 ‘Gol Ball Bounce’ © Harold Edgerton, courtesy of the Science Photo Library; The Bugs Bunny sketch by Ken Hanson page 46 appears by kind permission of Warr Bros; The photographs on page 328 ar by Eadwenrd Muybrige, courtesy ofthe Kingston Museum and Heritage Service; The sketches on page '336 and page 337 appear by kin permission of Touchstone Pitures and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. Every effort has been made to contac or trace all copyright holders. The publishers will be pleased to make good in {aulure editions or reprints any omissions or corections brought to their attention. 342