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1.

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
The accelerated growth of wireless communication in the day- to-day life, reconfigurable
antennas could gain the focus and attain an unavoidable position in the field. The
characteristics of antenna, such as resonant frequency, radiation pattern, polarization, etc. can
be reconfigured and be used in a more efficient way. Reconfigurable antennas have found
their extensive applications with spatial time block coding systems and spatial multiplexing
techniques . By implementing reconfigurable antennas, multiple input multiple output system
capacity gets increased, and hence excellent diversity be obtained. Also, reconfigurable
antennas have found their numerous applications at cellular radio system, radar system,
satellite communication, smart weapon protection, etc. And, it has been found that, in mobile
and satellite communications, reconfigurable antennas are useful by supporting a large
number of standards. The major advantage with these reconfigurable antennas is that, they
can replace a number of single function oriented antennas.

1.1.1Types of Antennas:
Wire Antennas

A Wire Antenna is simply a straight


wire of length /2 (dipole antenna)
and /4 (monopole antenna), where
is the signal wavelength.

Travelling Wave

A Travelling Wave Antenna is a Helical Antennas, Yagi-Uda


class of antenna that use a travelling Antennas
and
Spiral
wave on a guiding structure as the Antennas
main radiating mechanism.

Antennas

Short
Dipole
Antenna,
Dipole Antenna, Half Dipole
Antenna,
Broadband
Dipoles, Monopole Antenna,
Folded Dipole Antenna

Reflector Antennas

Reflector Antennas reflect the Corner Reflector, Parabolic


electromagnetic
waves.
These Reflector (Dish Antenna)
antennas provide very high gain.

Microstrip Antennas

Microstrip Antennas have a metal Rectangular


Microstrip
trace bonded to an insulating (Patch) Antennas, Planar
dielectric substrate, such as a PCB, Inverted-F Antennas (PIFA)
with a continuous metal layer
bonded to the opposite side of the
substrate which forms a ground
plane.

Log
Antennas

Periodic Log Periodic Antennas performance Bow Tie Antennas, Log


is periodic as a function of the Periodic Antennas, Log
logarithm of the frequency
Periodic Dipole Array

Aperture Antennas

Aperture Antennas contain some Slot


Antenna,
Cavitysort of opening through which Backed
Slot
Antenna,
electromagnetic
waves
are Inverted-F Antenna, Slotted
transmitted or received.
Waveguide Antenna.

1.1.2. Slot Antenna


Advancements in communication technology and signicant growth in the wireless
communication market and consumer demands demonstrate the need for smaller, more
reliable and power efcient, integrated wireless systems. Integrating entire transceivers on a
single chip is the vision for future wireless systems.Using series inductive elements
distributed along the antenna aperture results in the increase of inductance per unit length of
the line. Therefore the guided wavelength of the resonant slot line is shortened.
Different techniques have been used for antenna miniaturization such as: miniaturization
using optimal antenna topologies and miniaturization using magneto-dielectric materials. In
pursuit of antenna miniaturization while maintaining ease of impedance matching and
attaining relatively high efciency, a novel miniaturized slot antenna was recently presented.
Afterwards, a similar architecture in the form of a folded antenna geometry was presented in
order to in- crease the BW of the previously mentioned miniaturized slot antenna.
Here we re-examine this topology and propose modications that can result in further size
reduction or BW enhancement without imposing any signicant constraint on impedance
matching or cross polarization level. A dual-resonant antenna topology is examined for BW
enhancement. This miniaturized antenna shows a BW which is 94% larger than that of a
single-resonant miniaturized antenna with the same size.The aforementioned techniques for
BW enhancement and further size reduction can be used individually or in combination.

1.2. OBJECTIVE
* To design and Analysis of a Frequency and Pattern Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch
Antenna for Wireless Applications.

2.LITERATURE REVIEW
Jarmuszewski et.al (2000),He proposedthe calculation of antenna Q has been an
interestingand a controversial topic for years. In this paper, he first give a rigorous study of
antenna Q by introducing a complete description of the complex power balance relation for
an antenna system. Using the complex Poynting theorem, he have shown that the antenna is
essentially equivalent to a one port lossy network. The Foster reactance theorem is usually
stated for a lossless network. The main purpose of this paper is to determine whether the
Foster reactancetheorem holds for antennas. By making use of a complex frequency domain
version of the Poyntingtheorem, we have shown that the Foster reactance theorem is valid for
an antenna. Finally, the Foster reactance theorem for the antenna has been applied to
demonstrate the widely held assumption Q=1/B, provided Q>>1, where Bstands for the
fractional bandwidth of an arbitrary antenna.
The Foster reactance theorem is a very important tool for the synthesis of networks. In
standard textbooks, the Foster reactance theorem is usually stated for a loss-free network.
Ithas been shown that an antenna system is equivalent to a one port lossy network. So the
question may be raised whether the Foster reactance theorem could apply for an antenna
system. In the following section, we will attempt to answer this question. First, he introduce a
complex frequency and all calculations will be confined to the complex frequency plane. For
clarity, all quantities in the complex frequency plane will be embellished using this symbol to
distinguish them from the corresponding quantities in the frequency domain
The concept of antenna Q was proposed many years ago, its definition, calculation and
relationship to system bandwidth have long been controversial topics. A recent discussion
focuses on the applicability of the well-known complex Poynting theorem to the calculation
of antenna Q. In this paper, he had shown that the complex Poynting theorem can be used in
the calculation of antenna Q and one does not need to revert to the time domain
Poyntingtheorem as suggested by references .The central theme of this paper has been to
show that the traditional Foster reactance theorem holds for an arbitrary antenna system using
the Poynting theorem in the complex frequency domain.

Hossein Mosallaei et.al (2004), Inthispaper, the author proposed a novel


reactive impedance surface(RIS) as a substrate for planar antennas, that
can miniaturization radiation characteristics of an antenna is introduced.
Using the size and significantly enhance both the bandwidth and theexact
image formulation for the fields of elementary sourcesabove impedance
surfaces, it is shown that a purely reactiveimpedance plane with a specific
surface reactance can minimizethe interaction between the elementary
source and its image in theRIS substrate. An RIS can be tuned anywhere
between perfectlyelectric and magnetic conductor (PEC and PMC) surfaces
offeringa

property

miniaturizationfactor.

to
It

achieve
is

the

demonstrated

optimal
that

bandwidth
RIS

can

and

provide

performancesuperior to PMC when used as substrate for antennas.


A method for designinga reactive surface with a prescribed surface
impedance property. To accomplish this, an RIS structure composed of a
periodic array of square patches printed on a PEC-backed dielectric
substrate with thickness and permittivity is introduced. To distinguish the
structure from the frequency selective surfaces (FSS) it should be
emphasized that the periodicity of the RIS metallic patches is much
smaller than the wavelength.In order to facilitate the design procedure, a
simple and yet very accurate circuit model for the structure is developed.
Accuracy of this model is verified using the FDTD technique.
A novel reactive impedance substrate for antennaminiaturization with
enhanced bandwidth performance is introduced. Analytical, numerical,
and experimental analyzes were carried out to demonstrate the basic
concept, design procedure, and model verifications. Three properties of
reactive impedance surfaces are utilized to achieve the desired antenna
properties. These include: 1) total power reflection that creates the
desiredfront-to-back ratio; 2) spatially distributed image representation
that minimizes mutual coupling between the antenna and its
image; and 3) the ability to store magnetic (or electric) energy that can
compensate for the near-field electric (or magnetic) energy of the
5

radiating structure. These last two properties allow for ease of impedance
matching over a relatively wide bandwidth and antenna miniaturization.

Yong-Xin Guo et.al (2004), In this paper, he proposed a new design for builtinhandset antennas in that metal strips as additional resonators are directly connected with a
feed strip. With the new design scheme, a quad-band antenna for covering GSM900,
DCS1800, PCS1900, and UMTS2000 bands and a five-band antenna for covering GSM900,
DCS1800, PCS1900, UMTS2000, and ISM2450 bandsfor use in mobile built-in handsets are
experimentally carried out. Compared with the parasitic form with a shorted strip placed
away from the main radiator in the open literature, the size of the proposed antennas can be
reduced by an order of 10-20%, which is desirable since the size of mobile phones is
becoming smaller according to consumer preferences. Moreover, the impedance matching for
each band of the new antennas becomes easy. The new quad-band and five-band built-in
handset antennas are developed within the limits of a 36 *16* 8 mm3 volume. The antennas
are also analyzed using the finite-difference time-domain technique. A good agreement is
achieved between measurement and simulation.
The measurement methods of mobile handset antennas are of much concern by many
investigators. During the development of such a handset antenna, the antenna under test
(DUT) is connected to a network analyzer via a coaxial cable. Errors in the measured
resonant frequency, bandwidth, radiation pattern, and antenna gain can be expected owing to
the feed cable placed in the near field of the antenna and the coaxial cable acting as a
secondary radiator driven by the surface currents flowing on its outer surface of the shield.
Ferrite chokes on the exterior of the cables can reduce the cable-related effect significantly
However, ferrites typically work well as chokes up to 1 GHz. The use of sleeve-like baluns
on the cable, located near the handset, can reduce the effect of the RF cable on the antenna
measurement as well, the design of such a balun in multiband operation is very complicated.
Moreover, it is commonly known to us in wireless industry that a semi-rigid coaxial
transmission line is placed on the ground plane with its centre conductor connected to the
antenna while its shield soldered onto the ground place as in . With this arrangement, the
effects of the feeding coaxial cable on the antenna can be reduced to an acceptable level.
Thus this feeding scheme can best model the real mobile phone where a separate RF

transceiver, residing inside a metal enclosure, is employed to drive the antenna that is
mounted very close to the RF transceiver
In this paper, he had proposed a new design in that a new metal strip as
an additional resonator is directly connected with a feed strip and
positioned at a plane perpendicular to a ground plane. With the new
design scheme, a quad-band antennaanalyzed using the FDTD technique.
A good agreement has been achieved between measurement and
simulation.

Kamal Sarabandl et.al (2004), In this paper, the author measured gain of 0.5 dBi on
FR4 substrate, which has a loss-tangent of the order of 0.01. Also, the effectof finite ground
plane size on gain and resonant frequency is investigated experimen the design aspects and
the measured results of a novel miniaturized planar antenna are described. Such architectural
antenna design is of great importance in mobile military communications where low visibility
and high mobility are required. Slot radiating elements, having a planar geometry and capable
of transmitting vertical polarization when placed nearly horizontal, are appropriate for the
applicationsat hand. Slot antennas also have another useful property, so far as impedance
matching is concerned. Basically, slot dipoles can easily be excited by a microstrip line and
can be matched to arbitrary line impedances simply by moving the feed point along the slot.
Antenna miniaturization can be achieved by using a high permittivity or permeability
substrate and superstrate materials and/or using an appropriate antenna topology. Here, we
demonstrate miniaturization by designing an appropriate geometry for a resonant narrow slot
antenna. A very efficient radiating element that occupies an area as small is designed and
tested. Simulation results, as well as the measured input impedance and radiation patterns of
this antenna, are presented. This structure shows tally.
The return loss of this antennawas measured with a network analyzer and the result is shown
by the solid line. It is noticed that the resonant frequency of this antenna is at 568 MHz,
which is significantly lower than what was predicted by the simulation. Also, the measured
return loss for the designed microstrip feed line (not shown here) was around 10 dB.To get a
better return loss the length of the microstrip line had to be extended slightly. The measured
return loss after the modification. The gain of this antenna was also measured against a
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calibrated antenna. Under a polarization matched condition a gain of 5.0 dBi (gain in dB
against an isotropic radiator) is measured. The simulated gain value of
this antenna using an infinite ground plane
A novel topology for designing an electrically small resonant slot antenna is demonstrated. A
major size reduction was achieved by constructing a resonant slot rather than the traditional
antenna. This is accomplished by generating a virtual open circuit at one end of the slot.
Further miniaturization was achieved by bending the slot into three pieces in order to use the
area of the board more efficiently

Chung

et.al (2007),In this paper, he proposedawideband E-shaped microstrip patch

antenna has been designed for high-speed wireless local area networks (IEEE 802.11a
standard) and other wireless communication systems covering the 5.15 5.825 GHz
frequency band. Two parallel slots are incorporated toperturb the surface current path,
introducing local inductive effectthat is responsible for the excitation of the second resonant
mode. The length of the center arm can be trimmed to tune the frequency of the second
resonant mode without affecting the fundamental resonant mode. Acomprehensiv e
parametric study has been carried outto understand the effects of various dimensional
parameters and to optimize the performance of the antenna. Asubstrate of low dielectric
constant is selected to obtain a compact radiating structure that meets the demanding
bandwidth specification. The reflection coefficient at the input of the optimized E-shaped
microstrip patch antenna is below 10 dB over the entire frequency band. The measurement
results are an excellent agreement with the HFSS simulation results.
A rectangular microstrip patch antenna is designed based on the standard designprocedure to
determine the length (L) and width (W) for resonantfrequency at 5.25 GHz. It is fed by a
coaxial probe at position (xo, yo). Two parallel slots are incorporated to perturb the surface
current path, introducing local inductive effect that is responsible for the excitation of a
second resonant mode. The slot length (Ls), slot width (Ws), and the center arm dimensions
(Wtand Lt) of the E-shaped patch control the frequency of the second resonant mode and the
achievable bandwidth. By introducing a second resonant mode at around 5.8 GHz, the
coupling of the two resonant modes may form a wide bandwidth response covering the 5.15
5.825 GHz band
8

Awideband E-shaped microstrip patch antenna has been designed for high-speed wireless
communication systems. The reflection coefficient is below 10 dB from 5.05 GHz to 5.88
GHz. The performance is more than meeting the demanding bandwidth specification to cover
the 5.15 5.825 GHz frequency band. At the same time, the antenna is thin and compact with
the use of low dielectric constant substrate material. These features are very useful for
worldwide portability of wireless communication equipment. The parametric study provides
a good insight on the effects of various dimensional parameters. It provides guidance on the
design and optimization of E-shaped microstrip patch antenna. By locating the feed point at
the base rather than the tip of the center arm, the resonant frequency of the second
resonantmode can be tuned without affecting the resonant frequency of the fundamental
resonant mode. The bandwidth can be easily tuned by trimming the length of the center arm.
Excellent agreement between the measurement and simulation results is obtained.

Denidni et.al (2007), The author proposed electromagnetically coupling fed low profile
broadband high gain E-shaped microstrip antennas (MSA) were proposed for high speed
wireless networks in IEEE 802.11 a and j standards. The proposed antenna uses an E-shaped
microstrip patch covered by a radome and fed by an electromagnetically coupled strip. To
validate this concept, a single antenna element and a sub-array were designed, built and
measured. The measured results indicate that the element and the sub-array cover the band
from 4.8 to 6.0 GHz (return loss < 10 dB) and produce a gain of 8 dBi and 11 dBi,
respectively. The developed prototypes may find their applications in wireless
communication networks as mobile or base antennas.
In the element design, an E-shaped patch is etched on the top side and a rectangular strip
on the bottom side of FR4 substrate. This feeding strip is connected to another vertical strip
that goes through an air layer and then connects to a 50Ohm microstripfeedline on a ground
substrate. For this design, the size of the ground plane is 40mm by 50 mm. In the sub-array
design, four identical elements are employed to build a 2 by 2 sub-array wherethe element
spacing is 0.60 in the x-axis and 0.750 in the y-axis 108 Denidni, Hassaine, and Rao(0 is
the wavelength at operating frequency). For good impedance matching, several quarterwavelength transfers are used to connect the radiation elements and the parallel feed
networks and these parameters are chosen to fulfill the specified bandwidth requirements
suitable for IEEE 802.11

In this paper, new electromagnetically coupled (EMC) strip fed low profile broadband high
gain microstrip antennas have been developed. The designed single element antenna and the
2 by 2 sub-array both achieve the impedance bandwidth of more than 30% and the average
high gain of about 8 dBi and 12 dBi, respectively. Since a rectangular microstrip line couples
electromagnetically energy to the MSA, the feeding avoids vias or pins to connect the MSA
and the feedlines. This advantage over a coaxial probe is specially suitable for a large array
antenna design. Although the antennas take multi-layered structures, they still maintain ultralow compact profile. With these features, the proposed antennas can be used in high speed
wireless networks, especially for IEEE 802.11 a andj standards, as mobile or base
stationantennas.

J. S. ROY et.al (2007), The author proposed the investigations on two new shortcircuited microstrip patchantennas, which are able to radiate dual frequencies at GPS and
Bluetooth frequency bands, are reported. One of these antennas is combination of two square
patch sections and the other is combination of two circular patch sections, both of which are
grounded by shorted pins. Using these antennas, by properly choosing the positions of
shorted pins, good impedance matching canbe obtained at both the frequencies. The dual
frequency natures of the shortedpatchs, theoretically obtained using IE3D software, are
veried by measurement.
Theoretical and experimental investigations on new short-circuited dual-frequency microstrip
antennas are reported. The resonance frequency and impedance matching depend on the
positions of shorted posts. The results are supported by measurements. The antennas can be
used for multi-band wireless communications.

H. R. Hassani

et.al (2008),The author proposed a new wideband and small size star

shaped patch antennafed capacitively by a small diamond shape patch is proposed. To


enhance the impedance bandwidth, posts are incorporated under the patch antenna.HFSS high
frequency simulator is employed to analyze the proposed antenna and simulated results on
the return loss, the E and H-plane radiation patterns and Gain of the proposed antenna are
presented at various frequencies.The antenna is able to achieve in the range of 48.8 GHz an
impedance bandwidth of 81% for return loss of less than 10 dB.The process of building the
10

new star shaped patch antenna.The proposed antenna shape is based on a hexagonal patch in
which 6 smaller hexagonal are cut from the edges. To increase the bandwidth of the antenna
four shorting posts are added under the patch.The antenna is capacitive fed by a diamond
shape patch that is connected to a coaxial feed shows the geometry of the complete antenna.
The star-shaped patch is separated from the ground plane with an air-filled substrate.The
specification of the proposed antenna is present

A novel wideband and small size star-shaped microstrip antenna including simple feed
structure is presented.The proposed antenna has a 81% bandwidth over the frequencies 48.8
GHz. It has good cross polarization level and uniform H-plane pattern over the wireless
communication band.It has more bandwidth and has a smaller surface area than similar
designs reported in the literature.

M. T. Islam et.al (2009),The author proposeda new design technique of microstrip patch
antenna is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna design consists of inverted patch
structure with air-lled dielectric, direct coaxial probe feed technique and the novel slotted
shaped patch. The composite of integrating these techniques and by introducing the new
multi- slotted patch, a low profile, high gain, broadband, and compact antenna element. A
wide impedance bandwidth of 27.62% at 10 dB return loss is achieved. The maximum
achievable gain is 9.41 dBi. The achievable experimental 3-dB beamwidth (HPBW) in the
azimuth and elevation are 60.88 and 39 respectively at centre frequency.
The layout of a coaxial probe-fed multi-slotted patch antenna. The structure incorporates an
antenna element, air substrate and a vertical probe connected to the patch. The inverted
rectangular patch, with dimension of 0:5490 0:3680 (where 0 corresponding to center
frequency) is supported by a low dielectric superstrate with dielectric permittivity "1 (2.2)
and thickness h1 (1.574 mm). An air-lled dielectric substrate with dielectric substrate with
thickness ho(12.5mm) is sandwiched between the superstrate and a ground plane. The slots
on the patch are shown in Figure 1(a), where, l and ware the length and width of the slots.
The patch is fed by a coaxial probe along the centerline (x-axis) at a distance Fp from the
edge of the patch.

11

A new technique for enhancing the gain and bandwidth of a microstrip patch antenna has
been developed and implemented successfully. The experimental results demonstrate that it
has a wide impedance bandwidth of 27.62% at 10 dB return loss, covering from 1.81 to
2.39 GHz frequency. The maximum achievable gain of the antenna is 9.41 dBi. Techniques
for microstrip broadbanding, size reduction, stable radiation pattern and high gain are applied
with significant improvement in the design by employing the proposed multi-slotted
patch shaped design, inverted patch, and coaxial probe feeding.

Vipul Tiwari et.al (2009), He proposedartificial neural networks are one of


the fastest growing technologies in the present day and areshowing a tremendous promise in
the field of micro-wave engineering. In this paper an artificial neural network model has been
proposed to estimate the different antenna parameters for an Eslottedmultiband patch
antenna. The results of the ANN model are compared with the simulated results .It is found
that the ANN model shows an extremely fast solution with high accuracy. The proposed ANN
model can be applied for use in WLAN applications.
Micro strip antennas play a crucial role in wireless communication including the advantages
such as low profile, compactness, ease in fabrication and low cost of installation. The major
disadvantage associated with that of Micro strip antenna is of narrow bandwidth which
proved to be a challenge to meet high data rate for various wideband applications. This
problem of narrow bandwidth can be solved by using multi-band antenna. Most effective
technique for creating multiband antenna is by cutting slot in proper position on the micro
strip patch . The main purpose to cut slots in the form of E is to increase the bandwidth of the
antenna. The E-shaped patch antenna consists of two parallel slots that are incorporated to
introduce a second resonant mode, resulting in a dual band antenna. If the feed point is
located at the tip of the centrearm, the second resonant mode will be introduced at a lower
frequency than the fundamental resonant mode. If the feed point is moved to the base of the
centre arm, the second resonant mode will be introduced at a higher frequency than the
fundamental resonant mode. The existing era of wireless communication has made possible
the design of an efficient, wide band, low cost and small volume antennas which can readily
be involved into a broad spectrum of systems. This needs very accurate and concrete
calculation of various design parameters of microstrip patch antennas. Apart from Resonant
Frequency and Patch Dimensions other important antenna parameters are Directivity, Gain,
12

Radiation Efficiency and Bandwidth. These parameters play the vital role in deciding the
utility of a micro strip antenna. It has been noted that the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is
the optimal model to achieve desirable values of speed of convergence. It has been observed
that in the analysis of different antenna parameters i.e. Directivity (D) and Gain (G) and
Bandwidth (BW), MSE level has been reduced to a low value of 1e-5 for three layers
MLPFFBP with Levenberg-Marquaradt (LM) training algorithm and tansig as a transfer
function.
Achievement of such a desired low value of performance goal (MSE) indicates that trained
ANN model is an accurate model for analysing the performance parameters of E slotted
microstrip patch antenna. It is observed that tansig is most suitable transfer function for the
present work. In this paper, the different parameters of E slotted microstrip patch antenna
using MLPFFBP- ANN have been analysed. The results obtained with the present technique
are closer to the experimental results generated by simulating the E slotted microstrip patch
antenna using HFSS software on the Rogers RT/ duroid 5880(tm) substrate. After
achievement of the results which are reasonably close to the desired radiation frequencies, the
antenna was built and tested. In the tests some deviations from the simulation results were
observed on the operation of the actual antenna. Despite those deviations, operating
frequencies of the actual antenna, which are 7.92 GHZ, 10.92 GHZ, and 13.98 GHZ, are the
frequencies which can be employed in Wideband applications.

M. Ouda et.al (2010), In this paper, the author proposed the definition of smart grid still
in the making, the use of two-way communication devices as part of the communication
network in distribution power grid is established. Bi-directional communications improves
power delivery and maximize the use of available grid capacity at various levels of demand.
Successful transition of the current structure of the power distribution grid into a smarter one
is dependent on several key developments. One of the key advances in the two-way
communication is enabled by powerful and compact antenna design that can be cheaply and
easily implemented in smallcommunication devices. The antenna design and simulation was
carried out using ANSYS HFSSsoftware which is the industry-standard simulation toolfor 3D full-wave electromagnetic field simulation. The paper presents a novel compact low profile
wide bandwidth microstrip antenna. The total size of the antenna is 20mm x 10mm x 2mm.
This new design offers a wide fractional frequency bandwidth of about 40% with a gain from
13

3dB-4.3dB over the frequency band (5GHz 7.5GHz). The application of the antenna suits
many communication sensory units currently proposed for interfacing with home and
industryenergy harvesting devices.
The dimensions of the patch of the microstrip antenna are usually in the range from 1/3 to 1/5
of the wavelength. The relative permittivity of the substrate (r) is usually in the range from
2.2 to 12. The most common designs use relatively thick substrates with lower r values
because they provide better efficiency and larger bandwidth. On the other hand, this implies
larger dimensions of the antennas. The dimensions can be reduced by: - adopting fractal patch
shape with some symmetric patterns, optimizing the dimensions of the antenna for the best
performance and reducing the size of the ground plane as discussed later. The geometry of the
proposed antenna .It is consisting of a printed patch antenna on Roger RT/Duroid 5880TM
substrate of thickness 1.57mm and r of 2.2. The substrate has a length of 20mm and a width
of 10mm. The width of the partial conducting ground plane is 10mm and the length is 8mm.
A compact low profile wide band microstrip patch antenna for wireless applications in 5GHz
-7.5GHz frequency range has been proposed. The antenna operating frequency lies in the
bands specified for the WiMAX operation. The antenna has a bandwidth of about 40%. The
gain of the antenna in the operating band is approximately 3-4.3dB. With the simplicity of
feeding and fabrication, the proposed low profile wide bandwidth antenna is suitable for
many wireless communications in particular for interfacing smart power meters and sensory
for use in smart grid application.

Ram Singh Kushwaha et.al (2012),The author proposedthis paper presents a compact
triple band slot microstrip patch antenna for 1.7/2.92 GHz WLAN applications. The radiating
element of the proposed antenna consists of Swastika symbol slot operating at 1.8 GHz, 2.09
GHz, and 2.92 GHz bands. The antenna size is very compact (50 mm x 50 mm x 1.6 mm)
and covers 1.8 GHz to 2.92 GHz and can be used for AMPS, GSM and WLAN applications.
The antenna is fed from a single 50 coaxial cable. Using IE3D software package of Zeland,
according tothe set size, the antenna is simulated. The composite effect of integrating these
techniques and by introducing the novel slotted patch offers a low profile, wide bandwidth,
high gain and compact antenna element. The computer simulation results show that the

14

antenna can realize wide band characters with each band having good impedance bandwidth
(VSWR 2) for all the three resonant frequencies.
The dielectric constant of the substrate is closely related to the size and the bandwidth of the
microstripantenna. Low dielectric constant of the substrate produces larger bandwidth, while
the high dielectric constant of the substrate results in smaller size of antenna. A trade-off
relationship exists between antenna size and bandwidth. The resonant frequency of microstrip
antenna and the size of the radiation patch can be similar t0resonant frequencyA novel
compact triple-band slot microstrip antenna for 1.7/2.92 GHz is presented. The
proposedantenna has a compact size of 50 mm x 50 mm x 1.6 mm and it can effectively cover
the AMPS, GSM and WLAN applications. Good antenna performance and impedance
matching can be realized by adjusting the probe position and the dimensions of the patch.

A novel compact triple-band slot microstrip antenna for 1.7/2.92 GHz is presented. The
proposed antenna has a compact size of 50 mm x 50 mm x 1.6 mm and it can effectively
cover the AMPS, GSM and WLAN applications. Good antenna performance and impedance
matching can be realized by adjusting the probe position and the dimensions of the patch.

Abhishek Choubey et.al (2012), Theauthor proposedmicrostrip


antennas are very promising due to their integration capability but lack in bandwidth. In
manycommunication applications they need to operate in broadband as well as dual-band. An
L-strip fed slot loadedantenna has been presented. The circular radiating patch using RTDuroid with r = 2.2 is located at above ground plane. The variation of slot length and
horizontal length of the L-strip has been investigated in the circular disk patch antenna for the
return loss. The antenna shows dual band as well as wideband behaviour. It is found that
antenna attains impedance bandwidth of 45% (Return loss<-10dB) in the frequency range
(3.46GHz-5.5GHz). A parametric study has been carried out in investigation which is based
on cavity model and circuit theoretic approach. The theoretical results are compared with the
simulated results obtained from IE3D simulation software which are in close agreement.
The parallel slot loaded L-strip fed circular microstrip antenna has been designed and
analyzed using cavity model based circuit theoretic approach. The antenna may operate for
dual band and broadband operation simultaneously. Using a RT-Duroid (_r = 2.2) of thickness
11 mm, as a supported substrate, an impedance bandwidth of 45 %( return loss<-10dB) has
15

been obtained. The proposed antenna shows wideband characteristic in the frequency band of
3.46GHz-5.5GHz. Here, after a large number of simulations, a wideband as well as dual band
antenna is designed which is useful for different wireless communication application.

Dhanawade et.al (2012), He proposed that growing interest in researchers to merge


wearable system technology with textiletechnology. Utilization of textile material for
development of antenna has been rapid due to wearable computing. A wearable antenna is
meant to be a part of clothing used for communication purpose such asTracking and
navigation, health monitoring, fire-fighting and space and military applications. All these
togetherhave resulted in research for flexible textile antennas. In this paper, textile antenna is
designed for ISM bandfrequency 2.4 GHz. Ansoft HFSS is used for design simulation.
Resonant frequency after simulation is exactly2.4GHz with return loss of -23.64dB.
The performance of microstrip Antenna is mainly depend on its structure. The resonance
frequency of the Microstrip antenna depends on their dimensions of the patch, on the
substrate material as well as its thickness and on the feed line. Consequently, the
characteristics of the patch antenna can be adequately identified according to the application
wished for an antenna. The modeling of antenna using the HFSS software is essential for the
variation of the shape of the antenna, the substrate nature and thickness in order to obtain a
structure which resonance frequencies wished. A small variation of each of these parameters
influences the resonant frequency.

K. Praveen Kumar et.al (2013), He proposedMicrosstrip rectangular patch antennas


are attracting the attention of antenna designer, because of attractive advantages such low
profile, light weight, easy of fabrication etc. but it also suffering with some drawbacks of low
gain, narrow band width. These drawbacks can be overcome by some extent by taking care in
design of antenna. There are many parameters effecting the radiating characteristics of
antenna but in present project we are considering feeding of power to antenna because this
plays important role. Here we are considering three different feed methods such as coaxial
feed, inset feed and cut feed and their effects on radiating characteristics were analyzed on
comparing with one to each other all the antenna parameters. The design was done in Ansoft
HFSS version 13. The results of return loss, gain, bandwidth and FBR are presented.

16

The feed of microstrip antenna also effecting the radiation characteristics of radiating
element, hence while designing antenna a care must taken while deciding the proper feed.

Pankaj Garg et.al (2013), This paper presented the radiation performance of stacked
arrangement of square microstrip patches. The lower patch (driven patch) is modified by
inserting two narrow slots at two opposite corners of square patch while the stacked upper
patch is a conventional square patch. Both patches are identical in dimensions. These patches
are prepared on glass epoxy FR-4 substrates and are separated through an air gap. The
simulation analysis is carried out by using method of moment based IE3D simulator.
Theoptimization of slot lengths, width, angles and applied air gap of proposed arrangement is
carried out to achieve much improved bandwidth (44.16%). With proposed feed arrangement,
antenna also displays right circular polarization. In the range of frequency where antenna is
displaying broadband performance, radiation patterns are identical in shape with direction of
maximum intensity inclined at an angle 45o with plane of patch. The free space performance
of this arrangement of patches is compared with that of a stacked arrangement of
conventional square patch antenna of identical size.
The radiation performance of stacked arrangement of modified square patches is simulated by
using IE3D simulation software and its performance is compared withthat of stacked
arrangement of conventional squarepatches. On optimizing air gap between driven and
stacked elements together with length, width and angle of applied slots in driven patch
geometry, it is realized that proposed antenna resonates at predominantly at a single
frequency with much improved impedance bandwidth (44.16%) than stacked arrangement of
conventional square patches. Antenna also provides circularly polarized radiations. Inthe
range of frequency where broadband performance from antenna is observed, the directivity
and gain are low but these are almost constant. The radiation patterns in entire bandwidth are
almost identical in shape and nature. The direction of maximum radiation from antenna is
inclined at an angle 45o with the plane of patch. The testing of these antennas is currently
underway at our center. The simulated performance of antenna is encouraging and hopefully
after proper testing, this antenna may be proved a suitable structure for modern
communication systems.

D.Pavithra et.al (2013), He proposed new high gain, wideband H-shape slot loaded
microstrip patch antenna is presented in this paper. The antenna is printed on a dielectric
17

substrate, backed by a metal board, and directly fed from a 50 coaxial cable. Using ADS
software package according to the set size, the antenna is simulated. The composite effect of
integrating these techniques and by introducing the novel slotted patch offers a low profile,
wide bandwidth, high gain and compact antenna element. The computer simulation results
show that the antenna can realize wide band characters. With adjusted parameters, it exhibits
a broad impedance bandwidth at a frequency of 2.42 GHz.
The dielectric constant of the substrate is closely related to the size and the bandwidth of the
microstrip antenna. Low dielectric constant of the substrate produces larger bandwidth, while
the high dielectric constant of the substrate results in smaller size of antenna. A trade-off
relationship exists between antenna size and bandwidth.
Simulation results of a wideband microstrip patch antenna having 2.42 GHz frequency have
been present. Good antenna performance and impedance matching can be realized by
adjusting the probe position and the dimensions of the patch. It can be concluded from the
results that the designed antenna has satisfactory performance and hence can be used for
WLAN applications.

Vivek Singh Rathor et.al (2014), This paper presented a very small size microstrip
patch antenna Suitable for WLAN and Wi MAX application. The radiating element of the
proposed antenna consists of Kite symbol patch using dielectric substrate 4.2, loss tangent .
0012 and having the same substrate height 1.6mm.The compact size antenna of
dimension(14m x 18.6mm x 1.6mm)employed single layer coaxial probe feed. The computer
simulation results show that the antenna can realize wide band characteristics. Proposed
antenna covers 3.189GHZ 4.601GHZ achieving 36.2% of impedance bandwidth in one
band and other band ranges from 4.655GHZ-8.29GHZ (impedance bandwidth of 56.165%).

The dielectric constant of the substrate is closely related to the size and the bandwidth of the
microstripantenna. Low dielectric constant of the substrate produces larger bandwidth, The
resonant frequency of microstrip antenna and the size of the radiation patch can be similar to
the following formulas while the high dielectric constant of the substrate results in smaller
size of antenna [1].The Length of ground plane of Antenna is 24 mm and Width is 28.2 mm,
L & W of the patch is 14 mm & 18.6 mm. The patch width, effective dielectric constant, the
length extension and also patch length are given by In this paper a compact size microstrip
18

antenna has been designed having good impedance matching as well as high antenna
efficiency of about of about 90% is achieved. The proposed antenna have larger
impedancebandwidth of 36.2% and 56.165% covering the frequency range from .189GHZ
4.601GHZ and 4.655GHZ- 8.29GHZ which is suitable for Wi-MAX and WLAN upper band
application.

Lee et.al (2015), In this paper he presented measurements which showed that a coaxially
fed rectangular patch with a U-shaped slot can attain 10-40% impedance bandwidth, with
good pattern characteristics. In contrast to the method of bandwidth enhancement using
parasitic patches which either increase the thickness or the lateral size of the antenna. The Uslot patch is a single-layer single-patch wideband structure which preserves the thin profile
and small size advantages of the microstrip antenna. We present extensive experimental
results on the U-slot patch, including cross polarization measurements and the effects of
patch size, slot size and feed position on the performance. The results of a two-element array
of U-slot patches are also presented

Herscovici et.al (2015), He presentedPrinted microstrip antennas and arrays are known
to have limitations in terms of bandwidth and efficiency, all imposed by the very presence of
the dielectric substrate. Microstrip arrays printed on a very thin film and separated from the
ground-plane by foam were successfully designed; however, the fabrication difficulties
associated with the use of foam considerably increases the fabrication cost. In this paper, a
new concept is presented. Rather than using a super strata geometry, the printed circuit is
etched out of metal and supported at strategic points by (metallic or nonmetallic) posts. The
main motivation for this work was to obtain large microstrip arrays, which exhibit a higher
efficiency than conventional ones, and can be fabricated using inexpensive large quantity
production techniques. However, this technology was also used to develop many new types
of microstrip antennas. Microstrip elements and arrays based on this technology were
designed and fabricated for the L, S, and C bands

19

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS


3.1 MICROSTRIP ANTENNA DESIGN

antennas with smaller dimensions are preferred for wireless applications and that influence
device portability too. Low-profile antennas will be required, in applications like,highperformance aircraft, spacecraft, satellite, etc. Microstrip antennas can be
considered as the solution.
There are different shapes of microstrip patch antenna such as rectangular, square, circular
etc. The rectangular patch is considered as the most widely used configuration. This paper
deals with a rectangular patch. The value of parameters like the dielectric constant of the
substrate (r), the resonant frequency (fr), and the height of the substrate (h) should be known
when design the patch. The designing procedure is as follows

3.2 ANTENNA CONFIGURATION


The geometrical structure of the antenna, including dimensions, is shown in Fig. The antenna
is based on a FR4-epoxy substrate with dimension of 50mm X 28mm with the dielectric
constant, r of 4.4 and a thickness of 1.6mm. The patch which is rectangular is of 17.56mm X
13.2mm dimension, and is fed using a 3mm-wide microstripline. The ground plane is
constructed in such a way that, a rectangle of dimension 39mm X 18.5mm is subtracted from
the full ground plane at the position(5.5,9.5,-1.6). Later, two symmetrical 1.4mm-wide
rectangular slots are created onto the ground plane. Both the slots are at 7mm from the
antenna's symmetry axis. Two 1.4mm X 2.5mm PIN diodes, PD1 and PD2, are mounted
20

across the slots, as indicated in Fig. 1. In the simulation, uses 1.5 for the ON state and
0.35pF for the OFF state of the PIN diodes. These switching devices are similar to the ones
used. Switches redistribute the surface currents and thus alter the antenna radiating structure
topology and/or radiating edges. They can change the current path and thus the electrical
length of the antenna and consequently its resonant frequency. Also beams can be steered in
desired directions using switches.

It can easily be seen that by increasing the number and value of inductors, the length of
transmission line necessary to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the slot
decreases. The size reduction may also be explained by considering the electric current
distribution in the conductor around the slot. The latter is described by the continuity of the
21

electric current and displacement current at the slot discontinuity. Putting a discontinuity (a
slit) normal to the circulating current path forces the current to circle around the
discontinuity. Hence the electric current traverses a longer path length than the radiating slot
length which in turn lowers the resonant frequency.
A slot antenna loaded with a number of narrow slits which act as an array of series inductors.
These slits are designed to have a length smaller than and carry a magnetic current with a
direction normal to that of the main radiator. Placing them only on one side of the radiating
slot results in asymmetry in phase and amplitude of the current along the slot which could
create problems in matching and worsen cross polarization. In order to circumvent this
problem, two series slits are placed on the opposite sides of the main slot. These slits carry
magnetic currents with equal amplitudes and opposite directions. Since the lengths of these
narrow slits are small compared to the wavelength and since they are closely spaced, the
radiated elds from the opposite slits cancel each other and they do not contribute to the
radiated far eld. Matching is performed by using an off-centered open circuited microstrip
feed.

3.3DUAL BAND MINIATURIZED SLOT ANTENNA


The geometry of this antenna is shown . The resonant frequencies of the slot antennas ( and )
and the value of the coupling coefcient are used as design parameters to achieve the desired
response. Increasing the vertical displacement, , and decreasing the horizontal separation, ,
causes to increase or equivalently result in a larger separation between the two frequency
bands. Small changes in the resonance lengths of the slots result in slight changes in and
which can be used as a means of ne- tuning the response. Note, however, that resonant
frequencies , and should be close to each other so that coupling takes place. The separation
between the two bands is limited by practical values of . Large values cannot be obtained
easily, since both electric and magnetic couplings are present and add destructively. In
addition to this problem, matching the antenna at the two bands becomes increasingly
difcult as the separation increases.
In order to achieve a higher miniaturization level for the given size, series inductive elements
are also placed along slots to reduce the resonance frequencies of each element. The
simulated and measured return losses of this dual band antenna. The discrepancies between
22

the simulated and measured results are due to the niteness of the ground plane as described.
It is seen that the Q of both bands are well above the Chu limit. The overall size of the
structure is 5.73 cm 5.94 cm or equivalently at the lowest frequency of operation. Radiation
patterns of the antenna at the two bands are measured and found to be similar to those of the
SEA topology.

4. CONCLUSION
Two approaches are introduced for increasing the BW and reducing the size of miniaturized
slot antennas. Placing two similar slot antennas in close proximity of each other creates a
double resonant structure, the response of which is a function of relative spacing between the
two antennas. The coupled miniaturized antenna can be designed to have a BW which is
larger by 94% than the BW of a single resonant antenna with the same area or to behave as a
dual band antenna. For a xed resonant frequency, adding series inductive elements to a slot
antenna reduces its size. The size reduction is a function of number and values of the inserted
inductive elements. Using series inductive elements does not adversely affect impedance
matching and the cross polarization level.
This technique is also used in combination with other miniaturization techniques to further
decrease the size of the radiating structure. The technique is applied to a straight as well as a
miniaturized slot antenna and for a given antenna size, signicant reduction in resonant
frequencies are observed. Finally, both techniques are applied to the design of a miniaturized
dual band antenna. Series inductors are used to reduce the resonant frequencies of each
resonator. A large coupling co- efcient is used to achieve a large separation between the two
nulls in the response of the parasitically coupled antenna. The values of , and are used as
design parameters in order to obtain a miniaturized dual band slot antenna with relatively
good simultaneous matching.

23

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