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NAME

STUDENT I.D
BATCH
DATE
SCORE

MUHAMMAD ALI
1743-2013
BS (TEXTILE)
20-10-2015

BLEACHING OF 100 % COTTON FABRIC BY CONTINIOUS


METHOD
PERFORMANCE ABJECTIVE
Upon the successful completion of this experiment student will be able to
(i)
Understand the bleaching process
(ii)
Understand the role of auxiliaries in the process
(iii)
Understand the continuous bleaching process

MACHINES/MATERIAL REQUIRED
fabric Scoured fabric]
Pad-Stream

CHEMICAL REQUIRED
Hydrogen per oxide
Caustic soda
Stabilizer
Weting agent
Sequesting agent

DISCUSSION

During the scouring of cotton impurities Like fate ,waves.protins and ash is removed
However>scouring does not remove natural colour of cotton.It also does not completely
removed seed and husk.To remove natural colour of the cotton and seed fragment bleachin
process follows the scouring.Some times both scouring bleaching are simultaneous carried
out,the process is called solomatic bleaching
Cotton contain natural pigments called (CHLOR0PHYLLS)and(NANTHOPHYLLS) ,which cause
its colour to be yellowish.In the process of bleaching these pigments are removed from the
cotton fiber.Along which these pigments seed fragment are also removed.Thus bleaching
accomplishes purification of the fiber

1.Hydrogen per oxide

Hydrogen per oxide is comparatively expensive bleaching agent.But ,because of case of


application,least threat fro the substrate and environment friendly nature,it is widely used
for the removal of natural pigments.

2.Sodium hypo-chlorite
If ph is not controlled during NaOCl bleaching,it will degraded cellulose,because of the
formation of the hypo-chlorous acid at natural pH (7) and libration of chlorine gas at pH
lower than 7 ,however ,under controlled condition ,it may be a suitable option .

3.Sodium chlorite

Sodium chlorite when used as a bleaching agent produces chlorine dioxide (even a
controlled process),which is exremelly toxic .At the same time ,it is extremely corrosive to
the machinery because of this it is least preffered bleaching agent,
Depending on the extent of bleaching ,fabric may be said to be half bleached or full
bleached.In the half bleached fabric , some of the natural pigment are romved and fabric yet
contains chlorophyll and xanthophylls.However in caused of full bleached fabric,almost all
naturalpigments sre removed.
By the removal of the natural colour of the cotton The bleached fabric may achieved
whitness index of about 60 to 75 or sometimes 80.
Chemical
Quantities
Liquor Ratio
Hydrogen per Oxide (35%)
Caustic soda (solid)
Sandoclean PC-LF (paste)
Stabilizer SAIF (liquid)
MgCl2

1:2
20-40 ml/l
20-6.0 g/l
2.0-4.0g/l
8.0-12.0 g/l
0.4 g/l

PROCEDURE
1.Prepare the bath according to recipe
2.Pad the fabric at 80% pick up
3.Steam (saturate)the fabric for 20-30 min at 102 C
4.Hot rinse at 80 C -90 C for 10 min
5.Warm rinse at 60 C for 10 min: and finally cold rinse for 5 minutes

Calculations
S.No

Material

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Fabric Weight
Total liquor
Hydrogen per Oxide
Caustic Soda
Stabilizer
MgCl2
Sandoclean PC-LF(paste)

Quantity

Test Result
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

REVIEW QUESTION
1.What is role of MgCl2 in H2O2 bleaching ?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

2. What are the advantages of continuous bleaching over exhaust bleaching process?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3.What are reasons of foaming and how it can be avoid ?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

FINAL CHECK LIST

1. Cean your machinery equipments/materials and workbench before you leave


2. Ensure the replacement of all equipments to their specified storage area
3. Submit your answer to question together with your data.calculation and resukt before
the next laboratory /experiment

LAB EXPERIMENT
SOLOMATIC BLEACHINGS
NAME
STUDENT I.D
BATCH
DATE
sCORE

MUHAMMAD ALI
1743-2013
BS (TEXTILE)
20-10-2015

SOLOMATIC BLEACHING OF PC BLEND FABRIC BY EXHAUST


METHOD

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE
Desized Fabric
HT dyeing or Oscillating Dyeing Machine

CHEMICAL REQUIRED
Caustic Soda
Hydrogen per oxide
Stabilizer
Wetting agent
Sequsting agent

DISCUSSION
In solomatic bleaching,both the sequesting and bleaching processes are carried out
simultaneously for economical processing
Scouring is the process impurities present in the cellulosic fabric are removed by treating it
with alkali.In this process fats,waxes,proteins,oils,pectin,ash,miscellaneous substance such
that is pigments,hemicelluloses and reducing sugars etc are removed from the fabric .The
typical process consist of boiling the contaminated cotton fabric with 3 6 % solution of
sodium hydro oxide (NaOH).Fats and waxes are insoluble in water, when alkali,(NaOH)reacts
with them,soap is formed .This process is called saponification.
Soap formed during saponification is not only water soluble but also has detergent
properties.This property will lead to removal of the dirt and other insoluble impurities.
Cotton contain natural pigments called CHLOROPHYLL and XANTHOPHYLLS ,which caused it
colur to be yellowish.In the process of bleaching these pigments sre removed from the
cotton fabric .Along with these pigments seed fregments are also removed.Thus bleaching
accomplishes purification of the fiber.
Solomatic bleaching serves to remove almost all of the impurities including fats, waxes,
proteins, pectin, ash, chlorophylls and xanthophylls and also seed fregments.Thus it is an
ecconomicall process saving boththe time and the money.However , if full if full white fabric
with high degree of whitness is intendedthen, it is better to perform both the process
separately to achived best results.

Typical Recipe
Chemical
Liquor

Quantities
1:20

Caustic Soda
Hydrogen per oxide
Stabilizer Y2K
Sandoclean PC-LF (paste)
Sirrix 2UD

1.0%
.20 3.0 %
.025 0.5 %
0.5 1.0 %
1.0 %

PROCEDURE
1.

Start process at 60 C with


Sandoclean PC-LF
Sirrix 2UD

2.

0.5 1.0 %
1.0 %

Immerse fabric and treat at 60 C for 15 min .then add


Caustic soda (solid)
1.0 %
Stabilizer Y2K
0.25 0.5 %
Hydrogen per oxide
2.0 3.0 %
Rise the temperature o bil and treat at boil for 20 30 min
Cool down to 70 C for 15 min
Hot rinse at 80 C for 15 min
Cold rinse at 40 C for 10 min

3.
4.
5.
6.

Calculation
44444
S.NO
Material
1
2

Fabric Weight
Total liquor

3
4
5
6
7

Caustic Soda
Hydrogen per oxide
Stabilizer Y2K
Sirrix 2UD
Sandoclean PC-LF

Quantity

TEST RESULTS
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
___
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Write disadvantages of solution
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________

FINAL CHECK LIST


1. Clean your machinery equipments/material and workbench before you leave
2. Ensure the replacement of all equipments to their specified storage area
3. Submit your answer to question together with your data,calculation and result before
the nextlaboratory/experiment

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