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The Flagellated

Protozoans

General Characteristics
Form
Organelles
Chromoplast
Stigma/eyespot
Pharyngeal rods/trichites
Contractile vacuole
Trichocyst

Nucleus
Nutrition
Locomotion
Encyxtment and
Excystments
Sensory responses

Flagellar structure & Function

The Phytoflagellated Protozoans


Contain chlorophyll
Lacks mouth and food
vacuoles
Bears stigma
Some autotrophic and some
feed on particulate foods

The Zooflagellated Protozoans


Free-living
Choanoflagellates
Colonial & immobile

The Zooflagellated Parasitic


Exhibit structural or
functional complexity
not observed in other
flagellates
Life cycles are complex
as they include
adaptations for
perpetuating species
from host to host

Taxonomic Classification

Discicristates

Phylum
Parabasala

Phylum
Euglenozoa

The
Diplomonad
& Oxymonads

New Taxonomic Classification


Gymnamoebae and Arcellanids

The Amoebozoa

Phylum Mastigamoeba
Phylum Eumycetozoa

Kingdom Protozoa

Phylum Euglenozoa
The Opisthokont
Phylum Heterolobosea
The Excavata

Phylum Metamonada
- The Diplomonads
The Oxymonads
Phylum Parabasala

Phylum Parabasala
are anaerobic flagellated
protozoa
contain at least one parabasal
apparatus consisting of a
parabasal body (Golgi complex)
and a parabasal filament
presence of the microtubular
axostyle-pelta complex,
composed of a sheet of crosslinked microtubules that are
the longitudinal axis of the cell.

Phylum Parabasala
Lack mitochondria
and peroxisome
Presence of
hydrogenosomes

Class Trichomonada
Most are parasites or
endosymbionts of
other animals
4-6 flagella
With pelta and
axostyle

Trichomonas vaginalis

Class Hypermastigia
Numerous flagella
With multiple parabasal
apparatus
flagella-bearing
kinetosomes distributed
in complete or partial
circles

Phylum Metamonada
Oxymonads and diplomonads
lack mitochondria
possess flagella and basal bodies associated
with nucleus

The Diplomonads

Parasitic
2 nuclei
1-4 flagella per nucleus
lack mitochondria and
golgi apparatus
Mitosomes
with cyst

The Oxymonads
Found in gut of termites
and wood-eating insects
Lack mitochondria and
golgi apparatus

Phylum Euglenozoa

Flagellated protozoans cytoskeleton includes


a regular array of
Free-living or parasitic
Kinetoplast and pellicle cortical microtubules

have
chlorophylls
a
Mitochondria have
and
b
and
an
envelope
discoid cristae
of three membranes
Peroxisomes and
glycosomes are absent

Class Euglenoida
Pellicle
with 2 (rarely more)
flagella, one or more
emerging from the
gullet
with green
chloroplasts (chl a & b)
but absent in many
genera

Class Kinetoplastea
Kinetoplast
Possess 1-2 flagella
Free-living, symbiotic or
parasitic

Polymorphism in Flagellates

Trypomastigote stage
Epimastigote stage
Promastigote stage
Amastigote stage

Trypanosoma brucei gambience

Phylum Heterolobosea

Opisthokonts

Phylum Choanozoa
Three groups:
Mesomycetozoa
Filasterea
Choanoflagellates