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TIME LINE

BP
150,000 - 6000 BCE

AGE / ERA / PERIOD


BEFORE PRESENT
STONE AGE

IMPORTANCE

150,000 - 80,000 BCE

Hunter Gatherers

18,000 - 6000 BCE


6000 - 3300 BCE

Paleolithic or Ancient Stone


Age
Mesolithic or Middle Stone
Age
Neolithic or New Stone Age
CHALCOLITHIC ERA

3300 -1200 BCE

BRONZE AGE

This period marks the actual


beginning of history. By adding a
mere 5% tin to the 95% copper,
man found that his tools became
much stronger. This alloy is
known as bronze.The first
written documents that have
ever been found date to this
period as well. Urbanisation and
organised settlements.

3300 - 2200 BCE

Early Bronze Age

Still very little writing and thus


mainly prehistory.

2200 - 1550 BCE


1550 - 1200 BCE
1812 BCE

Middle Bronze Age


Late Bronze Age
Abraham born (1948 on the Jewish
(Era of the Jewish patriarchs) calendar)
Technically, this period is described
by a subperiod known as Middle
Bronze IIB.Overall, the Bronze Age
in Israel is referred to as the
Canaanite period.

80,000 - 18,000 BCE

1200 -586 BCE

1200 - 1000 BCE

The stone tools used. These


were made of flint or ceramics,
and the like.

Agriculture
Animal Husbandry
Seam Period. Copper tools began
come into use, agriculture became the
norm. Started to settle down and
build homes

IRON AGE

In Israel, this era is known as the


Israelite period, and corresponds
with the period stretching from
Joshuas conquest of the land
through the destruction of the
First Temple. The Exodus from
Egypt takes place somewhere
around the seam between the
end of the Bronze and beginning
of the Iron Age

Period of the Judges

From Joshua through Saul, the first


king of Israel.

1000 - 930BCE

The United Kingdom C


(FIRST TEMPLE PERIOD)

930 - 586 BCE

Split Kingdom

By 722 BCE

King Saul was the first king of


the Jews.By the end of his rule,
the Philistines are pressing hard,
and kill Saul and three of his
sons.The Israelites unite to
choose David as their next
king.David had already been
ruling over the tribe of Judah for
the previous 7 years. He
establishes a capital city in
Jerusalem, and then his son
Solomon takes over and further
expands the borders and
influence of the kingdom. He
also builds the first Holy
Temple of the Israelites in
Jerusalem. Thus the remainder
of this period is known as the
First TemplePeriod as well.
Following Solomons death,
the tribes of Israel split and
were never again united under
one monarchy. The southern
kingdom of Judah
encompassed the tribes of
Judah, Benjamin and Simon .The
northern kingdom of Israel
contained the remainder of the
tribes, and was ruled by a series
of short dynasties of only a king
or two.
The Assyrians conquer and
destroy the kingdom of
Israel, exiling most of the
Israelites there to what is now
Iraq. This is the origin of what
has become known as the Lost
Tribes of Israel. It should also
be noted that it is not really
accurate to refer to these as the
Ten Lost Tribes. From Iraq,
the Assyrians brought people to
Samaria, and those people
later became known as the
Samaritans. They were a sect
that took on some Jewish
practices, but also had many
customs that were unique to
them.

By 701 BCE

Sennacherib the Assyrian tries


to take Judea as well, but King
Hezekiah successfully defends
Jerusalem

By 586 BCE

A new power rules in Mesopotamia:


the Babylonians. Nebuchadnezzar
attacks Judea and destroys the Holy
Temple. Half the Israelites are
brought to Babylonia and half to
Egypt.

324 640 CE
324

BYZANTINE PERIOD

Christianity had been an illegal


religion in the Roman empire
Constantine.

Constantine declares
Christianity an acceptable
religion in the Roman Empire.
Its original name was
Byzantium. Constantinople, by
the way, when pronounced in
Arabic, became Istanbul (notice
the stan in both and the -ple
sound equaling the -bul).

640 1099 CE
622

MUSLIM PERIOD

1096

1099 1266 CE

CRUSADER PERIOD

1266 1517 CE
1260

MAMLUK PERIOD

Islam began as a religion.


The Arab people entered the land of
Israel for the first time, about a half a
millennium after Jewish Rule ended
there. This era is also marked by rule
of Israel changing between three
different Muslim dynasties, each of
which wanted to place the capital in
a different city. The Ummayad
wanted it in Damascus, the Abasic
in Baghdad and the Fatimic in Cairo
Pope Urban II calls for a Crusade
to take the Holy Land back from
the infidels, and free the Holy
Sepulchre
The First Crusade reaches Israel
in 1099. Over the years of this
period, the land passes back and
forth with the Muslim pushing
the Christians out and new
Crusades taking it back.

A group of Egyptian Muslims, led by


Baibars, wanted to retake the land.
Succeeded in defeating Genghis

Khan and the Mongolians, who had


actually reached Israel.The Mumluks
wanted everyone in the Old City to be
able to see over the top of the wall of
the Temple Mount, to look at the
Dome of the Rock. So they built a
massive platform on arched
supports, and then built new
buildings on top of them
586 BCE - 70 CE

SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD Even though the Second temple was


not built in 586 BCE, it is around for
the bulk of this period, and thus lends
its name to the span of time. We also
(of course) have sub-periods in this
era.

586 - 333 BCE


539 BCE

PERSIAN PERIOD
The Persian conquest of
Babylonia is in 539 BCE,
followed by a declaration by
Cyrus that the Israelites would
be allowed to return to Israel to
rebuild their temple
The Israelites returned
The construction is
completed
The area is conquered once
again by a little known man by
the name of Alexander.
Alexander the Great, that is.

536 BCE
516 BCE
333 BCE

333 - 63 BCE

301BCE

301 -200 BCE

HELLENISTIC PERIOD

Alexander lived a short life, but


accomplished much.
Alexander died. His kingdom
was split between his
generals. Rule of the land of
Israel changed hands during the
remainder of this period
Ptolemaic, which is based in
Egypt

200 to 167

167 63 BCE

The Seleucids (based in


Antioch) ruled

Hashmonaic or Hasmonean
era

63 BCE 70 CE

EARLY ROMAN PERIOD

70 324 CE
118 138

ROMAN PERIOD

70 CE

132-135

This is the era that follows the story


celebrated by Jews today as
Hanukkah
The Second Temple is
destroyed by the Romans

Notoriously vicious Roman rulers of


Israel
Hadrian ruled during this time.
There is a three year period of
Jewish rule, during the famous
Bar Kochba revolt. He changed
the name of Jerusalem to
Aelia Capitolina and Judea to
Palestina. He is the first to use
that term.