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DEDICATION

I dedicate this work to God Almighty, for without his help this technical report wouldnt have
been possible.

Department of Chemical Engineering


Covenant University,
Canaan Land, Ota,
Ogun State,
Nigeria.
March 28, 2016
The Head.
Department of Chemical Engineering.
Covenant University,
Canaan Land, Ota,
Ogun State,
Nigeria.

Dear Sir,

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
In accordance with the regulations of the Department of Chemical Engineering, School of
Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, College of Engineering and Covenant University, Canaan
Land, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria, we, the members of Group HEBRON, do hereby submit a
Design Project entitled DESIGN OF A PLANT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF
48,000kg/day OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE BY VAPOUR PHASE CATALYSTIC
DEHYDROGENATION OF 2-BUTANOL in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
award of Bachelor of Engineering (Honors) Degree in Chemical Engineering at Covenant
University, Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Yours faithfully,
Group HEBRON Members

NAME

MATRIC NO.

Chukwuma Ekene Valentine

11CF011928

SIGN/DATE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to acknowledge God Almighty for his grace, wisdom and speed for without which
this technical report would not be a success
I also want to acknowledge AGBANA, Tare Jeremiah, the group lead for his great leadership
skills which led to the success of the project.

TABLE OF CONTENT
CONTENTS

PAGE

TITLE PAGE

DEDICATION

ii

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

vi

LIST OF FIGURES

vii

LIST OF APPENDICES

viii

ABSTRACT

ix

CHAPTER ONE
1.
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF 2-BUTANOL
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MEK
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF MEK
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF WORK
SIGNIFICANCE OF WORK
SCOPE OF WORK
LIMITATIONS OF WORK

CHAPTER TWO
2.
THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES AND LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES

1
2
3
6
10
11
12
12
12
13
13

2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.2
2.3
2.4

PRINCIPLE OF GAS ABSORPTION


PRINCIPLE OF CATALYSIS
PRINCIPLE OF DISTILLATION
PRINCIPLE OF LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION
LITERATURE REVIEW
SELECTION OF PROCESS ROUTE
REVIEW OF PAST WORKS ON MEK PRODUCTION FROM
DEHYDROGENATION OF 2-BUTANOL

13
14
19
20
29
34
34

CHAPTER THREE
3.
MATERIAL BALANCE FOR THE PLANT
3.1
INTRODUCTION
3.2
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS

36
36
38

CHAPTER FOUR
4.
ENERGY BALANCES FOR THE PLANT
4.1
INTRODUCTION

45
45

REFERENCES

51

APPENDICES
A.
MATERIAL BALANCE
B.
ENERGY BALANCE

53
62

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE
1.1
3.1
3.2
3.3a
3.3b
3.4
3.5
3.6
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11

TITLE
Physical Properties of 2-Butanol
Material balance across reactor
Material balance across partial-condenser
Material balance across absorption column (IN)
Material balance across absorption column (OUT)
Material balance across extraction column
Material balance across solvent recovery
Material balance across distillation column
Energy balance across cold feed preheater
Energy balance across vaporizer
Energy balance across super heater 1
Energy balance across compressor
Energy balance across super heater 2
Energy balance across reactor
Energy balance across condenser
Energy balance across absorber
Energy balance across solvent recovery unit
Energy balance across distillation column
Energy balance across cooler system

PAGE
4
40
41
42
42
43
44
44
47
47
48
48
48
48
49
49
49
50
50

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1.1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

TITLE
3D dimensional molecular structure of MEK.
Dissociative adsorption.
Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism.
The Boiling point diagram.
Binary mixture with uniform vapour liquid equilibrium
Vapour liquid equilibrium of a non-ideal system.
Minimum and maximum boiling point for two different
azeotrope systems.

PAGE
3
17
17
21
23
23
24

2.7
2.8
2.9
3.1

Vapour liquid equilibrium for a heterogeneous azeotrope


System.
Methyl ethyl ketone from secondary butyl alcohol by
Dehydrogenation
Methyl ethyl ketone from n-butane by liquid phase oxidation
Block diagram of process units

LIST OF SYMBOLS
B.HB

Heat of bottom, KJ

Bp

Boiling point, 0C

Cp

Specific heat capacity, KJ/Kg.K

D.HD

Heat of distillate, KJ

F.HF

Heat of feed, KJ

Hproducts Enthalpy of products, KJ/Kgmol


Hreactants Enthalpy of reactants, KJ/Kgmol
H1

Enthalpy of inet stream, KJ/Kgmol

H2

Enthalpy of exit stream, KJ/Kgmol

Kd

Distribution coefficient, dimensionless

25
31
32

Mass, Kg

Reflux ratio, dimensionless

Rm

Minimum reflux ratio, dimensionless

T1

Initial temperature, K

T2

Final temperature, K

QB

Reboiler heat, KJ

Qc

Heat in condenser, KJ

Qp

Process heat added to the system to maintain required system temperature, KJ

Qs

Heat generated in system, KJ/Kgmol

XF

Mole fraction of feed, dimensionless

XR

Mole fraction of recycle, dimensionless

GREEK SYMBOLS
ab
H

Relative volatility, dimensionless

Enthalpy change, KJ/Kgmol

Change in temperature, K

Latent heat of vaporization, KJ/Kg

LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX
A
B

TITLE
Calculations of Mass of the components in all streams
Calculations of Energy across the components in all streams

PAGE
53
62

ABSTRACT
This a preliminary report for the design of a plant for the production of 48,000kg/day of methyl
ethyl ketone (MEK) by vapour phase catalytic dehydrogenation of 2-Butanol.
The design project is aimed at designing a plant to produce 48,000kg/day of MEK of 99.9%
purity. This report shows the various components used in the design, their governing principles
and also the material and energy balance across the different components..