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# Objectives

## 1. At constant pump speed, determine the characteristic curve (pressure

Change vs. flow rate) of a centrifugal pump.
2. At constant pump speed, determine the efficiency as a function of flow
Rate for a centrifugal pump.
3. At constant speed, determine the efficiency as a function of power output
For an electric motor.

Introduction
Centrifugal pump
The centrifugal pumps function is as simple as its design. It is filled with liquid and the impeller
is rotated. Rotation imparts energy to the liquid causing it to exit the impellers vanes at a greater
velocity than it possessed when it entered. This outward flow reduced the pressure at the
impeller eye, allowing more liquid to enter. The liquid that exits the impeller is collected in the
casing (volute) where its velocity is converted to pressure before it leaves the pumps discharge.
The centrifugal pump was developed in Europe in the late 1600s and was seen in the united
states in the early 1800s. Its wide spread use, however, has occurred only in the last seventy five
years. Prior to that time, the cast majority of pumping applications involved positive
displacement pumps. Pumps fall into two main categories, positive displacement pumps and roto
dynamic pumps. In a positive displacement pump, a fixed volume of fluid is forced from one
chamber into another. One of the oldest and most familiar designs is the reciprocating engine,
utilizing a piston moving inside a cylinder. Steam pumps, the 'nodding donkey', stirrup pumps
and hydraulic rams are all of this type. Animal hearts are also positive displacement pumps,
which use volume reduction of one chamber to force flow into another chamber. (Or simply
dynamic) pumps impart momentum to a fluid, which then causes the fluid to move into the
delivery chamber or outlet. Turbines and centrifugal pumps all fall into this category.

Theory
The main elements of the system are a centrifugal pump, a rota meter to measure flow, a valve to
control flow, a differential pressure (DP) cell to measure pressure, and a reservoir, as shown in
the figure below. The pump is driven by an electric motor, and the shaft connecting the motor to
the pump is provided with a torque indicator. The motor is provided with a speed controller and
tachometer.

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In operating the equipment, it is necessary that the intake from the reservoir should be at Least 6
inches above the intake. The liquid should also be clean and free of sediment. At Start-up and at
other times), air may be in the lines. This will be observed as air bubbles flowing through the
rota meter. Do not attempt to make any measurements as long as air bubbles are observed. If the
problem does not clear up after a few minutes of operation, the system has a leak and is in need
of repair. In normal operation, the speed is to be controlled using the speed controller and
tachometer, flow is to be controlled using valve V-3, pressures are to be determined from the DP
cell readings, torque is to be measured from the torque meter employing a strobe light, and flow
is to be determined from the rota meter reading.

Apparatus
1) Centrifugal pump test rig (This includes suction and delivery pressure gauges, and a means of
measuring the torque being applied to the pump drive shaft)
2) Tachometer (for measuring and setting r.p.m.)

Procedure
1) The electrical main supply was switched on to the apparatus.
2) The suction and delivery valves were checked. It need to be fully open.
3) Pressed SELECT until Centrifugal Pump is displayed and pressed ENTER.

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## 4) Pressed SELECT until Pump Speed was displayed.

5) The pump speed was increased up to t 100% (2000 rpm).
6) The following parameters were recorded
Pressure across the pump;
Flow rate;
Input torque.
Input power.
7) Gradually close the delivery valve and take 8 readings of the same parameters at different
discharges
8) Pump speed was increased up to 3000 rpm and done the above procedure again
9) Conclude the experiment by pressing EXIT to stop the pump.

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References
http://www.akimoo.com/2013/report-of-the-characteristic-curves-of-centrifugalpump-100-200- lab-you/ (accessed on 24th February 2016)

http://centrifugal-pump.blogspot.com/2009/01/centrifugal-pump-performance_09.html
(accessed on 26th February 2016)
http://www.engineersedge.com/pumps/cavitation.htm
February 2016)

(accessed

on

26th

http://constructionmanuals.tpub.com/14265/css/14265_215.html (accessed on
26th February 2016)
http://buildings.xylemappliedwater.com/files/2015/09/Cavitation-WhitePaper_FINAL-2.pdf (accessed on 26th February 2016)
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261265225_Performance_Analysis_of_
an_Experimental_Centrifugal_Pump (accessed on 26th February 2016)

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