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HK01- CIVIL ENGINEERING PROGRAMME

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH

COURSE
KA30902 HYDRAULICS
TITLE
UPGRADING BABAGON RIVER TO OPEN CHANNEL OF BABAGON RIVER USING (HECRAS)

DATE OF CONDUCT
28 NOVEMBER 2015

DATE OF SUBMISSION
24 DECEMBER 2015

PREPARED FOR
MDM JANICE LYNN AYOG

PREPARED BY
ELDREN JAMEE (BK13110098)

TABLE OF CONTENT

No.

Titles

Page

Introduction

3-4

Methodology

5-7

Data and results

8-14

Discussion

14

Conclusion

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
What is a river? It is planet's most wonderful nature where we can depend ourselves
more lucky as by with each moving year to have options to these silent, tree-strewn,
untrimmed miles by the mineral water. Since rivers is earth's oldest nature, we should learn to
appreciate it more. If you' re not beside a real stream, close your eyes, and sit down beside an
unreal one, a stream where you feel is completely safe. Know that mineral water has
knowledge, in its movement through the world, as much knowledge as any of us have. One of
earth's most beautiful nature also includes Babagon River where it is located at Kampung
Babagon, Penampang, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Because of its own uniqueness, the river is now a
must visit place since the scenery is quite breathe taking. Unfortunately, as we cannot foretold
mother nature, flooding can occur especially during monsoon season. Fortunately, we were
given the chance to witness and enjoy the wonderful scenery of Babagon River as a site visit
was conducted. For research purposes, students were given a task where students had to
design an open channel using the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HECRAS) for Babagon River for the purposes of upgrading this river so that the flow of river can be
control and to increase the volume of the river's water. During the site visit, four cross section
of the river was taken with an interval of 50 pacing which in meter is 11.25m between each
cross section. The velocity was also taken.
1.1 RIVER
A circulation is a natural streaming watercourse, usually fresh water, streaming towards
sea, pond or another circulation. Waterways circulation in channels. The bottom of the route is
known as the bed and the sides of the route are known as the banks. Where do rivers start
actually? Waterways can start their source in higher ground such as mountains or hills, where
rain the water or melting snow gathers and forms tiny sources. Waterways are formed when
one circulation meets another and they combine together, the circulation is known as a
tributary. It takes many tributary sources to form a circulation. Almost all of rivers eventually
circulate into a larger river, like an sea or large pond. The end of the circulation is known as the
mouth. Waterways usually provides us with food, energy, recreation, transportation tracks, and
of course the water for watering and for drinking.

1.2 OPEN CHANNEL


The circulation of water in an open channel has a free surface where it is subjected to
atmospheric pressure. Assuming that the parallel circulation occurs along with a uniform
velocity distribution and that the slope of channel is small, then water surface as the depth of
water correspond to the width of channel. Although it is more difficult to solve problems in open
channels since the circulation condition are complicated by the position of the free surface
which will change with time and space. Plus, even the depth flow, discharge, slope and free
surface are all inter dependent. Also, an open channel is driven by gravity only. Even the flow of
cross section is unknown since the flow depth is unknown.
1.2.1 NATURAL CHANNEL
It is not frequent nor prismatic and their materials of construction usually consists of
earth's natural properties. The surface roughness will always change with time distance and
elevation. It is quite difficult to perfectly evaluate and acquire acceptable results for the natural
channels. Everything is even more intense if the boundary is not set due to break down and
buildup of sediments.
1.2.2 ARTIFICIAL CHANNEL
These channels are made by man, where it also contains watering pathways, routing
pathways, spillways, sewers, culvert and water flow and drainage. Usually constructed of
concrete, steel or earth and has a reasonably surface roughness. Research of channel will also
give a reasonably precise results.
1.3 HYDROLOGIC ENGINEERING CENTERS RIVER ANALYSIS SYSTEM (HEC-RAS)
The Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) is a program that
allows the users to execute a one-dimensional stable circulation, unsteady circulation, deposit
transport/mobile bed calculations, and heat range acting on the cross-sections of a river. The
aim of these studies is to determine whether the acting as well as the designing an appropriate
channelling of the selected river using the HEC-RAS application.

2.0 METHODOLOGY
2.1 EQUITMENTS
a) Tape measures
b) Flow meter
c) Measuring staff
2.2 CROSS-SECTIONS OF RIVER
In acquiring the cross-section information of the river, the main river attributes is
to be calculated are the stream width, water depth and the speed of the river.
Dimensions were taken from the upstream to the downstream of the river. The
procedures are as follows;
a) Three velocities was taken to get the average value of the rivers velocity using
the flow meter. But in the end, it is assumed 1m/s only.
b) A cross-section area is selected and then the measuring tape was stretched
across the river to the other side of the riverbank to obtain the width of the
cross-section. It is to ensured that the measurement was taken from the point at
which the dry bank meets the water.
c) The depth of the river was taken at a three meters(the measuring tape) interval
across the cross-section of the river using the surveying staff.
d) The next cross-section of the river was taken at a distance of 11.25m from the
previous cross-section of the river. Steps b) and c) are repeated.
e) Step d) was then repeated until four cross-sections data of the river is obtained.

2.3 RIVER'S MODELLING


Information obtained from the river measurements are used to estimate a design
of the river using the HEC-RAS software. The procedures are as follows;
a) A project file was created and saved in a specified project folder(Desktop).
b) The unit system was set as System International (Metric system) and set as
default.
c) The river reach was drawn by selecting the geometric data tool and then the
river reach tool. The river reach is drawn from upstream to downstream of the
river(Just a straight line).
d) The channel geometry of the river is computed by selecting the cross-section
tool. With each cross-section of the river (from upstream to downstream), crosssection coordinates are then keyed-in. The Mannings n value was set as 0.028
for a coarse-grained smooth channel for rivers.
e) At the main window, flow rates are entered by selecting the steady flow data
tool(Obtained by self calculation, v=1m/s).
f) Must assume downstream is in critical depth condition to define the reach
boundary conditions.
g) At the main window, the steady flow stimulator was performed by choosing the
subcritical flow regime while computing the data to make sure no error or
mistake of information are present.
h) The profile output table was then examined to view the analysis results of the
rivers cross section.

2.4 RIVER'S CHANNELLING DESIGN


Once the river designing is done, a design of a river channelling is computed
using the HEC-RAS application. The procedures are as follows;
a) A project file was created and saved in a specified project folder(Desktop).
b) The unit system was set as System International (Metric system) and set as
default.
c) The river reach was drawn by selecting the geometric data tool and then the
river reach tool. The river reach is drawn from upstream to downstream of the
river (Just a straight line).
d) The channel geometry of the river is computed by selecting the cross-section
tool. In the cross-section of the river (from downstream to upstream), the
desired design of the cross-section coordinates is keyed-in. The Mannings n
value was set as 0.028 for a coarse-grained smooth channel for rivers. The
contraction and expansion coefficient was assumed as no transition loss
computed.
e) At the main window, flow rates are entered by selecting the steady flow data tool
(By self calculation).
f) Must assume the downstream is in critical depth condition to define the reach
boundary conditions.
g) At the main window, the steady flow stimulator was performed by choosing the
subcritical flow regime while computing the data to make sure no error or
mistake of information are present.
h) The profile output table was then examined to view the analysis results of the
rivers cross section.

3.0 DATA AND RESULTS


3.1 RIVERS CROSS-SECTIONS DATA
For discharge estimation, velocity is 1m/s according to madam Janice L. Ayog.
All cross-sections are at 11.25m intervals
Table 3.1.1: Elevation
Depth of water (m)
Distance from left (m)

CS 1

CS 2

CS 3

CS 4

0.14

0.33

0.23

0.35

0.29

0.49

0.4

0.4

0.34

0.61

0.66

0.5

0.38

12

0.82

0.75

0.67

0.62

15

0.96

1.09

0.8

0.73

18

1.21

1.18

0.97

0.92

21

1.34

1.41

1.22

1.05

24

1.08

1.16

1.36

1.3

27

0.77

0.62

1.32

1.5

30

0.53

0.5

Table 3.1.2: Cross section's flow rate


Depth of water(m)

Flow rate(m3/s)

CS1 (River model)

11.17

CS2 (River model)

13.08

CS3 (River model)

12.66

CS4 (River model)

11.16

CS1 (River Channelling model)

36.86

CS2 (River Channelling model)

36.86

CS3 (River Channelling model)

40.22

CS4 (River Channelling model)

40.22

3.2 RIVER MODELLING

Figure 3.2.1 : Cross section 1

Figure 3.2.2: Cross section 2

Figure 3.2.3: Cross section 3

Figure 3.2.4: Cross section 4

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Figure 3.2.5: Combination of 4 cross section

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3.3 RIVER CHANNELLING DESIGN

Figure 3.3.1: Cross section 1

Figure 3.3.2: Cross section 2

12

Figure 3.3.3: Cross section 3

Figure 3.3.4: Cross section 4

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Figure 3.3.5: Combination of 4 cross section

4.0 DISCUSSION
This task was done to evaluate the cross-sections of the Babagon River as well as to
design an open channelling for the river's upgrade. From the following information acquired
from the in-situ fieldwork, a model of the river was calculated using the HEC-RAS software.
Once an overview of the model was created, an open channelling can then be created
depending on the rivers cross-section.
Thus, from the following information above, the left side of the bank is eroded since it
can be seen clearly just from the model and also during the in-situ fieldwork. As for the right
bank, it has large increase of bed volume from the left bank.
Therefore, the objective of this task was to design a channel for Babagon River for the
reason of the unpredicted behaviour of mother nature. The trapezoidal channel was chosen for
the design for the cross section of the river since it gives the river a much better flow and gives
the channel river a better stability as well as to prevent any more erosion of the river bank. The
depth of the channel is 1.5m since the highest depth is 1.5m and the width of the channelling is
from 27m for the first two cross section and the rest is 30m to save cost. This channelling can
support a larger volume of water content to allow a more efficient flow of water. Thus by using
such a channel will decrease any overflowing water for the river during monsoon.
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5.0 CONCLUSION
In this task, the cross-sections of the Babagon River was evaluated to obtain the rivers
characteristics and the modelling of the cross-sections of the river was calculated using the
HEC-RAS software. A specific detailed with design for the river's channelling was produced with
comprehensions to the rivers form and features for upgrading purposes thus, objective was
achieved.

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