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1.1 Electromagnetic Radiation:

1.1 Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation:
Electromagnetic radiation:

has dual properties of both wave and particle.

as a wave, it contains both electric and magnetic components perpendicular
to each other
as a particle, it is called quanta or photon which can interact with molecules
and then gives various results.

Electromagnetic wave consists of Magnetic wave (B) and Electric wave (E) which amplitudes are
perpendicular to each other while moving in the same direction.

1.2 Energy of Electromagnetic Radiation:

The energy in a mole of photons is related to the frequency of the radiation. According to the
Plank's equation:


the energy in kJ.mol-1(or kcal.mol-1)

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kcal.mol )

Planck's constant (3.99 x 10-13 kJ.mol-1or 9.537 x 10-

velocity of light (2.98 x 108 m.s-1)

wavelength of electromagnetic radiation (m)0

frequency of electromagnetic radiation (Hz or s-1)

long wavelength has low energy

shorter wavelength has higher energy

electromagnetic radiation

usual wavelength range (m)

gamma rays

5 x 10-13 - 1.0 x 10-10

1.0 x 10-10 - 1.0 x 10-8
1.0 x 10-8 - 4.0 x 10-7
4.0 x 10-7 - 7.0 x 10-7
7.0 x 10-7 - 5.5 x 10-4
5.5 x 10-4 - 1.0 x 10-1
> 1.0 x 10-1

ultraviolet light
visible light
infrared radiation

radio waves
Wavelengths, frequencies, and energies of some regions of the electromagnetic radiation

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1.2 What is Spectroscopy:

Spectroscopy is the technique using interaction of the light or EM radiation energy with matter.

When light is applied to matter, it can

Be reflected
Be absorbed
Be transmitted
Be scattered
Cause a chemical change

The result from the interaction of light with molecules can give informations in the form of spectrum
which can be used to identify the molecular structure.

The experimental process:

Measure the frequencies of electromagnetic radiation absorbed, emitted, or scattered by
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correlate the pattern of energy absorption or emission with details of molecular structure

Techniques in Spectroscopy :


When light has passed through a sample, there are interactions between light & sample :

1.3 Interaction of Light with Matter:

When light has passes through a sample, there are interactiona between light & sample:

1.3.1 Reflection of Light

Reflection is a process whereby incoming EM radiation (incident light) is reflected of the surface of
an object.

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1.3.2 Scattering of Light

Scattering is a random process whereby EM radiation (light) is absorbed and immediately re-emitted
by particles or molecules.

1.3.3 Absorption of Light

Absorption is a process whereby EM radiation (light) is absorbed by particles or molecules and
converted to another form of energy.

Note: If we consider all interactions, when light passes through a sample, it can be reflected, scattered,
and/or absorbed by atoms or molecules in the sample. The intensity of the transmitted light is decreased
from I0 to I.

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Where ,

I0 =

Intensity of transmitted light

Intensity of incident light

When light interacts with atoms or molecules, what happen to the atom or molecule? This animation
shows you both absorption and emission processes in molecular level.





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Absorption: An atom or molecule in ground state E0 absorbs energy (h) and changes to a higher energy
state E1. The wavelength and the amount of energy absorbed is measured.

Emission: The atom or molecule in the excited state E1 emits energy (h) and returns to ground state
E0 which can be measured.

Types of absorption Spectroscopy:

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1.4. Molecular energy level and Transition:

The absorption of light causes the change in energy levels of the molecule in different states which
is called transition.

Electronic Transition =

change in energy of electrons

Vibration Transition =

change in vibration of bonds

Rotational Transition =

change in vibration of bonds

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Each transition requires different amount of energy (E);


> Evibrational



Energy levels in molecules:

Transition and Energy of Light



range of absorption

far-IR / MW

Electronic Transition

E0 to E1

near- & mid-IR near-UV / VIS

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E0 to E2