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Coating application is one of the important factors in performance of any coating system.
Though the quality and physical properties of the coating material are determined by the
manufacturer, the potential performance can only be achieved if coating is applied
properly.Surface preparation and choice of coating for a particular service environment are also
One should remember, Paint application is an Art as well as Science.It requires good
knowledge of paint formulations, selection of paint, good application skills, and suitable
surface preparation methods.


All Coating materials shall be furnished, mixed and applied in accordance to manufacturer
recommendations. All coating materials, catalyst, thinners should be in sealed containers with
manufacturers label, batch numbers and instructions.Their Technical and Safety data sheets
should be furnished by the manufacturer.All coating materials should have a test certificate
which shall include Its Batch number, the date of manufacture, Shelf life, pot life.Proper paint
mixing technique shall be followed.Thinners shall be used as specified by the manufacturer.


Surface on which the paint is to be applied should be clean from dust and dry.
Temperature of the surface should be at least 3 deg above dew point temperature.
Humidity should be less than 85%.
Mixing, thinning and storage:

All containers of coating materials shall remain unopened until required for use.
Coating material, which has jelled or otherwise deteriorated during storage, shall not be
All ingredients in any container shall be thoroughly mixed before use to a smooth and
uniform consistency. Mechanical agitation during application shall be sufficient to keep
pigment in solution.
Paint mixed in the original container shall not be transferred until all settled particles
have been re-mixed with the medium. This does not imply temporary removal of part of
the medium to facilitate mixing.
Coating material shall not be mixed or kept in suspension by using bubbling air stream.
Where a skin has formed in the container and the thickness of the skin is so much that it
shall affect the composition and the quality of the paint, such paint shall not be used.
All pigmented material shall be strained after mixing except where application
equipment is provided with adequate strainers. Strainers shall be capable of passing the
pigment and removing any skin.
Material, which does not have a limited pot life, or does not deteriorate on storage, may
be mixed any time before using, but it setting has occurred, may be remixed

immediately before using. Coating material shall not be kept in spray pots or buckets
overnight, but shall be collected in a closed container and to be re-mixed before use.
No thinner shall be added until necessary for proper application. Thinning Shall not
exceed the limit recommended by the manufacturer in their printed product technical
mixing process. Painters should not add thinner after it has been thinned to the proper
consistency. Thinner must be added under the guidance of a paint specialist from the
painting contractor/manufacturers representative who is thoroughly familiar with
quantity and type of thinner to be added.
Type of thinner shall comply with manufacturers instructions and preferably from the
same paint manufacturer. Only manufacturers recommended thinner should be added.

Procedure of Application:

Surfaces shall not be coated in rain, wind or in environments where injurious airborne
elements exists, when the steel surface temperature is less than 5 deg F above dew
point, when the relative humidity is greater than 85% or when the temperature is
below 40deg F excepting in boat landing area where RH is more than 85% generally.
Wet blast cleaned surfaces shall be coated with one complete application of primer as
soon as practicable but in no case later than four hrs on the same day.
To the maximum extent practicable, each coat of material shall be applied as a
continuous film of uniform thickness free of probes. Any spots or areas missed in
application shall be applied as a continuous film of uniform thickness free of probes.
Any spots or areas missed in application shall be re-coated and permitted to dry
before the next coat is applied. Applied paint site should have the desired film
Each coat shall be in proper state of cure or dryness before the application of
succeeding coat. Surface shall be considered dry for re-coating when an additional
coat can be applied without the development of any detrimental film irregularities,
such as lifting or loss of adhesion of the under coat. The paint manufacturers
instructions given in the printed literature for minimum over coating interval shall be
strictly followed. The maximum over coating period given by the manufacturer is
only a indicative but, the same shall not be taken for any reason to justify the delay in
application of subsequent coats as the same will be detrimental to the inter-coat
No tinting shall be allowed at site for matching of any shade difference of paint
materials. It is preferable to have different shades for each coat of paint.However, the
paint materials used in the present specifications are based on the same specialty
corrosion protection resins like epoxy, there is no essential requirement to identify
primer and top coat separately and it may not be possible to obtain various shades in
the high performance high build epoxy coating materials.

Each coat shall be applied uniformly and completely over the entire surface.
It should be allowed to dry for the specific time as recommended by the manufacturer before
applying next coat.


Brush application is a traditional method used for smaller jobs,
for cutting in corners and edges. To achieve good penetration
in crevices, for stripe coating of welds, rivets, bolts.
However brushes should be of a quality that will permit proper
application of coating.
Round or Oval brushes are most suitable for Rivets, bolts.
Wide flat brushes are used for suitable large areas. Brush width
shall not be greater than 100 mm.
Paint application by Brush can reach any profile and is least
However the application is very slow. It is not consistent with film thickness and not suitable
for high solids and low pot life paints.
Procedures for Brush Application :

Brushing shall be done so that a smooth coat, uniform in thickness, is obtained. There
shall be no deep or detrimental brush marks.
Paint shall be worked into all crevices and corners.
All runs and sags shall be brushed out to prevent air pockets, solvent bubbles or voids.
When applying solvent type, coatings, care shall be taken to prevent lifting of previous
Surfaces not accessible to brushes shall be painted by spray, daubers or sheepskin.

Roller application has its value on broad and flat areas but it is not as quick as spraying.
However it is quicker than brush application.
It is 3 to 4 times faster than brush application. It is suitable for
low viscosities. However it causes fatigue to the applicator. It
cannot be used on all profiles.
Roller application is permitted for paint materials where this is
the manufactures recommended method of application, such
as for deck paints containing non-skid material. The
manufacturers recommended procedures shall be used.
Roller material also defines the quality of rollers. The material
may be short-haired carpet pile fabric, long haired lambs
wool or sponge plastic. Also selection of correct length of roller pile for a particular coating is
critical to successful application.

Spray application is the best method employed for rapid application of coatings to large surface
areas and uniform coatings.
There are two major types of spray application.
1) Conventional air spray.
2) Airless spray.

Conventional air spray :

Conventional air spray is atomized by a stream of
Compressed air and is carried to the surface on a current of
air. Both air and coating enters the gun through separate
passages are mixed and driven through air cap in a controlled
spray pattern.
However all the equipment used should be inspected and
tested before its application. It should be maintained in good
working condition. The equipment should be thoroughly
cleaned before and after each use and while adding new
material. An adequate moisture trap shall be installed
between the air supply and pressure pot. The trap shall be
such that it bleeds any water or oil from the air supply.
Suitable pressure regulators and gauges shall be provided for both the air supply to pressure pot
and air supply to spray gun. The length of the hose between the pressure pot and spray gun
shall not exceed 15 meters.
Airless spray :
Airless spray is atomized without the use of compressed air and is
carried to the surface by the power of fluid pressure passing through
the spray gun. The coating is pumped under high pressure to the
airless spray gun where it is forced through a precisely sized and
shaped opening called orifice.
Airless spray gives the fastest and heaviest spray finish.
Airless spray equipment may be used for applying epoxy or aliphatic
polyurethane coatings.
Airless spray equipment shall not be used for applying inorganic zinc silicate.
The manufacturers recommendations in selection and use of airless spray equipment shall be