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3. HYDROGEN COOLING AND SEAL OIL SYSTEM/STAGE I


3.1 HYDROGEN COOLING SYSTEM OF GENERATOR
The 210 MW Generator is cooled by Hydrogen in stator. H 2 is cooled by
cooling condensate flowing in the gas coolers.

3.2 ADVANTAGES OF HYDROGEN COOLING


Windage and ventilating losses are reduced due to the low gas density.
An increased output per unit volume of active material because of the
high thermal conductivity and high heat transfer co-efficient of hydrogen.
The life of the insulation on the stator winding is increased because of
absence of oxygen, moisture and corona discharge.
The reduction of windage noise, dirt and moisture because of lesser
density of gas and closed recirculation
Because of the hydrogen atmosphere inside the generator the chances of
fire is reduced, as the hydrogen cannot support combustion or oxidization.

3.3 HYDROGEN GAS SYSTEM


Gas system is provided for the following reasons.
To provide means for putting hydrogen in or taking hydrogen out of the
generator using CO2 as a scavenging medium.
To maintain the gas pressure.
To indicate the conditions of gas pressure, temperature, purity and the
presence of liquid by alarms.
To dry the gas and remove vapour which might get into the generator
from the seal oil.

3.4 GAS SUPPLY (Fig.1)


The gas either H2 or CO2 is distributed uniformly to the various
compartments of the generator by means of perforated pipe of the manifolds
located in the top and bottom of the housing.

3.5 GAS DRIER (Fig. 2)

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A gas drier with activated alumina absorbent material filled is
connected across the generator blower. Gas is circulated through the drier.
The absorbent material will take up about 1kg of water, after that
disconnecting the drier from the machine and then heating with a built in
electric heater can dry it out. Before and during the drying process air is
forced through the drier by a small blower to remove the moisture. A
thermostat protects the drier against over heating. The dryness of active
material can be determined by the colour of absorbent material as seen
through the window in the bottom of the drier. The colour will be light blue,
when dry and grayish pink, when saturated with moisture.

3.6 LIQUID DETECTOR


Float-operated switches in small housing are provided under the
generator frame and under the main lead box to indicate the presence of any
liquid, which might be due to leakage from H2 coolers openings, are provided
in each frame ring at the bottom of the frames to drain the liquid collected to
these water detectors. Each detector is provided with a vent return line to
the frames so that drain line from the frames will not become gas bound.
Isolating valves are provided in both the vent and drain lines to inspect the
float switches. A drain valve is provided for removal of accumulated liquid.

3.7
GENERATOR
TRANSMITTER

HYDROGEN

PURITY

INDICATING

The purity of the gas in the generator is determined by use of the


hydrogen purity indicating transmitter and the purity meter blower. The
purity-indicating transmitter is a differential pressure instrument which
measure the pressure developed by the purity meter blower. An induction
motor loaded very lightly so as to run at constant speed, drives the purity

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meter blower and circulates the gas drawn from the generator. Thus the
pressure developed by the purity meter blower varies with pressure,
temperature and purity of the gas. The purity-indicating transmitter is
provided with automatic compensation for pressure variations.
The purity meter has two scales, one at upper and another at lower.
The lower scale is calibrated in terms of purity and is associated with the
pressure compensated pointer. The upper scale indicates gas density
(relative to air at 100%) and is associated with the uncompensated pointer.
Only the lower scale is visible. Upper scale is used for calibration purpose.
The lower scale is divided into three sections. In the approximate centre of
the scale there is a point marked air-100. This pointer is used for calibrating
the gauge with out removing the gas from the generator. The left hand end
of dial shows percentage of CO2 in the mixture of CO2 and air. This scale is
used during scavenging operation when CO2 is being admitted into the
generator. The right hand side of the dial shows percentage of H 2 present in
the mixture of H2 and air. This scale is used to determine the purity of H2.
The hydrogen purity-indicating transmitter produces a pneumatic
output signal. This output signal is then converted in to electric signal. It is
carried to a remotely located receiver provided with a dial on the Hydrogen
control panel. Two switch assemblies are provided with purity-indicating
transmitter. These are used for Hydrogen purity High or Low alarms when
the differential pressure varies.

3.8
GENERATOR
BLOWER
PRESSURE
HYDROGEN
PRESSURE INDICATING TRANSMITTER

GUAGE

AND

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A dual pressure gauge is provided on the hydrogen control panel,
which indicates both the pressure developed by the blower on the generator
rotor and the hydrogen pressure in the generator housing. The range of
blower pressure gauge scale is 0-400cm of water.

This portion of the

instrument is connected directly to the generator housing and reads the


differential pressure across the blowers on the rotor. This pressure can be
used as a check on the purity meter or it can be used as a purity indicator
when the purity meter is not available. The hydrogen pressure portion of the
instrument has a range of

0-7 Kg/cm 2 and is connected directly to the

generator housing to indicate the pressure of hydrogen. The transmitter


produces a pneumatic output signal and then it is converted in to an electric
signal. This is carried into a remotely located receiver, which is provided with
dials. High and Low pressure alarm switches are provided in the hydrogen
control panel.

3.8.1 HYDROGEN TEMPRATURE ALARMS


Hydrogen cold gas thermostats and the resistance temperature
detectors are located in a generator to provide an alarm if hydrogen
temperature raises above normal.

3.8.2 PRESSURE REGULATORS AND GAUGES


The generator is equipped with a hydrogen pressure control, which has
a pressure regulator and a pressure gauge for the gas going to the generator.
The top gauges indicate the machine gas pressure and also setting of the
regulator on the hydrogen control panel. The bottom gauge indicates the
amount of pressure available from the hydrogen supply system.

3.8.3 HYDROGEN GAS COOLERS

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The hydrogen is cooled by passing it through coolers where the gas
gives up its heat to the cooling water in the finned tubes of the coolers.

3.9 SEAL OIL SYSTEM (Fig.3)


3.9.1 GLAND SEALS (Fig. 4)
Gland seals, which are supplied with oil under pressure, are used to
prevent the escape of the gas along the rotor shaft. Oil is supplied in two
annular grooves in the gland-sealing ring. From these grooves the oil flows
both ways along the shaft through the clearance space between the shaft
and the inner diameter of the gland ring. As long as the oil pressure in the
circumferential groove exceeds the gas pressure in the machine, oil will
flow towards the hydrogen side of the seal and prevent the escape of
hydrogen from the generator. The purpose of having two seal grooves in
the gland rings is to provide separate hydrogen side and airside seal oil
system. When the feed pressure is in these two system are properly
balanced there will be no flow of oil in the clearance space between the two
feed grooves. Oil which is supplied from the hydrogen side of the seal oil
system will flow inwards along the shaft towards the inside of the generator
and oil which is supplied by the air side of the system will flow outwards
along the shaft towards the bearing. The oil in the space between the two
feed grooves will remain relatively stationary due to pressure balance
between the two systems.
The gland oil is fed to the feed grooves through passages in the
supporting brackets. The gland ring is provided to restrict the flow of oil
through the seal. This gland ring can move radically with the shaft, but is
restrained from rotating by a pin to the supporting structure. Oil leaving

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the gland seal rings is caught in chambers of each side of the seal from
which it is drained back to the gland seal oil system.

3.9.2 OIL SUPPLY


The function of the seal oil system is to lubricate the seal and prevent
hydrogen escaping from generator, with out introducing an excessive
amount of air and moisture into the generator. This oil which is in contact
with air or hydrogen absorbs appreciable volume of gas and will absorb
moisture, if water vapour is present. If oil with air and water absorbed in it
is pumped into the hydrogen compartment, some of the air and moisture
will come out of the oil and contaminate hydrogen in the generator.
Therefore it is necessary to add fresh gas to the generator to maintain the
purity.

Contaminating air and moisture are kept out of the generator by

separating the airside of the seal oil system from the hydrogen side of the
seal oil system. When this is done, hydrogen side oil is returns to the
hydrogen side of the seal ring in the generator, thus preventing the escape
of absorbed hydrogen to the outside atmosphere.

The airside seal oil

returns to the airside of the seal ring, thus preventing the release of absorb
air or moisture with the hydrogen compartment at the generator.
The seal oil is supplied to the airside of the gland seal rings at a
pressure of 0.84 Kg/cm2 above the generator gas pressure. The hydrogen
side seal oil is maintained at the same pressure by means of pressure
equalizing valves. As a result, the interchange of air side and hydrogen
side oil at the gland rings is held to a minimum, the air side seal oil flowing
only to the air side and the hydrogen side seal oil flowing

only to the

hydrogen side. While the interchange of seal oil at the gland seal rings is
held to a minimum, the variation in pressure over a long period of time may

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result in a gradual increase or decrease in amount of oil in the two sides of
the seal oil system. A hydrogen side drain (Fig .5) regulator is provided for
adding or removing of oil from the hydrogen side of the seal oil system.
This chamber has two float valves; one will introduce oil into the chamber
from the airside of the system. If the oil level gets low, the other float valve
allows the oil from the chamber, to flow to the airside of the system if the
level gets high. The quantity of oil in the hydrogen side of the gland seal
system is kept constant and the oil levels are properly maintained.

3.9.3 DEFOAMING TANKS


Oil returning from the hydrogen side of the gland seal ring goes to two
de-foaming tanks, where most of the gas comes out of the oil. These defoaming tanks are located in the bearing brackets of the generator. The oil
levels in the de-foaming tanks are maintained by overflow connection, one
de-foaming tank is provided for each seal.

Trap is provided in the drain

line between the two tanks so that the difference in the pressure at the two
ends of the generator will not cause circulation of oil vapour through the
generator

3.9.4 SEAL OIL PUMPS


The airside seal oil pump receives its oil supply from the combined
bearing and airside seal oil drain. It pumps part of this through a seal oil
cooler to the air side of the seal ring and returns part of it back to the suction
side of the pump through a differential pressure regulator. This pressure
regulator maintains the differential pressure at 0.84 Kg/cm 2 between the
airside seal oil pressure and hydrogen pressure. (Fig.6) The back up pump is
also provided. The hydrogen side seal oil pump receives its supply from the

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hydrogen side seal oil flow chamber. It pumps part of this through seal oil
cooler to the hydrogen side of the seal ring. A pressure-equalizing valve is
provided in the hydrogen side to feed the line at each end, which maintains
the (Fig.7) hydrogen side seal oil pressure at the same value as the airside
seal oil pressure. A bypass line is provided around the pump which allows
that portion of the oil not required by the pressure equalizing valve to return
to the suction side of the pump.

3.9.4 SEAL OIL BACK UP


The seal oil back up from the main bearing oil feed system is normally
closed. If the air side seal oil pump fails or if the seal oil pressure at the seal
decreases to 0.56 Kg/cm2 above the H2 pressure, the back up regulator valve
will open automatically and provide oil pressure for the seals. The back up
pressure may be supplied from several sources.

When bearing oil flows to

the seals through the seal oil back up, the excess oil will overflow through
the seal oil return line into the main bearing oil frame.
The main oil pump on the turbine pump shaft is the primary source of
seal oil back up when the turbine speed is 75% or full speed.

When the

turbine oil reservoir is equipped with a turbine governor auxiliary oil pump,
this pump will be actuated by turbine controls, and it will supply seal oil back
up when the turbine speed is less than 75%. When the airside seal oil
pressure at the seal drops to 0.35 Kg/cm 2 above gas pressure, a switch will
close and automatically starts the airside seal oil back up pump. The pump
will continue to operate as it is held in by an interlock in the control and can
be stopped only by the push button. When this pump starts, seal oil
pressure low and seal oil back up pump Running signal will appear. When
this appears, the H2 pressure in the machine should be decreased to 0.14

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Kg/cm2 gauge or less. Amount of gas pressure that can be maintained in the
generator depends not upon pressure being developed by the source of seal
oil pressure then operating, but depends upon the pressure available from
the next backup source of seal oil pressure.
The generator may also be operated with H 2 with out the H2 seal oil
pump. Under this condition the seal oil from the airside feed groove will flow
in both direction along the shaft.

Charging of hydrogen is required to

maintain the H2 purity since airside oil flowing into the H 2 side of the sealing
will bring air and moisture into contact with the H 2 inside the machine and
will remove some of the H2 from the generator by absorption into the oil.

3.9.5 GENERATOR BEARING DRAIN LOOP SEAL


A loop seal is provided in the bearing drain line before it enters the
turbine bearing oil drain system .It will prevent the entry of hydrogen into the
main oil reservoir, if seal fails. A vent to the atmosphere is provided on the
upstream or inlet side of the loop so that only hydrogen flowing through the
bearing drain will be carried out of the system before sufficient pressure can
be built up to blow the oil out of the loop seal and allow the hydrogen to
reach the drain oil reservoir. Since this loop seals presents an obstruction to
oil flow in the bearing drain system, the vapour extractor in the main oil
reservoir is not able to ventilate that part of the generator bearing oil drain
system on the upstream side of the loop seal. Therefore, an additional
vapour extractor assembly consisting of extractor, control bypass and check
valve are provided as a part of the loop seal assembly to provide the
negative pressure in the generator drain system on the upstream of the loop
seal required for normal operation.

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3.10 OPERATION OF THE SEAL OIL SYSTEM


The operation of the seal oil system involves initial commissioning
operation, adjustment of parameters after commissioning, normal operation
when the unit is running and some of the abnormal operations.

It also

involves the routine checkups and inspection of the systems.

3.10.1 INITIAL OPERATION OF OIL SYSTEM


The seal oil system will be filled automatically from the turbine oil
system as described before when the bearing oil is being circulated. When
the seal oil system is put into operation for the first time it may be necessary
to add additional oil to the turbine oil system in order to supply the oil
required to fill the defoaming tanks, the hydrogen side seal oil drain
regulator to the current levels.
1. Set the relief valve No.258 on the airside seal oil pump so that it will
open on low pressure by screwing out on the adjustment until it is
almost all the way out.

This will prevent damaging the pressure

gauges by high pressure in the event that the other valves in the pump
discharge are incorrectly set when the pump is started.
2. Set the differential seal oil pressure regulator No.256 to open with
minimum differential pressure between the oil and gas pressure.
Releasing the spring pressure on the regulator may do this. Loosen the
vent in the bellows to allow oil to drip out during preliminary operation
at the seal oil unit. This will get rid of any entrapped air and will ensure
stable operation of the regulator.

After the pump has been started,

tighten the plug after approximately one litre of oil has leaked out from
the plug.
3. Close valves Nos.263, 265 & 266 to isolate the main turbine oil system
back up from the rest of the seal oil system during the part of
preliminary operation.
4. Start the airside seal oil pump. This provides oil pressure at the shaft
seals.

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5. Oil will now flow through valve No.232 into the hydrogen side drain
regulator.
6. The de-foaming tanks will now fill up to the level of overflow
connections.
7. Excess oil in the deforming tanks flows to the hydrogen side drain
regulator. The hydrogen side drain regulator maintains a steady
quantity of oil in the gas side seal oil system. Valve Nos.231 & 232 will
maintain the normal level.

If the level becomes high, float valve

No.231 opens and allows the excess oil to flow out.

If the level

becomes low float valve No.232 opens and the oil flows from the
airside seal system into the chamber. Jacks are provided in the valves
No.231 & 232 so that they can be opened or closed manually in case of
emergency.
8. Close valve No.254, and close the differential pressure regulator No.
256.
9. Screw down on the adjustment of the relief valve No.258 until the
pressure on the discharge of the airside seal oil pump is 7 Kg/cm2.
10.

Open

valve No.254.
11.

Valve

No.238 should be partially closed to prevent hunting of the differential


pressure regulator No.256 and approximately one-half turn open is the
proper setting for this valve.
12.

Adjust the

differential pressure regulator No.256 to maintain the airside seal oil


pressure at the seals at 0.84 Kg/cm 2 above the hydrogen pressure
(with cold oil, setting will be approximately 1.05 Kg/cm2).
13.

Set

the

relief valve No.243 and the hydrogen side seal oil pump similar to relief
valve No.258.
14.

Start

the

hydrogen side seal oil pump. This will provide oil to the hydrogen side
of the shaft seals.

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15.

Close the

valves 211, 218 & 242 and screw down on the adjustment of the relief
valve 243 until the hydrogen pressure at the hydrogen side seal oil
pump discharge is 7 Kg/cm2.
16.
valves 211, 218 & 242.

Open

17.

Adjust

pressure-equalizing valves 210 & 217 to give +50mm (or) 50mm of


water on the pressure gauge associated with each equalizing valve and
this adjustment is made by means of the adjusting screw on the
bottom of the valve.
18.

Pressure

equalizing valve 210 & 217 will now maintain the hydrogen side seal oil
pressure at the shaft seals at the same pressure as the airside seal oil
pressure.
19.

If

pressure reducing valve 291 is provided to reduce the pressure of the


back up oil from the main oil reservoir, it should be adjusted as
follows .Set the pressure reducing valve 291 to the closed position and
start the high pressure auxiliary pump. Adjust the relief valve 280 to
hold the value at 10.5 Kg/cm2 when the pressure-reducing valve is set
for maximum pressure. When the shaft pump is operating at a speed
greater than 75% of normal operating speed, it will provide the
necessary seal back up. Adjust the pressure-reducing valve 291 to the
value 8.7 Kg/cm2.
20.
valves 263 & 265.

Open

21.
Stop
airside seal oil pump. Start the high-pressure auxiliary pump.
22.

the

Adjust the

back up regulator 264 to maintain the airside seal oil pressure at the
seals at 0.56 Kg/cm2 above the hydrogen pressure.

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23.

Check the

operation of back up pressure switch PSA/542/414 which should close


when the turbine oil back up pressure drops to a value equivalent to 6
Kg/cm2 (gauge) at the seals. Close valve 265 Block regulator 264 in
open positions and the throttle valve 265 until the pressure at the seals
is 6 Kg/cm2. Adjust pressure switch PSA/542/414 to close at this point.
Release regulator 264. Open above valve 265. Stop the high pressure
auxiliary oil pump.
24.
airside seal oil pump.

Start

the

25.

The

seal

oil back up supply from the pumps should be checked individually to


assure their availability and correct functioning in the case of
emergency.
26.

Turning

gear oil pumps supply only 0.35 Kg/cm 2 pressures of the seals. This is
insufficient to maintain 0.56 Kg/cm2 differential pressures. Therefore
when these pumps are operating such that turbine is at standstill or on
turning gear and high-pressure auxiliary oil pumps is out of service.
When

this

differential

pressure

drops

to0.35

Kg/cm 2,

switch

PSA/542/424 will automatically close and start the airside seal oil back
up pump.

Check the proper functioning of this differential pressure

switch and back up pump by opening valve 273, close valve 248
temporarily and then read pressure gauge. Slowly crack open valve
274.

The DPSA/542/424 should operate when the pressure gauge

decreases to 0.40 Kg/cm2 from the initial reading. Close valve 274 and
open valve 248. Stop the airside seal oil back up pump.
27.

Check the

operation of differential pressure switch DPSA/542/414. This switch


closes when pressure differential across the air side seal oil pump
decreases to 0.35 Kg/cm2 (gauge) and actuate the air side seal oil
pump off alarm.
28.
H2 side seal oil pump.

Stop

the

Pressure switch DPSA/542/434 should close.

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This switch should close when the difference between discharge and
suction pressure of the H2 side seal oil pump decreases to 0.35 Kg/cm 2
(gauge) and actuate the H2 side seal oil pump off alarm.
29.

Start

side seal oil pump.

H2

The seal oil supply system is now in normal

operation.

3.10.2 ADJUSTMENTS WHILE RUNNING


Final adjustments should be made after the generator is synchronized
and the seal oil temperature after the seal oil coolers is between 27C and
50C.
1. Re adjust the differential seal oil pressure regulator 256 if necessary to
maintain differential pressure 0.84 Kg/cm 2. This adjustment should be
made at low hydrogen pressure.

At high hydrogen pressure, blower

may develop as much as 0.15 Kg/cm 2 pressure. The gas and oil sensing
lines to the seal oil pressure regulator come from high pressure zone of
the generator. Therefore the operation of the regulator is not affected
by the gas pressure, however the gas pressure line from the generator
to the gas pressure gauges come from a low pressure zone of the
generator. At low pressure, the observed differential between the air
pressure gauge and oil pressure gauge may be 0.84 Kg/cm 2. While at
high pressure the apparent differential pressure will be 0.99 Kg/cm 2.
This is not the true difference since the gas pressure in

the high-

pressure zone of the generator has gone up to 0.15 Kg/cm 2 more than
the gas pressure in the low-pressure zone of the generator.
2. Stop the air side seal oil pump and check the setting of the back up
pressure regulator 264 which should open when the seal oil pressure at
the seals decreases to 0.56 Kg/cm 2 above the hydrogen pressure. This
regulator should maintain the differential pressure.

Check the airside

seal oil back up pump to make sure that it starts automatically when
the differential pressure switch DPSA/542/424 closes.
3. When the generator is operating at maximum pressure and maximum
oil temperature, throttle valve 242 until seal oil

differential pressure

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gauges no longer give steady readings. If seal oil differential pressure
(oil to gas) is not with in plus or minus 50mm of water, readjust
regulator 210 &217 to obtain this value.

3.10.3 NORMAL OPERATION


Seal oil pressure must be maintained at the seals when hydrogen is in
the generator or when the shaft is running.
The hydrogen pressure may be varied upto3.12 Kg/cm 2. The seal oil
pressure is maintained at 0.84 Kg/cm2 above the hydrogen pressure
when air side oil pump and back up pump is in operation, and at o.56
Kg/cm2 above the hydrogen pressure when the seal oil pressure is
being supplied by the turbine oil back up system is 0.21 Kg/cm 2
differential is required to maintain a seal when running.
The temperature of the seal oil leaving seal oil coolers should be
maintained between 27C and 50C.
The vapour extractors should be operated continuously when the
generator is filled with hydrogen as these vapour extractors ventilate
the bearing brackets and bearing oil drain system.
The filter should be turned until free every eight hours. At least once
in every 12 months filters should be drained through the pipe plug in
the bottom when the system is shutdown.
When the air side back up pump starts, the auxiliary in the main oil
reservoir should be started or the pressure in the generator should be
decreased to less as the next back up pressure available is from the
low pressure pumps.
The generator can be operated without hydrogen side oil pump.
The hydrogen should be purged from the generator before the main oil
reservoir is drained.

3.10.4 OPERATION WITHOUT HYDROGEN SIDE SEAL OIL


PUMP
The hydrogen side seal oil pump supplies oil to the hydrogen side of
the shaft seal at pressure equal to the oil on the airside of the shaft seals.

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Therefore interchange of airside and hydrogen side gland seal oil is
minimized. The air brought into the machine due to this interchange will not
adversely affect the purity of hydrogen since hydrogen is added to make up
normal gas leakage. The hydrogen side seal oil pump can be bypassed any
time for maintenance. When the pump is not in service, the flow of airside
seal oil to the hydrogen side seal oil is greatly increased. So, a certain
amount of hydrogen is removed from the generator by absorption. The purity
may be decreased to 90% to conserve hydrogen.

This will increase the

density of the gas slightly. With the generator running at the rated speed,
approximately 20M3 of hydrogen per day will maintain the purity at 90%
during bypassing operation.

At standstill the flow of seal oil will be less,

therefore the hydrogen required to maintain the purity will be decreased


when the seal oil system is operated without hydrogen side seal oil pump,
the air side seal oil will flow through the seal in to the defoaming tank and
into the hydrogen side drain regulator. When this operation occurs at low
gas pressure the oil level in the hydrogen side drain regulator may rise.
During operation at higher gas pressures, the gas pressure forces the oil
down to the normal level. The oil fluctuates to provide sufficient head for the
oil to flow through the valve 231.

3.10.5 OPERATION WITH GENERATOR SHUTDOWN


Hydrogen may be left in the generator during shutdown if the seal oil
pressure is maintained and the vapour extractors are in operation. If it is
necessary to shutdown the turbine oil pumps, close valves 263 & 265 to
prevent the seal oil from leaking back into the turbine oil reservoir through
the back up regulator and there by causing loss of oil pressure to the seals.
The generator bearing feed and drain lines must be free from oil flow from

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the bearing oil pump, through the generator bearing and into the loop seal.
If the back up seal oil pump starts under this condition, valves 263 and 265
should be opened and the H 2 pressure should be reduced to 0.14 Kg/cm 2 or
less as the next back up pressure available from the low pressure turbine
pumps.

If the turbine pumps cannot be started, the hydrogen should be

purged out.

3.10.6 STARTING SEAL OIL PUMPS


Before starting any of the seal oil pumps, be sure that each has an
adequate supply of oil so that pumps will not run dry. This would result in
destructive wear between the various rotating stationary parts.

The

sequence of starting is (a) air side seal oil pump (b) H2 side seal oil pump.

3.11 INSPECTION AND MAINTANANCE OF SEAL OIL SYSTEM


3.11.1 SEAL OIL PUMPS (AIR SIDE & HYDROGEN SIDE)
The seal oil pumps have a special double helical rotor, which
eliminates end thrust and trapped liquid. The large surfaces of helical rotors
provide high efficiency and long life. The sealing of the drive shaft on the
seal oil is achieved by means of a bellow type mechanical seal subject to the
suction pressure on the pump only, which results in leakage. The mechanical
seal consists of a spring, spring holder, synthetic rubber bellows holding ring,
carbon seal and floating seal. The synthetic rubber bellows is secured to the
shaft by the shoulder of the holding ring, which also secures the bellows and
carbon seal in such a way that the seal is spring loaded against sealing
surface of the stationary iron seat.

If any leakage of oil is detected the

mechanical seal should be replaced.

3.11.2 SEAL OIL BACK UP REGULATOR

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Since the back up regulator 264 is normally required it is advisable to
check it once a month to ensure that it will operate correctly when needed.
Read the seal oil pressure gauge at valve 236.
Slowly throttle valve 254. When the pressure gauge readings decrease
to 0.28 Kg/cm2 from its initial reading, the back up regulator 264
should start to open.
Continue to throttle valve 254 slowly. If the seal oil pressure continues
to drop, it indicates that the back up regulator needs to be readjusted.
With the backup regulator 264 set to hold the seal oil pressure at 0.56
Kg/cm2 above gas pressure, slowly close 254.

The seal oil pressure

should not decrease; when the valve 254 is fully closed the seal oil
pressure is being supplied by the turbine oil system.
Stop the airside seal oil pump.
Open valve 254.
Check for proper operation of the airside seal oil back up pump.
Start the airside seal oil pump.
All pressure switches should be checked for correct operation and for
mechanical defects. Each self-cleaning filter should be cleaned at regular
intervals.

A handle wheel controls the cleaning operation and it does not

require any housing. The dirt removed is collected at the bottom of the filter
housing, from where it can be drained by means of a valve.

3.11.3 PRESSURE EQUALIZING VALVES


Pressure equalizing valves 210 & 217 should be checked to see that
they are holding the differential seal oil pressure (air side Vs hydrogen side)
to within plus or minus 50mm of H2O.

3.11.4 HYDROGEN SIDE DRAIN REGULATOR

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Hydrogen side drain regulator should be drained and the cover
removed, so that any accumulation of sludge or other foreign materials can
be cleaned out.

3.11.5 SEAL OIL COOLERS


The cooler tube bundles should be removed and inspected for
cleanliness. The tube should be cleaned if required, vent the coolers on the
oil side by loosing the pipe plug provided for this purposes.

3.12 OPERATION OF HYDROGEN GAS SYSTEMS


When hydrogen mixes with oxygen, an explosive mixture is formed
which will explode violently when ignited. So the hydrogen should not be
allowed to mix with oxygen or air in the generator when filling up. So, CO 2 is
used as a medium for charging the generator with hydrogen or scavenging.

3.13 GAS CHANGE OVER OPERATION (Fig. 8 & Fig. 9)


Gas changing operations are preferred with the generator at stand still
or turning gear. In case of emergency these operations can be performed
while the machine is accelerating or decelerating. The generator should not
be allowed to operate at normal operating speed in CO 2. Atmospheric air
contains approximately 21% oxygen by volume. At the upper end of the
explosive range (70% hydrogen & 30% air) the oxygen content of the
hydrogen and air mixture is 21% 30% = 6.3% oxygen. Therefore before
introducing hydrogen in to the generator oxygen content should be reduced
to less than 6.3% oxygen. Therefore before introducing hydrogen into the
generator, oxygen content should be reduced to less than 6.3%. Air content
will be reduced to 14% having equivalent oxygen of 21% 14% = 3%
oxygen will introduce two volumes of gas. When CO2 is introduced at the
bottom of a frame with the rotor at standstill about 11/2 volumes will be

44
sufficient to remove the air since there is no much mixing of air and CO 2
under this conditions. Purity meter connections are provided to take gas
samples from either the top or bottom of the machine. During the addition of
CO2 gas sample should be taken from the top of the machine. After 11/2
volumes of CO2 is put in the generator, the purity meter should read about
95% CO2.
A hydrogen cooled turbine generator is operated with the gas in the
machine 95% H2 or above by volume. If 3 volumes are introduced into the
generator when it is running the resulting mixture will be 95% H 2 and 2
volumes with the rotor at stand still. Connecting the purity meter sampling
lines to the bottom of the frame should check purity of gas. During the
normal operation of the H2 cooled generator the H2 purity is maintained 95%
or above. When the H2 side seal oil pump is shut down, gas must be added to
maintain the pressure and to maintain the purity. Inflow of 1M 3 of air will
require the addition of 24M3 of H2 to maintain the purity at 95% and 10M 3 of
H2 to maintain the purity at 90%. For removing H 2 from the generator, CO2 is
introduced at the bottom of the housing as a scavenging gas and H 2 is driven
at the top.

Sufficient CO2 is introduced to reduce the H2 content in the

mixture to 5%. Two volumes of CO2 being required for scavenging at


standstill condition. CO2 purity should be 95%. After the H2 has been
scavenged from the generator housing, it may be opened and the oil
pressure may be turned off. Hand holes in each end of the generator end
should be opened and a fan directed into the opening at one end to drive out
the CO2. This precaution is suggested to prevent inhaling of CO 2, which might
occur if an immediate visual inspection is made through hand hole.

3.14 REPLACING AIR WITH CO2

45
Make certain that normal seal oil pressure is established at the seals.
Make sure that the purity meter system is operating correctly.
Make sure that the purity meter blower is running and that power and
or air supplies to the H2 panel have been turned on.
Check that sufficient quantities of H2 and CO2 are available.
Connect the purity meter sampling lines to the top manifold, open
valves 34 & 36, close valves 33&35.
Connect vent to the top manifold by opening valve39 & closing 38.
Isolate the H2 supply by closing valve 30.
Connect the CO2 supply to the bottom manifold by opening valve 37.
Recheck valves 40,41&42 in the H2 panel to be sure valve 40 is closed.
Valves 41 & 42 are open.
Admit CO2 to the generator through the valve 48.Do not allow machine
pressure to exceed

0.2 Kg/cm 2 gauge during the time CO2 is being

admitted. The valves in the CO2 supply including valve 58 should be


opened wide to prevent the valve from freezing. Observe the frost line
on the CO2 feed line to see that it disappears at least 3m from the point
at which the CO2 feed line enters in to the generator. Observe the
purity meter indications as the CO2 is being admitted. When 1
machine volumes have been put in to the generator, the purity meter
should read approximately 93% of the CO 2. Continue to admit CO2 until
the purity meter indicates 95% CO2.
Close valves in CO2 supply and then close valve 58.

3.15 REPLACING CO2 WITH H2


Connect vent to bottom manifold by opening valve 38 and closing
valve 39.
Connect purity indicator sampling lines to the bottom by opening valve
33 and 35 and by closing 34 and 36.
Open valves 30 and 2.
Admit hydrogen either by opening valve 53 or by using the regulator
on the hydrogen pressure control manifold.

The generator gas

pressure should not be allowed to exceed 0.2 Kg/cm 2 to 0.35 Kg/cm2.


Continue to admit hydrogen until purity meter indicates at least 95%

46
hydrogen purity.

This will require approximately 2 1/2 times machine

volumes.
Open valve 24 for approximately two minutes for purging out of the
CO2 from the lead box.
When the desired purity level has been reached close valve 38. The
machine pressure will increase for one Kg/cm 2 increase in gas pressure;
one machine volume of gas will be required.
The pressure regulator on the hydrogen pressure control manifold may
be set for the desired machine gas pressure as follow.
1. Close valve 2, 53 and 1 and turn the T handle of the regulator in
anti clockwise direction.
2. Open valve 54 to allow the manifold pressure to go to zero.
3. Close valve 54.
4. Open valve 1 and set the desired pressure by tuning the T
handle of the regulator clockwise and observe the pressure
gauge on the generator side.
5. Open valve 2, the regulator will now allows hydrogen to flow into
the generator until the set pressure has been reached.

3.16 REPLACING H2 WITH CO2


1. Connect the purity meter sampling lines to the top manifold by
opening valves 34 and 36 closing valves 33 and 35.
2. Close hydrogen charging by closing valve 30 and 2 and removing the
removable link in the hydrogen feed line.
3. Connect the CO2 feed to the bottom of the generator by opening valve
37 and closing valve 38.
4. Connect the vent to the top manifold by opening valve 39. Hydrogen
will now escape to the vent through the line and valve 39.

3.17 REPLACING CO2 WITH AIR


The seal oil system may be stopped provided the shaft is not running.
Remove the manhole cover at each end of the generator. As soon as
the covers have been removed, take a gas sample with a gas analyzer.
After the gas covers are removed, wait at least for one hour before

47
blowing dry air to one end of the generator to drive out the CO 2. Open
all water detector drains.
Ventilate for several hours after removing manhole cover, before
entering into the generator.
When replacing the manhole covers, do not forget to close the water
detector lines.

3.18 DETERMINATION OF GAS PURITY


3.18.1 FROM THE PURITY INDICATING TRANSMITTERS
Direct reading purity meter determines machine gas purity. Valves in
the purity meter circulating lines permit sampling from the top or bottom of
generator. During normal operation, the sample should be taken from
bottom. The pressure head developed across the purity meter blower is
directly proportional to the density of the gas passing through the blower.
Connection from the high and low pressure sides of the blower are taken to
the purity meter. The purity meter is a differential pressure instrument, which
converts the pressure head to reading on a scale. A pressure compensating
device incorporated in the purity meter allows the calibration of the scale
directly in terms of the machine gas purity.

3.18.2 FROM THE BLOWER PRESSURE GUAGE


Generator blower pressure is indicated by a differential pressure gauge
in the hydrogen control cubicle. The blower pressure gauge may be used to
check the purity meter since both gauges operate in the same principle. If
the purity meter is out of service and generator is running at rated speed the
machine gas purity may be obtained as described below. The readings of the
blower pressure gauge and the upper scale of the purity meter are both
proportional to machine gas density. They are therefore proportional to each
other for the same hot gas temperature. The constant may be obtained by

48
direct measurement at a number of typical hot gas temperatures. There after
for a given hot gas temperature either gauge reading may be transferred to
the other gauge reading by multiplying or dividing by the constant.
Density

= Blower pressure constant


(or)

Blower pressure = Density / Constant.


Since a straight-line relationship exists between upper scale (density)
of the purity meter and blower pressure readings, a chart may readily be
prepared. A series of straight line will go through the origin and some other
point for a given hot gas temperature. These curves may be obtained when
the purity meter and the blower pressure instrument both are in operation.

3.18.3 USING PORTABLE INSTRUMENT


Gas purity may be checked with portable instruments. Oxygen and CO 2
content may be determined by means of the standard apparatus.

3.19 NORMAL OPERATING PURITY


During normal operation of the generators with both airside and
hydrogen side seal oil pumps in operation, the hydrogen purity can be
maintained at 95% or greater. If the hydrogen side seal oil is not in service,
hydrogen purity should be maintained at 90% to avoid excessive use of
hydrogen.

3.20 POSSIBLE CAUSES OF LOW PURITY


(1)Incorrect setting of the pressure equalizing valves.
(2)Malfunctioning of the hydrogen side drain regulator.
The pressure equalizing valves 210 & 217 should maintain at a
differential pressure with in plus or minus 50mm water column between
airside and hydrogen side. If one or both of these valves are not operating

49
correctly, air may enter in to the generator through the airside seal oil. Float
valves 231 &232 maintain the oil level in the hydrogen side drain regulator
with in certain limits. If valve 232 does not function properly when the oil
level rises, airside oil is forced into the tank. The level is maintained since
valve 231 is open when the oil level is high and allows the extra oil to be
forced into the loop seal.

3.21 TESTING GENERATOR AND GAS SYSTEM FOR LEAKS


The Generator and gas system should be tested at 1.05 and 3.12
Kg/cm2 with air to check for any leaks. This test should be made with oil
circulating through the seals of hydrogen side seal oil pumps in service. The
allowable leakage is 0.5M 3 per day at 1.05 Kg/cm 2 and 1.06M3 per day at 3.12
Kg/cm2. Dry air should be used for the pressure test.
Leak Detection:
If the leakage rate is not with in the specified limits in systematic
search for leaks should be made either with soap or either liquid solutions or
by means of leak solutions or by means of leak detectors with From 12.
The use of odorants such as either is not permitted. Liquid soap solution
provided a quick and simple method of leak detection and evolution. They
are not suitable for inaccessible parts or for very small leaks. Solutions of
industrial or domestic liquid soap with the addition of glycerin as a thickening
agent are satisfactory.
The location of leak may be determined by injecting From 12gas into
the generator at the rate of approximately 1Kg / 28M 3 of machine volume.
From 12 is inert, nontoxic and readily available. Very small quantities
From 12 at leakage points can be detected with the aid of suitable halide
detectors.

50

3.22 LEAKAGE SOURCES SEARCH PROCEDURE


CORRECTIVE ACTION
(a) GENERATOR FRAME AND LEAD BOX

AND

Check bearing brackets and lead box joints, lead bushings, gas cooler
flexible end, piping connections, and instrument boards. Tighten bolts in
sequence such that loads on gasket or other joints are evenly applied.

(b) VALVES AND PIPE LINES


Check all gas valves and piping associated with the gas supply
including water detectors and the hydrogen and carbon dioxide manifold.

(c) VENT VALVES AND VAPOUR EXTRACTORS


Leakages or losses through vent lines from the generator or vapour
extractors can be checked at the vent outlets on the powerhouse roof. When
checking vents, use an activated charcoal filter in the suction side of the
detector to remove oil vapour. There should be no leakage from the main oil
reservoir and generator vents, but there may be some from the generator
bearing loop seal vent. If leakage is detected at the loop seal vent,
investigate the bearing drains.

(d) BEARING DRAINS


Access to each drain is made through a pipe plug in the drain line or
slightly below floor level. Use an activated charcoal filter and stop the
vapour extractor during the search. Leakage into the bearing cavities is due
to faulty joints between the gland seal and bearing brackets. It may also be
due to faulty oil seal or due to an excess of hydrogen side seal oil pressure
over airside oil pressure. Tighten the gland seal brackets. Check the

51
differential pressure at seals and check the difference between hydrogen
side and airside seal oil pressure.

(e) GAS DRIER


Check all flanges and openings in gas drier tank including the entry
points for heater leads and thermostat. Check also the three way valves
which are a frequent source of leakage.

(f) HYDROGEN GAS CONTROL PANEL


Check all joints instrument canes and purity meter blower for leaks. Do
not use liquid solution on electrical leads.

3.23 CALCULATION OF GAS LEAKAGE


To obtain accurate leakage tests, it is necessary to correct the
observed pressure drop for changes in temperature and atmospheric
pressure.
L = 6552 V / H [(P 1 + B1) / (273 + T1) - ( P2 + B2) / (273 +
T2 ) ]
L = Leakage in m3 per day at standard conditions for the entire
test period.
P1 = System pressure at the beginning of the test.
B1 = Barometric pressure at the beginning of the test.
T1 = System temperature at the beginning of the test.
P2, T2, B2 = Pressure, Temperature and Barometric readings at the
end of the test.
V = Static gas volume of the system in m3.
H = Test period in hours.
(Temperature in degrees centigrade and pressure in
Kg/cm2).

3.24 OPERATION OF THE SIGNAL SYSTEM


3.24.1 HYDROGEN PURITY HIGH OR LOW

52
The low hydrogen purity signal is given by an alarm contact system in
the purity indicating transmitter and indicates that the hydrogen purity in the
generator is lower than 90%. This signal indicates low hydrogen purity, which
may be a result of improper operation of the pressure equalizing valves, or
the hydrogen side drain regulator. The high hydrogen purity signal is given
by an alarm contact in the purity indicating transmitter and indicates that
the purity meter pointer is above 100% mark. If the meter indicates a higher
purity, either the pointer or the meter has struck or the purity meter blower
has stopped.

3.24.2 HYDROGEN PRESSURE HIGH OR LOW


The high hydrogen pressure signal is given by a signal contact on a
pressure switch mounted in the generator panel. It indicates the pressure of
hydrogen in the generator is higher than the operating pressure by 0.2
Kg/cm2. The low hydrogen pressure switch located adjacent to the first. It
indicates that the hydrogen pressure has dropped to 0.15 Kg/cm 2 below the
operating pressure. The alarm may also be given if there is a sudden large
drop in load and the water supply to the coolers is not decreased. The
resultant rapid drop in temperature will cause the hydrogen to contract and
reduce the pressure in the machine. If this low-pressure alarm is sounded,
the gas supply system should be checked.

3.24.3 WATER DETECTORS - HIGH


Two liquid detectors are located at the bottom of the generator and
one at the bottom of the generator lead box. The water detector high signal
indicates that one of these three detectors has become filled with water or
oil. A float-operated switch on the detector gives the signal. The detector at

53
the hydrogen cooler would be the first to be filled if water were leaking from
the coolers. A secondary cause for an alarm would be an overflow of the oil
from the gland seal oil system. At the exciter end of the generator, the water
detector high signal indicates that the detector at the bottom of the main
lead box was full of oil, which had overflowed from the seal. At the water
detector, at the centre of the generator, and alarm would indicate that an
overflow of liquid from either end of the machine had reached that point. The
three detectors may given pressure signal by making contact on a second
alarm separately or may be paralleled to give one alarm. Opening the valve
at the bottom and draining each detector will show whether the liquid is
water, or oil or a mixture.

3.24.4 HYDROGEN TEMPERATURE HIGH


It is given by making of contacts on the hydrogen cold gas thermostats
and by resistance temperature detectors in the generator. These contacts
should be set at a few degrees above the maximum temperature when the
generator carrying full load and the cooling water is at its maximum
expected temperature. This signal may be due to overload, low hydrogen
purity or high water temperature in the coolers.

3.24.5 HYDROGEN SUPPLY PRESSURE - LOW


This signal indicates that the pressure of hydrogen at the header is low.
It is given by making a contact on a pressure switch located on the hydrogen
pressure control manifold. This signal will appear when the pressure
decreases to 5.25 Kg/cm2 gauge.

3.24.6 DEFOAMING TANK LEVEL HIGH

54
This signal indicates that the oil level in one of the defoaming tanks is
too high and is given by signal contact on the float switches located in both
the collector end and the turbine end-defoaming tank. This alarm will sound
when the oil level rises above the overflow connection, a condition which
might be due to an excessive oil flow from the seals, a clogged overflow or
drain line or the improper functioning of the float valve 231 in the hydrogen
side drain regulator. If this alarm is sounded, the oil level in the defoaming
tanks should be checked immediately, since if the level gets too high the oil
will back up through the seals in the generator. Float valve 231 & 232 are
provided with jacks by which they can be opened manually in case of
emergency. The defoaming tanks are provided with drain valves through
which excess oil can be drained. Care should be taken in the operation of
these valve as the defoaming tanks contain hydrogen at the same pressure
as the gas in the generator.

3.25 SEAL OIL PRESSURE LOW


This signal indicates that the seal oil pressure at the seals has dropped
to 0.35 Kg/cm2 above the gas pressure. It is given by making of a contact on
a differential pressure switch located on the seal oil supply unit. If this alarm
appears while the turbine is in service, the turbine oil back up system should
be checked, as it may not be functioning properly. Either the turbine oil back
up pumps are not producing their normal pressure or regulator 264 is not
operating correctly as this regulator should maintain 0.56 Kg/cm 2 differential
pressure. This regulator can be bypassed by opening valve 266, if it is found
that the trouble is in the regulator.
This differential pressure switch also activates the seal oil back up
pump at the same time as the alarm is given. This pump restores the

55
differential pressure of the seal oil to 0.84 Kg/cm 2 above the gas pressure. If
it is found that the cause of the trouble lies in the turbine oil back up pumps
and at least one of these pumps cannot be taken into normal service
immediately, the hydrogen pressure in the generator should be reduced to
0.14 Kg/cm2 or less as the only back up for this seal back up pump are the
motor driven low pressure oil pumps which can deliver only a limited
pressure.

3.26 AIR SIDE SEAL OIL PUMP OFF


The air side seal oil pump-off signal indicates that the power supply
to the motor is cut off. The signal is given by a contact on a differential
pressure switch across the airside seal oil pump on the seal oil supply unit.
This contact closes and the alarm is given when the pressure across the
pump decreases to the 0.35 Kg/cm 2. When this alarm is given, the contactor
of the seal oil pump motor circuit should be inspected.

3.27 SEAL OIL TURBINE BACK UP PRESSURE LOW


This signal indicates that the turbine oil back up pressure has dropped
below the setting of pressure switch (PSA/542/414), which should close at 4.9
Kg/cm2. This signal indicates that high pressure oil is not available from the
pump on the turbine shaft or from a turbine auxiliary oil pump.
The alarm should occur only when a turning gear oil pump is
lubricating the turbine generator unit. If the air side seal oil pump fails and
the air side seal oil back up pump controlled by pressure switch
(dpsa/542/424) starts while alarm is on, the turbine auxiliary oil pump (or the
back up pump on the main oil reservoir) should be started. This will provide
the necessary back up pressure for the airside seal oil back up pump. If the

56
turbine auxiliary oil pump (or back up pump on the oil reservoir) cannot be
started immediately and the turbine back up pressure in the turning gear oil
pump, the hydrogen pressure in the generator should be reduced to 0.14
Kg/cm2 gauge or less.

3.27 HYDROGEN SIDE LEVEL LOW


This signal indicates that the oil level in the hydrogen side seal oil drain
float chamber is too low and is given by making of a contact of a float switch
located in the chamber. This low level may be due to improper functioning of
float valve 231. If this alarm appears, the action of this valve should be
checked immediately since if it struck in the open position, the oil will drain
from this chamber and the seal would be lost, allowing the hydrogen in the
generator to escape into the bearing and seal oil system, there by causing a
dangerous condition. This float valve 231 is provided with jack by which it
can be closed manually in case of emergency.

3.28 HYDROGEN SIDE SEAL OIL PUMP OFF


This signal indicates that the hydrogen side seal oil pump is not
operating. A differential pressure switch connected across the inlet and
outlet of the pump, when the differential pressure drops to 0.35 Kg/cm2
gives the signal. The generator can be operated without this pump, but the
hydrogen consumption of the unit will be increased due to the contaminated
airside seal oil flowing in the hydrogen side of the seal rings.

3.29 AIR SIDE SEAL OIL BACK UP PUMP RUNNING


This signal indicates that the seal oil back up pump is running. This
signal is given either by an interlock switch in the contactor for the motor
drive for this pump, or by a differential pressure switch connected across the

57
inlet and outlet of the pump. The switch closes when the pump starts, the
turbine auxiliary pump (or the seal oil back up pump on the main oil
reservoir) should be started immediately to serve as a source of high
pressure seal oil backup. If high-pressure backup cannot be provided and if
the airside seal oil pump cannot be restored, the hydrogen pressure should
be reduced to 0.14Kg/cm2.

3.30 GLAND SEAL OIL AIR SIDE HIGH OR LOW


This signal indicates that the differential pressure between the airside
and hydrogen side of the seal oil at the generator bearing is beyond the
limits. In case that both the differential pressure switches (DPSA/542/434 and
DPSA/542/444) should alarm, and the valve 242 should be re adjusted. So
that, through the pressure equalizing valves 210, 217, the difference in
pressure between the airside and hydrogen side of the seal oil at the
generator bearings is restored to the normal limits. In case only one of the
two differential pressure switches should alarm, its corresponding pressure
equalizing valve should be checked.

3.31 AIR SIDE (HYDROGEN SIDE) FILTER DIFFERENTIAL


PRESSURE HIGH
The filters on airside and hydrogen side of the seal oil system are
equipped with differential pressure switches, which will alarm and the filters
should become chocked. In case of alarm the filter should be taken out of
service and cleaned.

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