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Diagnostic Techniques for

Condition Monitoring
of Transformers

ARSEPE 2008

Young Zaidey bin Yang Ghazali


Technical Expert
(Transformer Performance & Diagnostic)
Engineering Department
TNB Distribution Division
1

1. INTRODUCTION


Electrical distribution equipment is generally


designed for a certain economic service life.

Equipment life is dependent on operating


environment, maintenance program and the quality
of the original manufacture and installation.

Beyond this service life period they are not expected


to render their services up to expectation with
desired efficiency.

1. INTRODUCTION


Generally due to poor quality of raw material,


workmanship and manufacturing techniques or due
to frequent electrical, mechanical and thermal
stresses during the operation, many equipment fail
much earlier than their expected economic life span.

The concept of simple replacement of failed power


equipments in the system either before or after their
economic service life, is no more valid in the present
scenario of financial constraints.

1. INTRODUCTION


Explore new approaches/techniques of monitoring,


diagnosis, life assessment and condition evaluation,
and possibility of extending the life of existing assets
(i.e. circuit breaker, cables, transformers, etc.)
Minimization of the service life cycle cost is one of
the stated tasks of the electrical power system
engineers. For electrical utilities this implies for
example to fulfill requirements from customers and
authorities on reliability in power supply at a minimal
total cost.
The main goal is therefore to reach a cost effective
solution using available resources which is captured
by the concept of Asset Management.
4

Asset Management Mechanism


Operate
efficiently

Reasonable
returns

High Performance

Low Cost

SAIFI, SAIDI
Power quality
Power availability
Reduced Loss etc.

ASSET
MANAGEMENT

Investment
O&M
Stocking etc.

Balancing cost, risk,


and performance in
the context of asset
full life cycle

T&D ASSET MANAGEMENT

Maintenance Management


With the increasing age of the population of power


system equipment utilities are making efforts to
assess the internal condition of the equipment while
in service before catastrophic failures can take place

Different types of maintenance being done on


equipment are:
 Breakdown maintenance
 Time or Calendar Based maintenance
 Condition based maintenance
 Reliability centered maintenance
8

Maintenance Management


Today the paradigm has changed from traditional


calendar based to condition based maintenance and
efforts are being channeled to explore techniques to
monitor, diagnose and assess condition of power
system equipment

This has led to the development of various on- and


off-line non-intrusive tests in recent years that allow
diagnosing the integrity of power system equipment
to optimize the maintenance effort thereby ensuring
maximum availability and reliability
9

Why Condition Based?





Ageing asset population


Age by itself is not a good predictor of
future performance
Must be able to fully justify decisions in
terms of proven engineering principles
Cannot make sound asset management
decisions unless you understand asset
condition!
10

What is CBM?
Combining all available practical and theoretical
knowledge and experience of assets to:


Define current condition and use this to estimate future


condition and performance
 Provide a sound engineering basis for evaluating risks and
benefits of potential investment strategies


Uses a well developed methodology (with practical


experience of successful application)
Provides a framework for continual improvement
(information and definition of condition)


11

Why condition based?




Ageing asset population

Pressures to maintain/improve performance and to


reduce costs

Age (by itself) is not an acceptable reason to replace


assets

Must demonstrate need and consequences, condition


and future performance

Cannot make good Asset Management decisions


unless you understand asset condition!

12

Condition Based Management









Define asset condition (Health Index)


Link condition to performance & probability of failure
(PoF)
Calibrate Health Index/PoF against historic fault rates
Estimate future condition and performance
Evaluate effect of investment programmes on future
condition and performance
Provides an ENGINEERING basis to evaluate risk and
determine investment requirements

13

Defining condition and future performance




Need understanding of:


Degradation and failure processes
Condition assessment techniques
Practical knowledge of assets,
Operating context

Everything is related back to physical condition and


degradation processes - maximising the value of
available experience of the assets

14

A health index is:







A consistent and logical means of combining


relatively complex information
A way to rank assets (on basis of proximity to
EOL or probability of failure)
Relatively simplistic
It is NOT a substitute for engineering expertise
and judgement it is an additional aid to
engineers

15

Health Index Mechanism


A Health Index is a means to define proximity to EOL
by combining varied and relatively complex condition
information as a single number
 Define significant condition criteria
 Code information numerically,
 Apply weightings
 Develop a simple algorithm to generate a HI for
each asset
 Rank and apply calibration
16

Health Index - Ranking


Condition

Remnant Life (years)

Probability of
failure

Bad

At EOL (<5 years)

High

Poor

5 - 10

Medium

Fair

10 - 20

Good

>20

10

Low
Very Low

17

Serious deterioration significant


increase in P(f)

Significant deterioration small


increase in P(f)

Measurable deterioration but no


significant increase in P(f)

Probability of failure (Pf)


0

10

Health Index

18

Information to derive a condition based


Health Index



Actual condition information


Risk factors with direct condition implications failure rates, specific or generic problems,
design issues etc

Other non condition based risk factors can be


mapped on later to evaluate overall risk
(Criticality, load, obsolescence etc)
19

Condition based health index









Means of determining probability of failure


It does not consider consequences of failure
Ultimately require combination of both to
evaluate overall risk
CBHI is the 1st step (phase 1)
Phase 2 use of results in a risk model

20

Phase 1 - Condition and Probability of


Failure (for each asset group)
Review
Condition
Assessment
Techniques

Define
EOL
Issues

Define
Assets

Formulation
and Population
of HI

HI to
Probability
of Failure

Documentation
Conclusions
Report

Data and
Information
Analysis

Change of
HI (PF) with
time

CONSEQUENCES
Phase 2

21

10

Diagnostic Techniques for


Condition Monitoring
of Transformers

ARSEPE 2008

Young Zaidey bin Yang Ghazali


Technical Expert
(Transformer Performance & Diagnostic)
Engineering Department
TNB Distribution Division
1

Transformer Design
& Construction

Transformer Design & Construction


Types of Transformers
 Core Type
 Shell Type

Oil-Immersed Type,
Dry Type

Transformer Design & Construction


Core Type Transformers

Transformer Design & Construction


Shell Type Transformers

Transformer Design & Construction


Typical Winding Connections
 Delta Star
 Star - Delta
 Star Star
 Delta Delta

Transformer Design & Construction


Other Winding Connections
 Zig Zag Connections
 Tertiary Windings
 Double Secondary
 Scott (T-T) Connections
 Autotransformers

Earthing Transformers

DESIGN CONCEPT
The transformer has been designed,
manufactured and tested according to
IEC 60076 part 1 to 5. Power Transformer
It consist of : core, winding, insulation, core
and winding assembly, tank.

CORE



Grain Oriented Electrical Steel


Type M5 (0.3mm), M4 (0.27mm) and ZDKH
(0.23mm)

WINDING


Are designed to meet three fundamental requirement :


1. Electrical
2. Mechanical
3. Thermal

10

WINDING
Round, Oval or rectangular in shape
and are wound concentrically.
LV winding is wound with foil
conductor (Distribution)
HV winding is wound with rectangular
strip conductor.
HV winding is wound on LV winding.

11

INSULATION


The interlayer insulation are of high quality epoxy


coated kraft paper (DDP)
Corrugated pressboards are placed within the
coil for cooling within the coil.
Thickness of layer insulation
in accordance with voltage
and number of layers.

12

CORE & WINDING ASSEMBLY




Arrangement of windings with respect to the core :


CORE - LV WINDING - HV WINDING

For tapping lead connection normally use stranded copper or


round conductor.

Bushing Lead :1. HV - stranded copper


2. LV - copper bar or flexible copper base on LV rated
current.

13

TANK



It is hermetically sealed type and full fill with insulation liquid.


Oil expansion or contraction due to the change in the
transformer load is accommodated by the corrugated finwall
of the transformer tank.
Corrugated fins are use to
provide sufficient cooling
surface to dissipate the heat
generated by the windings.

14

TERMINATION



Both HV & LV is open bushing termination.


Cable Box

15

MANUFACTURING PROCESS
FLOW CHART
1. Rectangular copper

Paper Covering

Core Cutting

Fabrication

2. Foil Sheet

Low Voltage
Winding

Core Winding
Assembly

High Voltage
Winding

Core
Building

Drying
Process

Tanking
Process

Vacuum & Oil


Filling

Despatch

Finishing

Testing

16

Transformer Design & Construction


Phasor Relationships
 Transformer winding connections
produced a Phase Shift between primary
& secondary
 Angle of phase shift depend upon the
winding connection method adopted for
primary and secondary

17

Transformer Design & Construction


Phasor Relationships
Eg.
 Phase Shift of secondary
windings is +30 wrt primary
designated with Dyn11
 Significant of Phase Shift
Paralleling of Transformer &
interconnection of system

18

Transformer Design & Construction


Tapping & Tap Changers

19

Transformer Design & Construction


Tapping & Tap Changers Functions







To compensate for changes in the applied


voltage on bulk supply
To compensate for regulation within the
transformer & maintain the output voltage
constant
To assist in the control of system VArs flows
To allow for compensation for factors not
accurately known at the time of planning
To allow for future changes in system conditions

20

10

Transformer Design & Construction


Type of Tap Changers
 On-Load Tap Changer (OLTC)
 Off Circuit Tap Changer (OCTC)
Tap Changer Mounting
 Internal (In-tank)
 External (Side mounted)
21

Transformer Design & Construction


OLTC Technology
 Oil Type OLTC
 Vacuum Type OLTC (Vacutap)

22

11

Transformer Design & Construction


OLTC Main Components






Tap Selector
Diverter Switch
Selector Switch
Change-over selector
Transition Impedance

23

Transformer Design & Construction


Motor Drive Mechanism to operate OLTC








Step-by-step control
Tap Position Indicator
Limiting Devices
Parallel Control Devices
Emergency Tripping Device
Overcurrent Blocking Device
Restarting Device

24

12

Transformer Ancillary Equipment


Pressure Relief Device

25

Transformer Ancillary Equipment


Gas & Oil Actuated Relays (Buchholz)

26

13

Transformer Ancillary Equipment


Temperature Indicators
 Winding HV & LV
 Top Oil

Fans Control

27

Transformer Ancillary Equipment


Oil Level Indicators

28

14

Transformer Ancillary Equipment


Other Ancillary Equipment
 Conservator Tank
 Cooling System/Radiators
 Bushings
 Cable Box
 Oil Valves
 Thermometer Pockets

29

15

Diagnostic Techniques for


Condition Monitoring
of Transformers

ARSEPE 2008

Young Zaidey bin Yang Ghazali


Technical Expert
(Transformer Performance & Diagnostic)
Engineering Department
TNB Distribution Division
1

Transformer Insulating Oil


& Paper Diagnostics

Oil & Paper Tests in Main Tank & OLTC


1. Oil Quality Test


Physical Properties
 Visual Appearance
 Colour
 Flash Point
 Viscosity
 Density
 Pour Point
 IFT
 Particle Count
3

Oil & Paper Tests in Main Tank & OLTC


1. Oil Quality Test


Chemical Properties
 Moisture Content
 Acidity
 Corrosive Sulphur
 Oxidation Stability
 Sludge Sediment

Oil & Paper Tests in Main Tank & OLTC


1. Oil Quality Test


Electrical Properties
 Breakdown Voltage
 Dissipation Power Factor

2. DGA

Insulation Condition Assessment


Life Span of Power Transformers Depends on Integrity of Insulation

Most Commonly Used Insulations for Power Transformers

OIL
Provides overall insulation to the transformers
Acts as coolant in extinguishing arcs
Provides the means to monitor insulation condition and operation of
transformers

PAPER
Provides insulation to the conductor in the transformer windings

Insulation Condition Assessment


PRIMARY STRESSES
1. Stresses applied on the transformer due to normal
operation:
Thermal
Electrical
Mechanical
2. Application of these stresses can be:
Continuous
Cyclic
Intermittent

Insulation Condition Assessment


SECONDARY STRESSES
1. Factors that can influence the ageing rate when primary
stresses are applied
2. Simply known as Ageing Factors
Examples of these Ageing Factors can be:
3. Operational factors of the transformers
Environmental factors i.e. radiation, moisture or
water, oxidative agents and corrosive materials
Technological factors i.e. type of oil and paper used
Tests done on the transformers that can influence
the performance of the insulation system

Insulation Condition Assessment


Oil Insulation Deterioration Reversible
1. Oil insulation condition can be reversed through on-line filtration
2. Can reduce the effect of the Ageing Factors
3. Can prolong serviceability of the oil insulation

Insulation Condition Assessment


Paper Insulation Degradation Irreversible
Paper insulation degradation is irreversible
Oil filtration has negligible effect on reversibility of paper
degradation
Ageing of paper directly linked to its mechanical
strength
Loss of mechanical strength eventually leads to loss of
dielectric strength
Once paper loses its dielectric strength, the transformer
is deemed to have reached the end of its service life
Thus, the life of a transformer can be effectively
determined by the life of its paper insulation
10

Insulation Condition Assessment


Three most common degradation factors of cellulose:
Thermal
1. When exposed to heat up to 220C, the glycosidic bond tend to
break and open the glucose molecule rings
2. By-products:
Free glucose
H 20
CO
CO2
Organic acids

Heat

H
O

OH

H20

CO

Glycosidic
bonds broken
and glucose
rings opened
Generates the
following:
CO2

11

Insulation Condition Assessment


Three most common degradation factors of cellulose:
Oxidative
1.
2.
3.
4.

Presence of oxygen promotes oxidation


Glycosidic bond weakens
Causes scission to the cellulose chain
By-products include H20

CH2OH

O2

COOH

COOH

Glycosidic
bonds
weakened
and
moisture
produced

CHO

Hydrolytic
H20 or acids

1.
2.
3.
4.

Presence of water and acids


Glycosidic bond exposed to slicing
Causes scission to the cellulose chain
By-products include free glucose

CH2OH
HO

OH

Free glucose
produced

12

Insulation Condition Assessment


Degradation By-Products
1. It can be observed that by-products related to paper degradation
can include the followings:

CO
CO2
H 2O
Organic acids
Free glucose molecules

2. With H2O and organic acids present in the oil, the free glucose
molecules can degrade to 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuryl or 5H2F

13

Insulation Condition Assessment


Degradation By-Products
3. 5H2F is an unstable free glucose molecule and can decompose
further to other furaldehyde as follows:

2-furfuryl alcohol (2FOL)


2-furaldehyde (2FAL)
2-acetyl furan (2ACF)
5-methyl-2-furfuryl (5M2F)

4. All these 5 compounds of glucose or degradation of glucose are


known as Furans.
5. 2FAL is the most stable in the group
6. Furan generation is exclusively due to paper degradation unlike
CO, CO2, H2O or acids which can also be produced through oil
oxidation or breakdown.
14

Insulation Condition Assessment




When taking an oil sample from a sealed tank


transformer, ensure that the transformer is not under
vacuum by checking the vacuum/pressure gauge

Use a clean glass syringe/beaker (provided by the


laboratory) and follow the proper sampling procedure
ASTM D923 & D3613 (IEC 60475 & IEC 60567)

Interpret the quantified results to help determine the


relative health of the transformer, offer clues to the origin
of potential problems and develop a strategy to avoid
catastrophic failure IEEE C57.106
15

Insulation Condition Assessment


Important factors to be considered prior to taking a
sample:
1. Sample Containers
2. Sampling Technique
3. Weather condition
4. Sample storage and transport

16

Insulation Condition Assessment











Characteristic of Sample Containers:


 500 ml or 1 liter (Duplicate)
 Syringe DGA
Seal the sample from external contamination
Store samples in the dark to prevent from photodegradation
Cleaning and preparation of valves
Avoid liquid spillage, some oil may still contains PCBs
Identification of the sample and apparatus information
Sampling outdoors in rain, strong wind and night time
should be avoided
Should not be stored longer than a few days before
sending to the laboratory for analysis
17

Insulation Condition Assessment


Adaptor
Valve
Transformer

Use correct vessel (good cap and seal)


Plastic
tube

Cap
Seal

Filled
Sample
bottle

Dark Brown
Bottle
500 mL

Waste
Vessel

Sufficient sample

18

Insulation Condition Assessment

Adaptor
Valve

Plastic
tube

Transformer

Syringe

Sufficient sample
Waste
Vessel

19

Insulation Condition Assessment




To effectively interpret DGA results requires insights in


the characteristics of dissolved gas in oil evolution, an
understanding of transformer design, and knowledge of
materials used by transformer manufacturer and
operating conditions ASTM D3612

ASTM D3612 Test methods for analysis of dissolved


gases by gas chromatography

IEEE C57.104 Guide for interpretation of gases

20

10

Insulation Condition Assessment


On-Line Assessment of Insulation Condition
1. Oil Quality Tests to assess the physical, electrical and
chemical properties of the oil
2. Dissolved Gas-in-oil Analysis to detect and identify
incipient faults
3. Furan Compound Analysis to detect and identify
degradation of paper insulation (on-line test)
4. Degree of Polymerization Test to measure
degradation of paper insulation (intrusive mechanism)
21

Insulation Condition Assessment


Oil Screening Tests
1. Colour serious contamination
2. IFT moisture in oil (> 15 mN/ m)
3. Neutralization Number level of acidity (< 0.2 mg KOH / gm)
4. Dielectric Strength contaminants (water & conducting
particles) ( > 30 kV)
5. 5. Water Content amount of dissolved water in ppm
(< 30 ppm)

22

11

Insulation Condition Assessment


IEEE C57.106 Limits Oil Quality Tests


Colour 0.5

IFT > 25 mN/ m for 69 kV

Neutralization Number < 0.2 mg KOH / gm

Dielectric Strength > 20 kV for 69 kV for 1 mm gap

Water Content < 27 ppm for 69 kV at 50 0C


23

Insulation Condition Assessment


Other Oil Quality Tests

Specific Gravity
Viscosity
Power Factor
Resistivity
Flash Point
Visual
PCB Content
Inhibitor Content

24

12

Oil Quality Screening Tests




Water Content (D 1533 / IEC 733) A low water content


is necessary to obtain and maintain acceptable electrical
strength and low dielectric losses in insulation systems.

Color (D 1500) The color of a new oil is generally


accepted as an index of the degree of refinement. For
oils in service, an increasing or high color number is an
indication of contamination, deterioration, or both.

Dielectric Breakdown (D 877 / D 1816 / IEC 156) It is a


measure of the ability of an oil to withstand electrical
stress at power frequencies without failure. A low value
for the dielectric-breakdown voltage generally serves to
indicate the presence of contaminants such as water,
dirt, or other conducting particles in the oil.
25

Oil Quality Screening Tests




Neutralization Number, NN (D 664) A used oil having a high


neutralization number indicates that the oil is either oxidized
or contaminated with materials such as varnish, paint, or other
foreign matter.

Interfacial Tension, IFT (D 971) The interfacial tension of an


oil is the force in dynes per centimeter or millinewton per
meter required to rupture the oil film existing at an oil-water
interface. When certain contaminants such as soaps, paints,
varnishes, and oxidation products are present in the oil, the
film strength of the oil is weakened, thus requiring less force
to rupture. For oils in service, a decreasing value indicates the
accumulation of contaminants, oxidation products, or both.

26

13

Oil Quality Screening Tests




Index = IFT/NN. This index provides a more sensitive and


reliable guide in determining the remaining useful life of a
transformer oil. A Index below 100 indicates that the oil is
significantly oxidized and that the oil needs to be replaced in
the near future.

27

Insulation Condition Assessment




Non-fault gases - Oxygen (O2) & Nitrogen (N2)


Note: If the ratio O2/N2 is less than 0.3 then it indicates overheating
of oil. This is not a standard, use with caution.

Fault gases - Hydrogen (H2), Acetylene (C2H2)


Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide
(CO2) Ethylene (C2H4), Ethane (C2H6)
Methane (CH4)

28

14

Insulation Condition Assessment

29

Insulation Condition Assessment

30

15

Insulation Condition Assessment


Dissolved Gas-in-oil Analysis
Fault Condition

Key Gases

Overheated Oil

Methane, Ethane & Ethylene

Partial Discharge

Hydrogen & Acetylene

Overheated Cellulose

Carbon Monoxide & Carbon


Dioxide

Non-Fault Gases are Oxygen & Nitrogen

31

Insulation Condition Assessment


Dissolved Gas-in-oil Analysis

Fault Condition

Key Gases

Thermal Oil

Major Ethylene & Methane


Minor Ethane & Hydrogen

Electrical low energy Major Hydrogen & Methane


Minor Ethane & Ethylene

Electrical high energy Major Acetylene & Hydrogen


Minor Ethylene & Methane

Thermal Cellulose

Major Carbon monoxide & Carbon dioxide


Minor Methane & Ethylene

32

16

Insulation Condition Assessment

IEEE Limit










Hydrogen (H2)
Oxygen (O2)
Nitrogen (N2)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Methane (CH4)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Ethylene (C2H4)
Ethane (C2H6)
Acetylene (C2H2)

100 ppm
N/A
N/A
350
120
2500
50
65
35
33

Insulation Condition Assessment


Dissolved Gas-in-oil Analysis
Ratio Method is used for fault analyzing, not for fault detection.
Ratio Method

Ratios

Rogers

C2H2/C2H4 , CH4/H2 & C2H4/ C2H6

IEEE

CH4/H2, C2H2/C2H4, C2H2/ CH4, C2H6/ C2H2,


C2H4/ C2H6

Never make a decision based on only ratio. Take into consideration


the gas generation rates and amount of total combustible gases.

34

17

Insulation Condition Assessment




Rogers Ratio comparison methods look at pairs of gases, and


develop a coding system to help define potential fault conditions

Rogers Ratio Code


C2H2 / C2H4
< 0.1
0
0.1 -<1.0
1
1.0 - <=3.0
1
> 3.0
2

CH4 / H2
1
0
2
2

C2 H4 / C2H6
0
0
1
2

35

Insulation Condition Assessment


IEC DGA Ratios
C2H2 CH4 C2H4
Case C2H4

H2 C2H6

No Fault, Normal

Partial discharges of low energy

Partial discharges of high energy density

Discharges of low energy, Arcing

Discharges of low energy, Arcing

Discharges of low energy, Arcing

Discharges of high energy, Arcing

Thermal Fault, 150 C, Conductor Overheating

Thermal Fault, 150 - 300 C, Oil Overheating, Mild

Thermal Fault, 300 - 700 C, Oil Overheating, Moderate

Thermal Fault, 700 C, Oil Overheating, Severe

36

18

Insulation Condition Assessment


TDCG (ppm)

Status

Remark

720

Condition 1

Transformer working satisfactorily. Look


for individual gas exceeding respective limit.

721-1920

Condition 2

Faults may be present. Additional


investigation required based on individual
gas exceeding respective limit.

1921-4630

Condition 3

Faults probably present. Additional


investigation required based on individual
gas exceeding respective limit.

> 4630

Condition 4

Continued operation could result in failure of


the transformer
As per IEEE C57.104
37

Insulation Condition Assessment




CO2/ CO ratio indicates cellulose degradation


CO2 / CO ratio
<3
3 -<5
5 - <=11
> 11

Condition of Cellulose
Severe Arcing & Short circuit damage
Indicates concern
Normal
Indicates damage due to general
overheating

According to IEEE C57.104 the normal value is 7


38

19

Exercise (Oil Condition)


Transformer Gas Analysis
Component
HYDROGEN (H2)
OXYGEN (O2)
NITROGEN (N2)
CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)
METHANE (CH4)
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
ETHYLENE (C2H4)
ETHANE (C2H6)
ACETYLENE (C2H2)

ppm in oil
10
26200
48500
41
5
570
2
2
1
39

Exercise (Oil Condition)


Transformer Gas Analysis
Component

ppm in oil

HYDROGEN (H2)
OXYGEN & ARGON (O2 + A)
NITROGEN (N2)
CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)
METHANE (CH4)
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
ETHYLENE (C2H4)
ETHANE (C2H6)
ACETYLENE (C2H2)

720
17000
45400
405
1310
6050
5200
1810
256
40

20

Exercise (Paper Condition)


Transformer Gas Analysis
Component
HYDROGEN (H2)
OXYGEN & ARGON (O2)
NITROGEN (N2)
CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)
METHANE (CH4)
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
ETHYLENE (C2H4)
ETHANE (C2H6)
ACETYLENE (C2H2)
2FAL

ppm in oil
105
18000
33400
870
400
12,100
260
28
52
ppb in oil
195
41

Exercise (Oil + Paper Condition)


Transformer Gas Analysis
Component
HYDROGEN (H2)
OXYGEN & ARGON (O2 + A)
NITROGEN (N2)
CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)
METHANE (CH4)
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
ETHYLENE (C2H4)
ETHANE (C2H6)
ACETYLENE (C2H2)
2FAL

ppm in oil
103
16762
20458
0
814
1816
109
75
118
ppb in oil
225
42

21

Insulation Condition Assessment


Furanic Compound Analysis
Fault Condition

Furan Compound

Overheating or Short circuit

2FAL

Excessive Moisture

2FOL

Lightning Strikes

2ACF

Intense Overheating

5M2F

Oxidation

5H2F

Concentration limits of furan compounds must be supported by


CO2/CO Ratio to assess paper degradation
43

Insulation Condition Assessment

2FAL limits (ppb in oil):


58 292
Normal Aging
654 2021 Accelerated Aging
2374 3277 Excessive Aging
3851 4524 High Risk of Failure

44

22

Insulation Condition Assessment


Criteria to select transformers for further investigation

Transformer Age

Operational Criterion number of faults, switching, lightning, etc.

DGA Criterion (oil) Individual concentrations of CH4, C2H2,


C2H4, C2H6 & H2 in ppm & Rogers/IEEE Ratio

DGA Criterion (paper) Individual concentrations of CO2 & CO in


ppm & CO2/CO Ratio

Furan Criterion 2FAL concentration in ppb & others if detected


45

Insulation Condition Assessment


Correlation between TS, DP and Furan
Ageing of paper insulation is related to the decrease in
TS.
TS is directly related to DP ASTM D 4243.
Decrease in DP is directly related to the increase in
Furan.
Thus, as paper aged, it loses its TS. Loss of TS
indicates decrease of DP. Decrease of DP causes
increase in Furan in the insulating oil. It can be deduced
that as paper aged towards its end of service life, the
level of Furan content increases.
46

23

Insulation Condition Assessment


Degree of Polymerization
One of the most dependable means of determining
paper deterioration and remaining life of the cellulose.
The cellulose molecules is made up of a long chain of
glucose rings which form the mechanical strength of the
molecule and the paper.
DP is the average number of these rings in the
molecule.
As paper ages or deteriorates from heat, acids, oxygen
and water the number of these rings decrease.
47

Insulation Condition Assessment


Degree of Polymerization
Following Table has been developed by EPRI to estimate
remaining paper life
1. New insulation

1000 DP to 1400 DP

2. 60% to 66% life remaining

500 DP

3. 30% life remaining

300 DP

4. 0 life remaining

200 DP
48

24

Insulation Condition Assessment

The life of a transformer can be effectively determined by the life of its


paper insulation.

DP is considered direct approach to determine the paper insulation


condition but it is intrusive. Some are skeptical since integrity of paper
insulation may be disturbed and may further damage the paper insulation.

Alternatively, it can be achieved through the use of paper degradation byproducts e.g. CO, CO2, CO2/CO, 2 FAL, H2 as indicators. It is non-intrusive
and requires only samples of the transformer oil which can be obtained
without any shutdown.

The challenge is to develop a Mathematical Model to Estimate DP Value of


Paper Insulation based on the Paper Degradation By-Products i.e.
DP = f (CO, CO2, CO2/CO, 2 FAL, H2)
49

LTC OIL ANALYSIS




By plotting the relative percentages of methane, ethylene


and acetylene onto a special triangular coordinate
system, a graphical output of the likely cause of gassing
is generated.

The causes are categorized as follows.


D1 Discharges of low energy
D2 Discharges of high energy
T1 Thermal faults < 300C
T2 Thermal faults 300C to 700C
T3 - Thermal faults > 700C
DT Mixture of thermal and electrical faults
PD Partial discharge (No samples indicated this type
of fault)
50

25

Case Study


The following gas levels were detected via DGA on the


oil from the load tap changer:
42 ppm of methane
17 ppm of Ethylene
0 ppm of acetylene

Calculate percentages of each gas and use Duvals


triangle approach to find the cause

51

LTC OIL ANALYSIS

52

26

LTC OIL ANALYSIS


Guideline set by an US Utility


When the acetylene or hydrogen reaches a threshold level of


500ppm the unit is put to monthly DGA testing schedule

DGA monthly testing schedule

Hydrogen > 1500 ppm


Acetylene > 1000 ppm
Ethylene > 1000 ppm


When Ethylene level exceeds the maximum value the unit is


removed from service

53

Exercise


The following gas levels were detected via DGA on the


oil from the load tap changer:
319 ppm of methane
181 ppm of Ethylene
1351 ppm of acetylene

Calculate percentages of each gas and use Duvals


triangle approach to find the cause

54

27

Diagnostic Techniques for


Condition Monitoring
of Transformers

ARSEPE 2008

Young Zaidey bin Yang Ghazali


Technical Expert
(Transformer Performance & Diagnostic)
Engineering Department
TNB Distribution Division
1

Transformer Basic On-Site &


Off Line Diagnostic Testing

Electrical Tests
1.

Basic Electrical Tests


Insulation Resistance

Traditional Polarization Index (PI) test


to detect moisture content

Tan Delta

Insulation Condition
Assessment

To detect water in cellulose


and chemical contamination

Winding Resistance

To detect open or short circuits or poor electrical connection in


the windings

Turns Ratio

To detect Shorted Turns


3

Electrical Tests
2.

Advanced DiagnosticTests

Frequency Response Analysis (FRA)


Recovery Voltage Measurement (RVM)
Polarization Depolarization (PDC)
Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy (FDS)
Partial Discharge (PD)
OLTC Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA)
OLTC Vibration Signature Analysis (VSA)








On-site Testing
Categorization of On-site Tests



Destructive off-line tests are go/no go tests


Non destructive off-line tests are diagnostic
tests
Non destructive on-line tests are condition
monitoring tests

On-site Testing


These on-site tests are performed individually or in


combination :





Before energizing a new equipment as a


commissioning test
After maintenance
After network alteration

Damaging Factors of Insulation

Fig 4-4

Thermal Withstandibility of Insulation Medium


According to Classes
Insulation Classes by Degrees Centigrade
250

240

240+

Class S

Class C

220

225
200
200
180

Degrees Centigrade

175
155
150
130
125
105
100
Class A

Class B

Class F

Class H

Class N

Class R

Insulation Condition Assessment








Insulation resistance test (a)


Insulation current test (b)
Power factor (c)
DC voltage withstand (d)
AC voltage with-stand (e)

10

Insulation Condition Assessment






Method (e) is primarily used in factory tests


Method (d) is primarily used as commissioning test
Practically all routine field tests are made using
nondestructive methods (a), (b) and (c)
Methods (a) and (c) must also be used as
commissioning test
No single test method can be relied upon for
indicating all conditions of weakened insulation

11

Basic Electrical Tests


Insulation Resistance
Reading corrected to 20oC





Insulation resistance varies inversely with temperature for


most insulting materials
To properly compare periodic measurements of insulation
resistance, it is necessary either to take each measurement
at the same temperature, or to convert each measurement to
the same base temperature i.e. 200C
Polarisation Index is the ratio of the IR reading after 10
minutes to the IR reading after 1minute
PI is used as an index of dryness
Discharge the winding after a Polarisation Index Test for
sufficient time before handling or performing other tests
12

Basic Electrical Tests


Polarization Index
Interpretation of Polarization Index (PI) Measurements

PI Value
> 4.0
4.0 2.0
2.0 1.5
1.5 1.0
< 1.0

Interpretation
Healthy
OK
Marginal Pass
Deteriorated condition
Failure

13

Basic Electrical Tests

14

Insulation Resistance Test

15

Insulation Resistance Test


Volume Current

Insulation Resistance
Tester

Surface leakage
current

16

Insulation Resistance Test


Dielectric
Absorption
Current

Capacitive
Current
Conduction
Current

Total
current

Time

17

Insulation Resistance Test

18

Guard Connections

19

3 Terminal Insulation Resistance Tester

20

10

Spot Any Difference? Why?

21

Inaccuracies can occur during IR measurement


due to the following





Effect of Previous Charge


Effect of Temperature
Effect of Moisture
Effect of Age and Curing

22

11

Test procedures


Hot resistance test - at least 4 hours after shutdown from full-load


operation, or until temperature is stabilized:








Disconnect the equipment to be tested from other equipment


Ground the winding to be tested for at least 10 minutes
Remove the ground connection and connect the insulation
resistance tester
Take readings at 1 -minute and at 10 minutes
Record the temperature of equipment being tested
Ground the winding again for at least 10 minutes

Cold resistance test - Four to eight hours after the hot resistance test or
when equipment has cooled to approximately ambient temperature


Use same procedure as outlined for the hot resistance test

23

Spot Reading

24

12

Temperature Correction




Dry type insulation 40C ambient


Liquid type insulation 20C ambient
Insulating materials have negative resistance
characteristics
Spot test reading must be corrected to a base
temperature

25

Conversion Factors For Converting


Insulation Resistance Test Temperature to 20 C
Temperature

Multiplier
Apparatus
Containing Solid
Insulations

Apparatus
Containing Immersed
Oil Insulations

32

0.25

0.40

41

0.36

0.45

10

50

0.50

0.50

15

59

0.75

0.75

20

68

1.00

1.00

25

77

1.40

1.30

30

86

1.98

1.60

35

95

2.80

2.05

40

104

3.95

2.50

45

113

5.60

3.25

50

122

7.85

4.00

55

131

11.20

5.20

60

140

15.85

6.40

65

149

22.40

8.70

70

158

31.75

10.00

75

167

44.70

13.00

80

176

63.50

16.00
26

13

27

Polarization Index


Polarization index = R10/R1 = I1/I10


(keeping voltage constant)
where:
R10 = megohms insulation resistance at 10 minutes
R1 = megohms insulation resistanceI at 1 minute
I1 = insulation current at 1 minute
I10 = insulation current at 10 minutes

28

14

Polarization Index

29

Interpretation
INSULATION
CONDITION

60/30 SECOND RATIO


Dielectric Absorption Ratio

10/1 MINUTE RATIO


Polarization Index

Dangerous

Less than 1

Less than 1

Poor

Less than 1.1

Less than 1.5

Questionable

1.1 to 1.25

1.5 to 2

Fair

1.25 to 1.4

2 to 3

Good

1.4 to 1.6

3 to 4

Excellent

Above 1.6

Above 4
30

15

Step Voltage Test

31

Step Voltage Test

32

16

Basic Electrical Tests


PI & DLF
PI
If a PI falls by 30% or more from the previous value then remedial
action such as cleaning, oil-filtering or further investigation should
be considered.
Tan Delta
If the IFT and oil moisture content exceed their respective limits
then Tan Delta test is recommended. This is a good complement to
PI test and as remedial action drying is usually performed.
Field test results must be corrected to 20o C before comparison.

33

Basic Electrical Tests

Tan Delta (DLF) test

In on site tan delta measurement there are two modes namely Grounded
Specimen Test (GST) and Ungrounded Specimen Test (UST). During GST
mode, the dielectric loss of insulation between one of the windings to
ground will be measured depending on the winding that is being excited.
Under UST mode, dielectric loss of insulation between the two windings
will be measured irrespective of the winding being excited.

The ratio obtained from the field test should agree with nameplate
value within 0.2% for the insulation system between the high
voltage and low voltage winding at all taps. Otherwise, winding
repair is recommended.

The ratio obtained from the field test should be within the limit of
0.5% for the insulation system between the high voltage winding
and ground. Otherwise, winding repair is recommended.
34

17

Power Factor Test

Power Factor = cos = ir / it


900 =
Dissipation Factor = tan = ir / ic

35

Power Factor Test




For small , Cos (90 ) = tan

tan = ir / ic

ic = CV

ir = CV tan

Power loss (dielectric loss) = V ir = CV2 tan watt

Dielectric loss is dependent on voltage and frequency

Variation of tan with voltage is an important diagnostic method


and will be part of this course

36

18

Power Factor Test









Power factor or dissipation factor is a measure of insulation


dielectric power loss
Not a direct measure of dielectric strength
Power-factor values are independent of insulation area or
thickness
Increase in dielectric loss may accelerate insulation
deterioration because of the increased heating
Insulation power factor increases directly with temperature
Temperature corrections to a base temperature must be
made, usually to 20 degree C

37

Power Factor Test






Windings not at test potential should be grounded


Refer to IEEE Standard No. 262, 1973
Test sets consist of a completely shielded, high-voltage,
50-Hz power supply which applies up to 10 kV to the
equipment being tested
Much simpler and less expensive tester is also available
which applies about 80 volts to the equipment being
tested but not sufficiently shielded against induced
voltages

38

19

39

Power Factor Test Set up

40

20

Temperature

correction factors for the power factor


of power transformer windings

From IEEE Standard No. 262, 1973

where:
FP20 = power factor corrected to 20 degree C
FPT = power factor measured at T degree C
T = test temperature
K = correction factor from table

41

Temperature correction factors for the power factor


of power transformer windings

42

21

Power Factor of Some Common Materials


Material

Power Factor approx.)

Bakelite

2 - 10%

Vulcanized Fibre

5%

Varnished Cambric

6 - 8%

Mica

2%

Polyethylene

0.03%

New Insulating Oil

0.01-0.2%

43

Insulation Current Test


High Voltage DC/AC Test






The voltage is slowly raised in discrete steps, allowing


the leakage current to stabilize for a predetermined time
A plot of the leakage current as a function of test voltage
yields information on the condition of the insulation
If the curve is a straight line, it indicates good condition
of the cable
If the current begins to increase at a rapid rate, indicates
degradation / defects in the cable insulation
After the completion of the test, the cable under test is
grounded for sufficient time to discharge the voltage
build up due to effects of absorption currents
44

22

45

Insulation Current Test


HVDC
120
100
Indicates
Concern

80

Healthy

A
60
40
20

20

40

60

80

100

Applied Voltage (% of Maximum Voltage)

46

23

47

HIGH-VOLTAGE, DC/AC TESTS







Very little supply power is required to operate the DC


test set
The DC test set is portable and smaller than an ac, highvoltage tester
Disconnect the buswork from the unit
The dc breakdown voltage may range from 1.41 times
the rms ac breakdown voltage to 2.5 times the rms ac
puncture voltage
Cases have indicated that on winding insulation with
some deterioration, the application of overpotential tests
may cause further deterioration, even though the
insulation may not puncture
48

24

Test Procedure






The machine winding should be grounded for at least 1


hour before conducting the test
The phases should be separated and tested individually
Lightning arresters and capacitors must be disconnected
Cables and/or buswork should be disconnected if it is
convenient to do so
If the separation of phases is difficult then separation is
needed once for the benchmark tests, and thereafter the
phases may be tested together until deviation from normal
is detected

49

Test procedure






The voltage should be raised abruptly to the first voltage


level with the start of timing for the test.
The ratio of the 1-minute to the l0-minute reading of
insulation current will afford useful indication of
polarization index
This gives the test engineer an idea of insulation dryness
early in the test
The test schedules are arranged to include a minimum of
three points up to and including the maximum voltage

50

25

Test procedure





If the insulation microampere versus voltage plots are


straight lines, the test may be continued to the maximum
test voltages
The quality of the insulation may be judged by the
position of any curvature or knee in the plot of insulation
current versus test voltage
If curvature or knee appears, the test should be stopped
Upon completion of the dc, high- voltage test, the
winding should be discharged through the special
discharge resistor usually provided with the test set
The winding may be solidly grounded when the voltage
has dropped to zero or after a few minutes of discharge
have occurred
A winding should remain solidly grounded long enough
before restoring the machine to service
51

HIGH-VOLTAGE, DC TESTS - RAMPED VOLTAGE METHOD




The ramped technique of insulation testing uses a


programmable dc, high-voltage test set and
automatically ramps the high voltage at a preselected
rate (usually 1 kV/min)

Insulation current versus applied voltage is plotted on an


x-y recorder providing continuous observation and
analysis of insulation current response as the test
progresses

The principal advantages of the ramp test over the


conventional step method is the elimination of the human
factor which makes it much more accurate and
repeatable
52

26

Destructive go/no go tests


High Voltage DC/AC






Less capable of revealing voids or cavities left inside the


accessories
Useful in detecting the defects related to contamination
along the interface between the different components of
the insulation system
Voltage applied is usually three to four times the nominal
phase-to earth voltage for 15 minutes or more
This is destructive test

53

Basic Electrical Tests


Turns Ratio test

This test only needs to be performed if a problem is suspected


from the DGA.

It indicates shorted turns.

Shorted turns may result from short circuits or dielectric


(insulation) failures.

The ratio obtained from the field test should agree with the factory
within 0.5%. Otherwise winding repair is recommended.

54

27

Basic Electrical Tests


Turns Ratio test

55

Basic Electrical Tests


Turns Ratio test

56

28

Basic Electrical Tests


Winding Resistance test

This test only needs to be performed if there is a high rate of generation


of ethylene and ethane.

Turns ratio test give indications that winding resistance testing is


warranted.

Resistances measured in the field can be compared to the original


factory measurements or to sister transformers.

Agreement within 5% for any of the above comparisons is considered


satisfactory.

If winding resistances are to be compared to factory values, resistances


measurements will have to be converted to the reference temperature
used at the factory.
57

Basic Electrical Tests


Winding Resistance test

Since the winding resistance changes with temperature, the winding and oil
temperatures must be recorded at the time of measurement and all test
readings must be converted to common temperature to give meaningful results.
Most factory test data are converted to 75C which has become the most
commonly used temperature.

Rs

Rm
Ts
Tm
Tk

=
=
=
=

Resistance at the factory reference temperature (found in the transformer


manual)
Resistance you actually measured
Factory reference temperature (usually 75 C)
Temperature at which you took the measurements
A constant for the particular metal the winding is made from:
234.5 C for copper
225 C for aluminum

58

29

Basic Electrical Tests


Winding Resistance test
Four terminal testing set up
C1

P1

P2

C2

Measured Resistance (R) = V/I

59

30

Diagnostic Techniques for


Condition Monitoring
of Transformers

ARSEPE 2008

Young Zaidey bin Yang Ghazali


Technical Expert
(Transformer Performance & Diagnostic)
Engineering Department
TNB Distribution Division
1

Transformer Advanced Off-Line


Diagnostic Testing

Advanced Diagnostic Testing







Most of the techniques, whether chemical or electrical


methods, or destructive or non-destructive methods, only
provide partial information about the state of the
insulation condition of power transformers.
More advanced condition monitoring or condition
assessment techniques have been developed and are
now starting to come into more general use.
They have been developed in response to the need for
new materials assessment methods.
However, in some advanced diagnotics tools are still in
the developmental stage, either in the technical
development or, more likely, in the methods of analysis
and interpretation of the test data.
3

Advanced Diagnostic Testing








Recovery Voltage Measurement (RVM)


Polarization and Depolarization Current Measurement (PDC)
Frequency Domain Dielectric Spectroscopy (FDS)
Frequency Response Analysis (FRA)
Partial Discharge (PD) Measurement
RVM, PDC & FDS are based on the used of the dielectric
response of insulating materials to the application of electric
fields Conductivity, Polarization & Dielectric Response

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Recovery Voltage Measurement (RVM)


When a dielectric material with polar molecular structure is


subjected to a DC voltage, the electric dipoles are oriented within
the material in response to the applied electric field.
There is thus a polarization charge induced by the dipole
movement and realignment and this will effectively give a voltage
across the capacitance. When the dielectric is short circuited, the
stored charge in the dielectric capacitance is dissipated by a
current discharge with a time constant determined by the
effective intrinsic resistance and capacitance.
During the short circuit the voltage across the dielectric is zero,
but when the short circuit is removed before total charge to
equilibrium occurs, then a voltage will appear across the
dielectric. This measured voltage is known as the recovery
voltage.
5

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Recovery Voltage Measurement (RVM)

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Recovery Voltage Measurement (RVM) - TETTEX 5461

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Polarization & Depolarization Current (PDC)


A dielectric material becomes polarized when exposed to an electric field.


Polarization is proportional to the intensity of the electric field and by
measuring the current, polarization process can be observed. The current
density is the sum of the conduction current and the displacement current.
When the insulating material is exposed to a step voltage, polarization
current is obtained. If the step voltage is removed, a reverse polarity current
known as depolarization current is obtained. These two currents can be
used to determine the response function and the conductivity of the
dielectric material.
The PDC is a DC testing method which determining the polarization
spectrum in time constant domain between 10e-3 10e3 seconds in which
the interface polarization phenomena of long time constant are active. The
range of polarization is strongly influenced by the absorbed moisture and
the deterioration by product content of the paper insulation. It applies a
500V step of DC voltage to the high or low voltage winding insulations of
transformers. Time of voltage application is typically up to 10000 seconds.
Both the polarization and depolarization times are performed for the same
period of time.

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Polarization & Depolarization Current (PDC)


The polarization current pulse has a peak magnitude, a final


steady state level and a time constant and duration that are
determined by the quality of the oil including both the moisture
level and the electrical conductivity. In genera the electrical
conductivity affects the peak current in the first 100 seconds or
so of the current pulse. The moisture in the insulation affects the
longer term polarization current level after about 1000 seconds.
[Figure 8.6]
Polarization and depolarization current measurement method
gives general information about the state of insulation condition.
This technique is proved to be a useful testing method in
predicting of moisture and development of ageing phenomena.

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Polarization & Depolarization Current (PDC)


Effect of moisture in oil and cellulose paper on the polarization


depolarization current measurement

10

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy Measurement (FDS)


In the FDS technique, a known sinusoidal voltage is applied and


measured together with the current passing across the insulation
material.
The measurement is repeated for several frequency sweeps from high frequency to low frequency for minimizing the memory
effects.


Advantage - the complete diagnostic on the property change in


the material can be discerned

By dividing the current by the voltage and comparing the phase


difference, both the capacitance and the loss at the particular
frequency and amplitude can be calculated.

11

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy Measurement (FDS)


The advantage of an analysis of the dissipation factor frequency


as compare at fixed frequency:



Behaviour of insulation caused by moisture affects can be evaluated.


At higher frequencies the pressboard and the oil volume determine
the dielectric loss, at medium frequencies the oil conductivity is the
dominant factor and the lower frequency range is dominated by the
pressboard dielectric loss.

12

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy Measurement (FDS)


Example on how moisture affects the dissipation factor of kraft


paper at 20C

13

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy Measurement (FDS)


Measurement results of the insulation between primary and


secondary to tertiary windings on a power transformer.

14

Advanced Diagnostic Testing


Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy Measurement (FDS)
PROGRAMMA IDA 200

15

Frequency Response Analysis

How do you know whether you can energize A


TRANSFORMER after transportation to site or
after a protection trip?
Check Mechanical Integrity

16

Frequency Response Analysis


When does Mechanical Integrity matter?





Re-location
Short Circuit
Lightning
Tap-changer fault

Transportation damage can occur if the clamping and


restraints are inadequate; such damage may lead to core
and winding movement.
Radial buckling or axial deformation may occur due to
excessive short circuit forces while in service.
17

Frequency Response Analysis


What you can identify by checking mechanical integrity?








Core Movement
Winding Deformation
Faulty Core Grounds
Partial Winding Collapse
Hoop Buckling
Broken or Loosened Clamping Structures
Shorted Turns and Open Windings

18

Frequency Response Analysis

What Test can be Done?


Frequency response analysis (FRA) using a
low voltage AC wave of varying frequency to
identify changes in natural resonance

19

Frequency Response Analysis

Why FRA?


FRA Technique: The technique covers the full dynamic range and
maintains the same energy level for each frequency, providing results
that are repeatable and accurate.

Impulse Technique: This technique requires high sampling rates and


high resolution to obtain a valid measurement. The applied impulse does
not produce constant energy across the specified frequency, which can
cause poor repeatability that is influenced by the non-linear properties of
the test specimen.

20

10

Frequency Response Analysis


What is FRA ?


FRA is a tool that can give an indication of core or winding


movement in transformers.

This is done by performing a measurement to look at how well


a transformer winding transmits a low voltage signal that varies
in frequency.

Transformer does this in relation to its impedance, the


capacitive and inductive elements which are intimately related
to the physical construction of the transformer.

Changes in frequency response as measured by FRA


techniques may indicate a physical change inside the
transformer, the cause of which then needs to be identified and
investigated.
21

Frequency Response Analysis

22

11

Frequency Response Analysis

23

Frequency Response Analysis




Test Equipment

24

12

Frequency Response Analysis

25

Frequency Response Analysis

26

13

Frequency Response Analysis

27

Frequency Response Analysis


What is the frequency range?


The measured frequency range is normally very large,


which can be from 5Hz up to 10MHz

This frequency range covers the most important


diagnostic areas:
 Core and Magnetic Properties
 Winding Movement and Deformation
 Interconnections-Leads and Load Tap Changer
28

14

Frequency Response Analysis

29

Frequency Response Analysis




The magnitude and the angle of the complex transfer function


can be obtained using a network-analyzer

The resulting amplitude of the measurement can be expressed


as,
H (dB) = 20 log10 [(ZS)/(ZS+ZT)]

The resulting phase is defined by


H () = tan-1 [(ZS)/(ZS+ZT)]

30

15

Frequency Response Analysis

31

Frequency Response Analysis

32

16

Frequency Response Analysis


What are the ANALYZING TECHNIQUES?





Signature
Difference
Transfer Function
Statistical

FRA Signatures are analyzed based on 3 band


methods
33

Frequency Response Analysis

What do the 3 Bands mean?




5Hz up to 10KHz defect in core and magnetic


circuit
10KHz up to 600KHz deformation in winding
geometry
600KHz up to 10MHz abnormalities in the
inter-connection and test
system

34

17

Frequency Response Analysis


SIGNATURE TECHNIQUE

35

Frequency Response Analysis


SIGNATURE TECHNIQUE

36

18

Frequency Response Analysis


SIGNATURE TECHNIQUE

37

Frequency Response Analysis


DIFFERENCE TECHNIQUE
(Phase A before)

38

19

Frequency Response Analysis


DIFFERENCE TECHNIQUE
(Phase A after)

39

Frequency Response Analysis


DIFFERENCE TECHNIQUE
This technique can analyze the windings phase by phase, which is not
possible in the signature technique

40

20

Frequency Response Analysis

Historical data or Baseline Reference are, undoubtedly,


the best reference to be used for FRA analysis

However, it is not practically easy to get historical data due


to constraints of outages

Criteria to choose reference FRA measurements in the


absence of historical data or baseline reference

41

Frequency Response Analysis

CATEGORY

KV RATIO

MVA
RATING

MANUFACTURER

S/S
LOCATION

Twin

Same

Same

Same

Same

Sister

Same

Same

Same

Different

Peer

Same

Same

Different

Different

42

21

Partial Discharge



What is PD Electric discharge that do not completely


bridge the electrodes
Discharge magnitude is usually small but can cause
progressive deterioration and lead to failure





Overeating of dielectric boundary


Charges trapped in the surface
Attack by ultraviolet rays & soft X-rays
Formation of chemicals such as nitric acid & ozone

Therefore presence of PD need to be detected in a


non-destructive test

43

Partial Discharge


PD Classification

44

22

Partial Discharge


PD Classification

45

Partial Discharge


Occurrence of PD Inception Voltage

46

23

Partial Discharge


Occurrence of PD Inception Voltage

47

Partial Discharge






Occurrence & Recognition


Detection
Measurement
Location
Evaluation

48

24

Partial Discharge


Evaluation




Amplitude in dB
Energy or charge in pC
Duration in ms

49

Partial Discharge


On-line acoustic PD Detection - Physical Acoustic DISP-24

50

25

Frequency Response Analysis

Why SFRA in a factory environment?


Quality

assurance
Baseline reference
Relocation and commissioning preparation

Manufacturers are using SFRA as part of their quality program to ensure


transformer production is identical between units in a batch

51

Frequency Response Analysis


Why SFRA in a field environment?

Relocation and commissioning validation


Post incident: lightning, fault, short circuit, seismic event
etc
Once a transformer arrives on site after relocation it must be tested
immediately, to gain confidence in the mechanical integrity of the
unit prior to commissioning

52

26

Frequency Response Analysis




Frequency Response Analysis is a very effective tool for


diagnosing transformer mechanical integrity both in the
factory and in the field,
which cannot always be detected using other means
The best way to obtain baseline reference results is,
undoubtedly, on completion of the manufacturing
process at the factory
However, in the absence of baseline reference the
proposed criterion of twin, sister, and peer transformers
can be used as references with reasonable degree of
accuracy
53

Transformer Maintenance (Dry Type)




Electrical Tests


Perform insulation-resistance tests winding-to-winding


and each winding-to-ground

Perform turns ratio tests at the designated tap position

Perform power-factor or dissipation-factor tests

Measure the resistance of each winding at the


designated tap position
Measure core insulation-resistance at 500 volts dc if
core is insulated
54

27

Insulator Maintenance







Inspection - look for cracks, dirt etc., tracking, copper wash,


mechanical damage
Cleaning - Wash, dry wipe
Repairs - Usually replace except special cases
Testing - Megger & Power Factor test
Do not climb on or use for personal support!

55

Transformer Maintenance (Liquid filled)




Visual inspection


Inspect physical condition for evidence of moisture and corona

Verify operation of cooling fans

Verify operation of temperature and level indicators, pressure


relief device, and gas relay

Verify correct liquid level in all tanks and bushings

Verify correct equipment grounding

Verify the presence of transformer surge arresters

Test load tap-changer

Inspect all bolted electrical connections for high resistance using


one of the following methods:
1.
Use of low-resistance ohmmeter
2.
Perform thermographic survey
56

28

Transformer Maintenance (Liquid filled)




Electrical Tests


Perform turns ratio tests at all tap positions

Perform power-factor or dissipation-factor tests

Measure the resistance of each winding at all tap positions

Perform insulation-resistance tests winding-to-winding and each


winding-to-ground

If core ground strap is accessible, measure core insulation


resistance at 500 volts dc

Remove a sample of insulating liquid in accordance with ASTM


D923

Test for Oil Quality, DGA and Furan


57

Conclusion
Diagnostic Testing provides a powerful tool for the
complete and economic assessment of the transformer
condition
There is nevertheless still a lack on how to integrate the
information obtained by the on-line monitoring into the
actions taken onto the service of the transformer
The supplementary information obtained by the off-line
diagnostic after the detection of an abnormal condition is a
worth-full information to be integrated into future on-line
monitoring systems
58

29

Diagnostic Techniques for


Condition Monitoring
of Transformers

ARSEPE 2008

Young Zaidey bin Yang Ghazali


Technical Expert
(Transformer Performance & Diagnostic)
Engineering Department
TNB Distribution Division
1

Test Results
Interpretation

1. Scoring


Scoring can be applied to test results to indicate


acceptable condition level of transformers.
Transformer condition indicator scoring is somewhat
subjective, relying on transformer condition experts.
Relative terms are used and compared to industry
accepted levels; or to baseline or previous
(acceptable) levels on this transformer; or to
transformers of similar design, construction, or age
operating in a similar environment.

2. Weighting Factors


Weighting factors is used to recognize that some


condition indicators, affects the Condition Index to a
greater or lesser degree than other indicators.
These weighting factors were arrived at by
consensus
among
transformer
design
and
maintenance personnel with extensive experience.

3. Mitigating Factors


Every transformer is unique and, therefore cannot


quantify all factors that affect individual transformer
condition.
It is important that the Transformer Condition Index
arrived at be scrutinized by experts.
Mitigating factors specific to the utility may determine
the final Transformer Condition Index and the final
decision
on
transformer
replacement
or
rehabilitation.
5

1. Tan Delta for Main Tank


This test is done on the transformer at regular interval under normal condition. This test results
are considered for condition assessment of an in-service transformer.
Results

Score

Action

%tan < 2

Normal. The monitoring frequency of


24 months can be maintained.

2 <% tan < 4

The monitoring frequency should be


revised to 6 months.

4 <% tan < 5

The monitoring frequency should be


revised to 3 months. Make arrangement
for advanced electrical tests tests.

% tan > 5

Perform appropriate advanced


electrical tests tests as recommended
by the expert or internal inspection of
main tank immediately.
6

2. Turns-Ratio Test
This test is done on transformer at regular interval of 24 months under normal condition. This
test results are considered for condition assessment of an in-service transformer.
Results

Score

Action

% deviation < 0.2

Normal. The monitoring frequency of


24 months can be maintained.

0.2 <% deviation < 0.3

The monitoring frequency should be


revised to 6 months.

0.3 <% deviation < 0.5

The monitoring frequency should be


revised to 3 months. Make
arrangement for advanced electrical
tests tests.

% deviation >0.5

Perform appropriate advanced


electrical tests tests as recommended
by the expert or internal inspection of
main tank and OLTC tank
immediately.
7

3. Winding Resistance Test


This test is done on transformer at regular interval of 24 months under normal condition. This
test results are considered for condition assessment of an in-service transformer.
Results

Score

Action

No more than 5% difference


between phases or from
factory tests

Normal. The monitoring


frequency of 24 months can
be maintained.

5 to 7% difference between
phases or from factory tests

The monitoring frequency


should be revised to 6
months.

7 to 10% difference between


phases or from factory tests

The monitoring frequency


should be revised to 3
months. Make arrangement
for advanced electrical tests
tests.

More than 10% difference


between phases or from
factory tests

Perform appropriate
advanced electrical tests tests
as recommended by the
expert or internal inspection
of main tank immediately.

4. Main Winding Insulation


Resistance Test
This test is done on transformer tail at regular interval of 24 months under normal condition. This
test results are considered for condition assessment of an in-service transformer.
Results

Score

Action

PI value 3.0

Normal. The monitoring periodicity of 24


months can be maintained.

1.0< PI value < 3.0

The monitoring periodicity should be revised


to 6 months.

1.0< PI value < 1.5

The monitoring periodicity should be revised


to 3 months. Make arrangement for
advanced electrical tests tests.

PI value < 1.0

Perform appropriate advanced electrical tests


tests as recommended by the expert or
internal inspection of main tank
immediately.
9

5(i). Oil Quality Test


No

Criteria

Weightage

Moisture

0.3

BDV

0.1

Acidity

0.4

Power factor

0.2

10

5(ii).

Oil Quality Test

Moisture
(ppm)

BDV
(kV)

Acidity

IFT

Condition Indicator
Score

0-10

>56

<0.01

< 0.010

10

11-15

51-55

0.02-0.04

0.01 0.03

16-20

46-50

0.05-0.06

0.031 0.05

21-25

41-45

0.07-0.09

0.051 0.07

26-30

36-40

0.1-0.12

0.071 0.09

31-35

30-35

0.13-0.16

0.091 0.1

36-40

25-29

0.17-0.20

0.11 0.2

41-45

20-24

0.21-0.24

0.21 0.3

46-50

15-19

0.25-0.3

0.31 0.5

>50

<15

>0.31

> 0.5

1
11

6. Fault Gases Limit


Status

H2

C2H2

C2H4

C2H6

CH4

CO

TDCG

Condition 1

100

35

50

65

120

350

720

66 100

121 400

351 570

721 1915

Condition 2

101
700

36 - 45 51 - 100

Condition 3

701
1420

46 - 80

101 150

101 150

401 800

571 1400

1916 4000

Condition 4

> 1420

> 80

> 150

> 150

> 800

> 1400

> 4000

12

7. Key Gases Analysis


Individual fault gases exceed
limit

Per unit exceeded

Condition
Indicator Score

Condition 1

10

Condition 2

<2

3-4

5-6

Condition 3

Condition 4

<2

3-4

5-6

<2

3-4

5-6

1
13

8. Furanic Analysis
Furanic

Estimated DP

Condition Indicator Score

0-200

646-1300

10

201-400

560-645

401-600

510-559

601-800

475-509

801-1000

447-474

1001-1200

424-446

1201-1400

405-423

1401-1600

388-404

1601-1800

374-387

>1800

<373

14

9. Oil Quality, Key Gases & Furan


Analysis Score
This test is done on transformer at regular interval under normal condition. This test results are
considered for condition assessment of an in-service transformer.
Score

Action

7.5 Overall ranking 10

Results

Normal. The monitoring periodicity of


12 months can be maintained.

4.0 Overall ranking 7.5

The monitoring periodicity should be


revised to 6 months.

1.5 Overall ranking 4.0

The monitoring periodicity should be


revised to 3 months. Make
arrangement for advanced electrical
tests.

Overall ranking 1.5

Seek immediate advice from the expert


to perform advanced electrical test or
internal inspection
15

10. FRA
Results

Score
Adjustment

Action

No deviation
Comparison between phases (using Crosscorrelation Index, CCI):
CCI at low freq zone >2.0
CCI at mid freq zone > 1.0
CCI at high freq zone > 0.6

Subtract 0

The monitoring periodicity of all basic


electrical tests tests should be maintained at 6
months. Practice FRA test if necessary.

Minor deviation
Comparison between phases (using Crosscorrelation Index):
1.0<CCI at low freq zone <2.0
0.6<CCI at mid freq zone < 1.0

Subtract 0.5

Retest the transformer for FRA after 6


months. The monitoring periodicity of all
basic electrical tests tests should be
maintained at 6 months.

Moderate deviation
Comparison between phases (using Crosscorrelation Index):
0.6<CCI at low freq zone <1.0
CCI at mid freq zone < 0.6

Subtract 1.0

Retest the transformer for FRA after 3


months. Arrange for replacement of defective
section(s).

Significant deviation
Comparison between phases (using Crosscorrelation Index):
CCI at low freq zone <0.6

Subtract 1.5

Indicates serious problem requiring immediate


evaluation, additional testing (if applicable)
and immediate consultation with experts
16

11. FDS
Score
Adjustment

Action

Subtract 0

The monitoring periodicity of all basic


electrical tests tests should be
maintained at 6 months. Practice FDS
test if necessary.

1.5 < % moisture in paper < 2

Subtract 0.5

Retest the transformer for FDS after 6


months. The monitoring periodicity of
all basic electrical tests tests should be
maintained at 6 months.

2 < % moisture in paper < 4

Subtract 1.0

Retest the transformer for FDS after 3


months. Arrange for replacement of
defective section(s).

% moisture in paper > 4

Subtract 1.5

Indicates serious problem requiring


immediate evaluation, additional
testing (if applicable) and immediate
consultation with experts

Results
% moisture in paper < 1.5

17

12. PD
Results*

Score
Adjustment

Action

Amplitude 40-60 dB
Energy 1-200
Duration 100 ms-2000 ms

Subtract 0

The monitoring periodicity of all


basic electrical tests tests should be
maintained at 6 months. Practice PD
test if necessary.

Amplitude 60-70 dB
Energy 200-300
Duration 200 ms-3000 ms

Subtract 0.5

Retest the transformer for PD after 6


months. The monitoring periodicity
of all basic electrical tests tests should
be maintained at 6 months.

Amplitude 70-80 dB
Energy 200-400
Duration 3000 ms-4000 ms

Subtract 1.0

Retest the transformer for PD after 3


months. Arrange for replacement of
defective section(s).

Amplitude 80-90 dB
Energy 400-500
Duration 4000 ms-5000 ms

Subtract 1.5

Indicates serious problem requiring


immediate evaluation, additional
testing and immediate consultation
with expert. Recommendation is to
remove the transformer from service
immediately.
18

19

10