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Crude oil and fuels and Useful substances from

crude oil
C1 Revision (higher)

114 minutes
114 marks

Page 1 of 43

Q1.

Barbecues are heated by burning charcoal or burning hydrocarbons.

(a)

Use the Chemistry Data Sheet to help you to answer this question.
The chemical equation for charcoal burning is:
C + O2

CO2

Complete the word equation for this reaction.


carbon + ...................................

carbon dioxide
(1)

(b)

Propane is a hydrocarbon.
(i)

Complete the displayed structure of propane. Draw in the missing bonds.

(1)

(ii)

Write the chemical formula of propane. ..................................................


(1)

Page 2 of 43

(iii)

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentence.


hydrogen.
Propane burns in air to produce carbon dioxide and

hydroxide.
water.
(1)

(c)

The table shows information about six hydrocarbons.


State at room
temperature (20C)

Boiling point in C

Ethane (C2H6)

gas

89

Ethene (C2H4)

gas

104

Butane (C4H10)

gas

Butene (C4H8)

gas

Hexane (C6H14)

liquid

+69

Hexene (C6H12)

liquid

+64

Hydrocarbon

Tick ( ) two correct statements about the six hydrocarbons.


Statement

Tick ( )

Ethane and butane boil at temperatures less than 20C.


Hexene and butene are alkanes.
Butane and hexane are liquid at 0C.
Ethene and hexene each have a carbon-carbon double bond.
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

Q2.

Crude oil is a mixture of many different chemical compounds.


(a)

Fuels, such as petrol (gasoline), can be produced from crude oil.


(i)

Fuels react with oxygen to release energy.


Name the type of reaction that releases energy from a fuel.
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(1)

Page 3 of 43

(ii)

Fuels react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide.


The reaction of a fuel with oxygen can produce a different oxide of carbon.
Name this different oxide of carbon and explain why it is produced.
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(2)

(b)

Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons.


Hydrocarbons with the smallest molecules are very volatile.

In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly
and using specialist terms where appropriate.
Describe and explain how petrol is separated from the mixture of hydrocarbons in crude
oil.

Page 4 of 43

Use the diagram and your knowledge to answer this question.


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(6)
(Total 9 marks)

Q3.

This question is about oil reserves.


(a)

Diesel is separated from crude oil by fractional distillation.


Describe the steps involved in the fractional distillation of crude oil.
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(3)

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(b)

Diesel is a mixture of lots of different alkanes.


What are alkanes?
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(2)

(c)

In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly
and using specialist terms where appropriate.
Petroleum products, such as petrol, are produced from crude oil.
The graph shows the possible future production of petroleum products from crude oil and
the expected demand for petroleum products.

Page 6 of 43

Canadas oil sands hold about 20% of the worlds known crude oil reserves.
The oil sands contain between 10 to 15% of crude oil. This crude oil is mainly bitumen.
In Canada the oil sands are found in the ground underneath a very large area of forest. The
trees are removed. Then large diggers and trucks remove 30 metres depth of soil and rock
to reach the oil sands. The oil sands are quarried. Boiling water is mixed with the quarried
oil sands to separate the bitumen from the sand. Methane (natural gas) is burned to heat
the water.
The mixture can be separated because bitumen floats on water and the sand sinks to the
bottom of the water. The bitumen is cracked and the products are separated by fractional
distillation.
Use the information given and your knowledge and understanding to suggest the
advantages and disadvantages of extracting petroleum products from oil sands.
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(6)
(Total 11 marks)

Q4.

Crude oil is a mixture of mostly alkanes.


(a)

Crude oil is separated into useful fractions by fractional distillation.

Page 7 of 43

(i)

Describe and explain how the mixture of alkanes is separated by fractional


distillation.
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(3)

(ii)

The table gives the name and formula for each of the first three alkanes.
Complete the table to show the formula of butane.

Name of alkane

Formula

Methane

CH4

Ethane

C2H6

Propane

C3H8

Butane
(1)

(b)

The structural formula of methane, CH4, is:


H

HCH

H
Draw the structural formula of propane, C3H8
(1)

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(c)

The relative amounts of and the market demand for some hydrocarbons from the
fractional distillation of crude oil are shown in the graph.

(i)

Why is the market demand for the C5 C8 fraction higher than the market demand for
the C21 C24 fraction?
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(1)

(ii)

Cracking is used to break down large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller


hydrocarbon molecules.
Complete the symbol equation by writing in the formula of the other hydrocarbon.
C20H42 C16H34 + 2 ..........................................
(1)

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(iii)

The C5 C8 fraction has low supply and high market demand.


Suggest three ways in which the oil industry could overcome this problem.
1 .........................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 10 marks)

Q5.

Many human activities result in carbon dioxide emissions.


Our carbon footprint is a measure of how much carbon dioxide we each cause to be produced.
(a)

Why should we be concerned about our carbon footprint?


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(1)

(b)

Most power stations in the UK burn coal.


Coal was formed from tree-like plants over millions of years.
Suggest why burning wood instead of coal would help to reduce our carbon footprint.
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(3)
(Total 4 marks)

Page 10 of 43

Q6.

Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons. Most of these hydrocarbons are alkanes.


(a)

The general formula of an alkane is CnH2n+2


Complete the structural formula for the alkane that has six carbon atoms in its molecules.

(1)

(b)

The boiling points of alkanes are linked to the number of carbon atoms in their molecules.

(i)

Describe the link between the number of carbon atoms in an alkane molecule and its
boiling point.
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(1)

Page 11 of 43

(ii)

Suggest two reasons why all of the alkanes in the bar chart are better fuels than the
alkane with the formula C30H62
1 .............................................................................................................
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2 ............................................................................................................
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(2)

(c)

During the last 200 million years the carbon cycle has maintained the percentage of
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at about 0.03 %.
Over the last 100 years the percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased
to about 0.04 %.
Most of this increase is caused by burning fossil fuels to heat buildings, to generate
electricity and to power our transport.
Fossil fuels contain carbon that has been locked up for millions of years.
(i)

Burning fossil fuels, such as petrol, releases this locked up carbon. Balance the
chemical equation for the combustion of one of the alkanes in petrol.
2 C8H18

25 O2

........ CO2

........ H2O
(1)

(ii)

Where did the carbon that is locked up in fossil fuels come from?
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(1)

(iii)

The burning of fossil fuels has caused the percentage of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere to increase to above 0.03 %.
Explain why.
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(2)
(Total 8 marks)

Page 12 of 43

Q7.

Petroleum diesel is produced from crude oil.


Most vehicles that use petroleum diesel as fuel can also use biodiesel or a mixture of these two fuels. In
the UK (in 2010) there must be 5 % biodiesel in all petroleum diesel fuel.
Biodiesel is produced from plant oils such as soya. The crops used to produce biodiesel can also be
used to feed humans. The benefit that biodiesel is carbon neutral is outweighed by the increasing
demand for crops. This increasing demand is causing forests to be burnt to provide land for crops to
produce biodiesel. Only a huge fall in the price of petroleum diesel would halt the increasing use of
biodiesel.
The graph shows the average percentage change in exhaust emissions from vehicles using different
mixtures of petroleum diesel and biodiesel.

There is no difference in carbon dioxide emissions for all mixtures of petroleum diesel and biodiesel.
Use the information and your knowledge and understanding to evaluate the use of plant oils to produce
biodiesel.
Remember to give a conclusion to your evaluation.
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Page 13 of 43

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(5)
(Total 5 marks)

Q8.

The table shows how much carbon dioxide is produced when you transfer the same amount
of energy by burning coal, gas and oil.

(a)

Use the information from the table to complete the bar-chart.


(2)

Page 14 of 43

(b)

The second bar-chart shows how much sulphur dioxide is produced by burning the same
three fuels.

Compare the amount of sulphur produced by burning gas with the amount produced by
burning coal.
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(1)

(c)

Burning fuels also produces nitrogen oxides, even though the fuels contain no nitrogen.
Explain why this happens.
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(2)

(d)

When you release the same amount of energy from coal, gas and oil, different amounts of
carbon dioxide are produced.
Use the information below to explain why.

(3)

(e)

What other element do coal and oil usually contain?


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(1)
(Total 9 marks)

Page 15 of 43

Q9.

Crude oil is used to produce poly(ethene).


(a)

Fractional distillation is used to separate crude oil into fractions.

(i)

Write a number, 2, 3, 4 or 5, next to each stage so that the description of fractional


distillation is in the correct order. Numbers 1 and 6 have been done for you.
Number
1

Stage
The crude oil is heated to 350 C.
When a fraction in the vapours cools to its boiling point, the fraction
condenses.
Any liquids flow down to the bottom of the column and the hot
vapours rise up the column.

The condensed fraction is separated and flows out through a pipe.


When the hot vapours rise up the column, the vapours cool.
Most of the compounds in the crude oil evaporate.
(2)

(ii)

The naphtha fraction is cracked to produce ethene (C2H4).


Ethene is used to make the polymer called poly(ethene).
Name two substances produced when poly(ethene) burns in air.
1 ............................................................................................................
2 ............................................................................................................
(2)

Page 16 of 43

(b)

In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly
and using specialist terms where appropriate.
Each year in the UK, billions of plastic bags are given free to shoppers. These bags are
made from poly(ethene) and are often used only once.
After being used many of these plastic bags are either thrown away as litter or buried in
landfill sites.
In 2006 over 10 billion of these plastic bags were given free to shoppers.
In 2009 the number of plastic bags given to shoppers had decreased to 6.1 billion.
One reason for the decrease was because some supermarkets made people pay for their
plastic bags.
From 2011 a new type of plastic shopping bag made mainly from poly(ethene) had a useby date of only one year printed on the bag.
Use the information above and your knowledge and understanding to describe advantages
and disadvantages of using plastic shopping bags made from poly(ethene).
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(6)
(Total 10 marks)

Page 17 of 43

Q10.

The diagram shows a reaction which takes place in an oil refinery.

(a)

X, Y and Z are all examples of which type of compound?


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(1)

(b)

What type of chemical reaction takes place when compound X is converted into
compounds Y and Z?
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(1)

(c)

Compounds Y and Z are both useful substances.


Compound Y is unsaturated. Compound Z is saturated.
(i)

Suggest one use for compound Y.


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(1)

(ii)

Suggest one use for compound Z.


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(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q11.

Known crude oil reserves are being used up rapidly. Crude oil is used to produce many
useful fuels, such as petrol. One way to conserve crude oil reserves would be to increase the
production of bio-fuels.
(a)

Ethanol can be produced for use as a bio-fuel. Cars can be powered by ethanol or
ethanolpetrol mixtures.
Sugar cane can be fermented to give a mixture of water (boiling point 100 C) and ethanol
(boiling point 78 C).
(i)

How can ethanol be separated from water?


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(1)

Page 18 of 43

(ii)

Ethanol, C2H5OH, burns to release heat energy.


Complete the balanced symbol equation by writing in the formulae of the two
products.
C2H5OH

3O2

2.........

3.........
(2)

(b)

The cost of producing a bio-fuel, such as ethanol, by fermentation, is at least three times
higher than the production cost of petrol. It costs less to produce ethanol from alkanes. In
the production, the vapour of an alkane is passed over a hot catalyst.

Ethene is then converted into ethanol.


(i)

What has happened to the hexane to produce ethene?


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(1)

(ii)

Complete the structural formula for ethene, C2H4.

C
(1)

(iii)

Name the compound that is added to ethene to produce ethanol, C2H5OH.


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(1)

Page 19 of 43

(c)

As explained in parts (a) and (b), ethanol can be made using either sugar or alkanes as the
starting material.
Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using these two starting materials to
produce ethanol.
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(4)
(Total 10 marks)

Q12.

Petrol sold in most countries now contains at least 5% ethanol.


The production of ethanol, for use as a fuel, is being increased.
The flow diagram shows how ethanol can be produced from crude oil.

(a)

Why does crude oil need to be fractionally distilled?


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(1)

(b)

Hydrocarbons, such as decane, in the naphtha fraction are cracked to produce ethene.
The balanced chemical equation shows the cracking of decane.

(i)

C10H22

C8H18

decane

octane

C2H4
ethene

Describe how cracking is done.


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(2)

Page 20 of 43

(ii)

Complete the structural formula of ethene by drawing lines to represent each


covalent bond.

H
(1)

(c)

The flow diagram below shows how ethanol, for use as a fuel, can also be produced from
food crops.

Use the information in the two flow diagrams and your own knowledge and understanding to
evaluate whether more of this ethanol should be produced from food crops or from crude oil.
Remember to give a conclusion to your evaluation.
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(5)
(Total 9 marks)

Page 21 of 43

Q13.

This question is about the use hydrocarbons and the production of compounds from
hydrocarbons.
(a)

The equation shows a reaction involving hydrocarbons.


C8H18

C2H4

Hydrocarbon J

C6H14

Hydrocarbon K

Hydrocarbon L

Choose the correct processes from the box to complete the sentences.
combustion
(i)

hydration

thermal decomposition

polymerisation

Hydrocarbons K and L are produced by ........................................... .


(1)

(ii)

Ethanol can be produced from hydrocarbon K by .............................. .


(1)

(iii)

Describe a test to distinguish between hydrocarbons K and L and give the result of
the test.
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(2)

(b)

Hydrocarbon J burns completely in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapour.
2 C8H18
(i)

25 O2

16 CO2

18 H2O

When 114g of hydrocarbon J burns completely in 400g of oxygen it produces


162g of water vapour.
What mass of carbon dioxide would be produced from burning 114g of
hydrocarbon J?
Show clearly how you work out your answer
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Answer = ................................. g
(2)

Page 22 of 43

(ii)

The mass of carbon dioxide produced is greater than the 114g of hydrocarbon J
that was burned.
Explain why.
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(2)

(c)

Two different processes are used to produce ethanol.


Process 1

Process 2

Fermentation of a sugar solution by


yeast in a reaction vessel.

Reaction of ethene (from crude oil) with


steam in a reactor.

The reaction vessel has to be emptied,


cleaned and refilled every few days.

The reaction is only stopped if there is a


fault in the reactor.

The process produces a 15% ethanol


solution in water.

The process produces 100% ethanol.

(i)

Give one advantage that Process 1 has over Process 2.


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(1)

(ii)

What advantages to a manufacturer of ethanol, does Process 2 have over


Process 1?
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(2)
(Total 11 marks)

Page 23 of 43

Q14.

The equation below shows the cracking of a hydrocarbon compound into two different
compounds, A and B.

(a)

State two differences between the structures of compounds A and B.


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(2)

(b)

Why is compound A useful in industry?


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(1)
(Total 3 marks)

Q15.

Poly(ethene) is a long-chain saturated hydrocarbon. The formula for part of the polymer
chain is:

(a)

Write the structural formula of the small molecule from which poly(ethene) is made.

(2)

Page 24 of 43

(b)

Saturated hydrocarbons, such as propane, are fuels.


Write a balanced equation for the complete combustion of propane, C3H8.
............................ + ............................ ............................ + .............................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

Page 25 of 43

M1.

(a)

oxygen
must be name
do not accept oxide or dioxide
1

(b)

(i)

2 x CC
and
5 x CH
all single (line) bonds
1

(ii)

C3 H8
must be formula
do not accept lower case h
1

(iii)

water
1

(c)

ethane and butane boil at temperatures less than 20C


1

ethene and hexene each have a carbon-carbon double bond


1

[6]

M2.

(a)

(i)

exothermic
accept combustion
allow burning or oxidation or
redox
1

(ii)

carbon monoxide / CO (is produced)


allow monoxide (is produced) ignore carbon oxide
1

because there is incomplete / partial combustion (of the fuel)


accept because there is insufficient oxygen / air (to burn the fuel)
1

(b)

Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written
Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response.
Examiners should also refer to the information in the Marking guidance.
0 marks
No relevant content.
Level 1 (1-2 marks)
There is a statement that crude oil is heated or that substances are cooled.
However there is little detail and any description may be confused or inaccurate.

Page 26 of 43

Level 2 (3-4 marks)


There is some description of heating / evaporating crude oil and either fractions
have different boiling points or there is an indication of a temperature difference in
the column.
Level 3 (5-6 marks)
There is a reasonable explanation of how petrol is or fractions are separated from
crude oil using evaporating and condensing.
If cracking is given as a preliminary or subsequent process to fractional distillation
then ignore.
However, if cracking / catalyst is given as part of the process, maximum is level 2.
Examples of chemistry points made in the response could include:

Some / most of the hydrocarbons (or petrol) evaporate / form vapours or


gases

When some of / a fraction of the hydrocarbons (or petrol) cool to their


boiling point they condense

Hydrocarbons (or petrol) that have (relatively) low boiling points and are
collected near the top of the fractionating column or hydrocarbons with
(relatively) high boiling points are collected near the bottom of the fractionating
column

The process is fractional distillation

Heat the crude oil / mixture of hydrocarbons or crude oil / mixture is heated to
about 350C

Some of the hydrocarbons remain as liquids

Liquids flow to the bottom of the fractionating column

Vapours / gases rise up the fractionating column

Vapours / gases cool as they rise up the fractionating column

The condensed fraction (or petrol) separates from the vapours / gases and
flows out through a pipe

Some of the hydrocarbons remain as vapours / gases

Some vapours / gases rise out of the top of the fractionating column

There is a temperature gradient in the fractionating column or the fractionating


column is cool at the top and hot at the bottom
6

[9]

M3.

(a)

heat to vaporise (the crude oil)


do not accept cracking / burning
1

vapours condense
1

Page 27 of 43

at different temperatures
allow they have different boiling points
1

(b)

(alkanes) are hydrocarbons or are compounds of hydrogen and carbon only


1

alkanes are saturated or have only (carbon-carbon) single bonds


accept have no (carbon-carbon) double bonds
accept general formula is CnH2n+2 for 2 marks
1

(c)

Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written
Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response.
0 marks
No relevant content.
Level 1 (1-2 marks)
There is a basic description of at least one advantage or one disadvantage of
extracting petroleum products from oil sands.
Level 2 (3-4 marks)
There is a clear description of an advantage and a disadvantage of extracting
petroleum products from oil sands.
Level 3 (5-6 marks)
There is a detailed description of both advantages and disadvantages of extracting
petroleum products from oil sands.

Page 28 of 43

Examples of the chemistry/environmental/economic/social points made in the


response
Advantages:

the oil sands are needed because crude oil is running out

this crude oil is needed because demand is increasing

the oil sands contain a large amount of crude oil

the oil sands could improve Canadas economy

the oil sands provide employment for a lot of people

the trees / forest are used for wood products / fuel

Disadvantages:

destruction of environment / habitats

fewer trees / forests to absorb carbon dioxide

specified pollution, for example, visual, noise, atmospheric (including dust),


water (including river or drinking) with cause, e.g. gases / particulates from
burning diesel

large amounts of methane (natural gas) are used to provide energy

energy / fuel needed for cracking and fractional distillation

burning fuel releases carbon dioxide

crude oil / natural gas contains locked up carbon

crude oil is non-renewable


6

[11]

M4.

(a)

(i)

heat / evaporate the crude oil / change to gas or vapour


do not accept heat with catalyst
1

cool / condense (hydrocarbons)


allow small molecules at top and / or large molecules at bottom
1

at different temperatures / boiling points


if the answer describes cracking no marks
1

(ii)

C4H10
1

Page 29 of 43

(b)

H
H
H

H C C C H

H
H
H
1

(c)

(i)

C5 to C8 fraction are fuels or easier to burn or petrol (fraction)


accept C21 to C24 fraction not useful as fuels
do not accept produce more energy
1

(ii)

C2H4
do not accept C4H8
1

(iii)

any three from:

use different / lighter crude oils

develop markets for low demand fractions

develop new techniques / equipment to use low demand fractions


as fuels

cracking

convert low demand fractions to high demand fractions or bigger


molecules to smaller molecules

develop alternative / bio fuels


do not accept price
3

[10]

M5.

(a)

(thought to cause) global warming / green house (effect) / climate change


ignore other consequences of global warming
do not accept acid rain / ozone layer / global dimming
1

Page 30 of 43

(b)

any three from:

replant trees / renewable / sustainable


ignore reusable

carbon (dioxide) used by trees / photosynthesis


accept trees absorb carbon (dioxide) as they grow
ignore respiration

it is a (continuous / carbon) cycle


accept burning wood is carbon neutral
or
carbon (dioxide) goes back into the air
for the second and third bullet points: accept trees use carbon
dioxide which is released when (trees / wood are / is) burnt for 2
marks

no new carbon (dioxide) is produced


or
no locked up carbon (dioxide) is released
or
the carbon (dioxide) was absorbed millions of years ago
3

[4]

M6.

(a) complete diagram with 2 carbon atoms and 5 hydrogen atoms each CC
and each CH linked by a single line (bond)
1

(b)

(i)

the greater the number of (carbon) atoms (in an alkane molecule) the
greater its boiling point or vice versa
allow as the (carbon) chain gets longer the boiling point increases
ignore melting points
do not accept reference to greater number of molecules
1

Page 31 of 43

(ii)

they = hydrocarbons from the graph


it = C30H62
any two from:

low boiling point / volatile


accept they are gases or liquids

low viscosity

high flammability
accept easier to burn / ignite

small molecules
accept short chains
ignore number of carbon atoms

burn completely
ignore speed of burning
2

(c)

(i)

16 (CO2) + 18 (H2O)
1

(ii)

(carbon dioxide in the Earths early) atmosphere


accept from volcanoes (millions of years ago)
or from dead plants / animals
allow dead sea creatures
ignore shells
1

(iii)

increase in burning / use of fossil fuels


1

locked up carbon (carbon dioxide) is released


allow carbon / carbon dioxide from millions of years ago is released
accept extra carbon dioxide is not absorbed (by the carbon cycle)
1

[8]

Page 32 of 43

M7.

any four from:


to gain 4 marks both pros and cons should be given
Arguments for biodiesel
max three from:

sustainable / renewable

(carbon neutral) absorbs CO2 when growing / during photosynthesis

burning biodiesel produces low amounts particulates / carbon monoxide


allow burning biodiesel produces little / low amount of global
dimming
ignore sulfur dioxide

can use waste vegetable oils / fats (from food industry) or can use waste plant material

can be used to conserve crude oil (instead of / mixed with petroleum diesel)

produced by a low energy / temperature process


accept produced by a low tech process

biodegrades (easily)
ignore engine effects

Arguments against biodiesel


max three from:

creates food shortages


accept price of food increases

deforestation to plant more crops leads to loss of habitat / biodiversity or deforestation


leads to a reduction in absorption of CO2
allow burning trees increases CO2
allow deforestation increases global warming

burning biodiesel produces high amounts of nitrogen oxides


allow increases acid rain

crops takes time to grow


allow crops can fail

vast areas of land needed to grow crops


4

conclusion supported by the argument presented, which must give added value to the points for
and against given above
1

[5]

Page 33 of 43

M8.

(a)

both bars correct height (to better than half a square)


1 mark for both

both bars correctly labelled


(w.r.t. relative heights if these incorrect)
for 1 mark
2

(b)

a lot less / much less / 18 times less (converse must specify coal)
gains 1 mark
1

(c)

ideas that

at high temperatures (produced when fuels burn)

nitrogen and oxygen from air / atmosphere combine / react


or nitrogen from air / atmosphere oxidises
for 1 mark each
2

(d)

ideas that

coal produces most carbon dioxide / more CO2 than gas / oil

because coal is (mostly) carbon

gas produces less carbon dioxide than coal / oil

oil and gas also contain hydrogen / contain more hydrogen atoms than carbon
atoms / also produce water
any three for 1 mark each
3

(e)

sulphur
for 1 mark
2

[9]

M9.

(a)

(i)

(1)
5
3
(6)
4
2
all numbers in the correct order gains both marks
any two numbers in the correct position gains 1 mark
2

Page 34 of 43

(ii)

Water
ignore formula if correct name given
accept hydrogen oxide
allow H2O
1

carbon dioxide
allow CO2
accept carbon monoxide / CO or carbon / C
1

(b)

Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written
Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response.
Examiners should also apply a best-fit approach to the marking.
0 marks
No relevant content.
Level 1 (1-2 marks)
There is a basic description of at least one advantage or one disadvantage
caused by using plastic shopping bags made from poly(ethene)
Level 2 (3-4 marks)
There is a clear description of both an advantage and a disadvantage,
caused by using plastic shopping bags made from poly(ethene).
Level 3 (5-6 marks)
There is a detailed description of both advantages and disadvantages
caused by using plastic shopping bags made from poly(ethene)
examples of the chemistry/social points made in the response:
ignore cost unqualified
Advantages:

Simple properties eg strong / low density / water resistant

Bags can be reused (for shopping) or another specified use eg bin liners

Money charged for bags can go to good causes or encourage reuse

Poly(ethene) bags can be recycled eg made into milk bottle crates

Poly(ethene) bags can be burned to provide heat for buildings/generation of


electricity

New bags are now made that can biodegrade

Disadvantages:

(Older) bags can take many years to biodegrade

There is a shortage of landfill space

Bags are made from (crude) oil which is a non-renewable resource/running out

Large amounts of energy/fuel are used for the production of poly(ethene)

Production of poly(ethene) releases carbon dioxide/causes global warming


Page 35 of 43

Specified issue caused by litter eg visual pollution or effect on wildlife

Burning bags release carbon dioxide / causes global warming


6

[10]

M10.

(a)

hydrocarbon
1

(b)

thermal decomposition / cracking


1

(c)

(i)

making polymers / poly(e)thene


accept plastic (bags)
1

(ii)

fuel
1

[4]

M11.

(a)

(i)

by (fractional) distillation
accept a description of the distillation process (heat and how
separation works) eg heat and condense
accept boil / vapourise etc for heat

or
fractionation
1

(ii)

CO2
note the order of these products must be correct
1

H2O
wrong way round = 1 mark
1

Page 36 of 43

(b)

(i)

(hexane) has been broken down (into smaller hydrocarbons / molecules)


1

accept (thermal) decomposition / cracked / split / broken up owtte


(ii)

H
H

C
= C

H
H
accept CH2 = CH2
1

(iii)

water / hydrogen oxide / steam


accept H2O
1

Page 37 of 43

(c)

candidates must include both sugar cane and crude oil in their evaluation
and both an advantage and a disadvantage to gain full marks.
if they do not then the maximum mark is three
any four from:
advantages of using sugar

country has no wealth to buy (large quantities of) crude oil


not expensive alone

country has limited technological development


or
underdeveloped / third world country

able / suitable climate to grow sugar cane

enough land to grow sugar cane / land cannot be used to grow food / deforestation

sugar is a renewable source


or
crude oil is a non-renewable resource / finite resource / limited resources

CO2 / carbon neutral

advantages of using alkanes:

economic costs are low

continuous process

country has large oil resources

country has oil refineries / cracking plants

very pure product

faster process
4

[10]

M12.

(a) it is a mixture (of hydrocarbons) or contains hydrocarbons with different


boiling points
accept to separate (crude) oil (into fractions) or obtain the naphtha
(fraction)
accept to get useful products
ignore removal of impurities
1

Page 38 of 43

(b)

(i)

heat / vaporise
mention of hydrogen = max 1
accept thermal (decomposition) for heat
allow boil
do not allow temperatures below 100C
ignore steam
1

catalyst
allow alumina / porous pot
ignore other catalysts
1

(ii)

4 C H and C = C
ignore brackets with or without an n before them
do not allow poly(ethene)
1

Page 39 of 43

(c)

ignore ideas about carbon dioxide formation / photosynthesis or


cost / economics / environmentally friendly
any four from:
candidates are only awarded 1 mark if they use equivalent pairs of
bulleted points
must be at least one advantage and one disadvantage for all four marks
crops
advantages eg:
crude oil
disadvantages eg:

renewable (resource) / sustainable


non-renewable (resource) / finite / running out

low / less energy / fuel needed for process or lower temperature [ignore heat or
quoted temperatures]
high / more energy needed for process or/ higher temperature

can use waste plant / crop material

carbon neutral
not carbon neutral or releases locked up carbon

low safety risk (processes)


high safety risk (process)

low technology
high technology
risk of major oil spillage
can be used to make other products

disadvantages eg:
advantages eg:

batch process / process is slow


continuous process / process is fast

many steps in the process


few steps in the process

ethanol is impure / may contain water


ethanol is pure

food shortages
conserves food

need very large areas of (arable) land to grow crops or can only grow
in certain areas / climates

destruction of woodland / habitat

slow growth of crops

labour intensive
can accept reverse arguments
Page 40 of 43

a conclusion
with a reasoned argument based on valid advantages and disadvantages
there must be at least one advantage and one disadvantage,
however, a matched pair, although only awarded one mark would
allow the conclusion mark to be awarded
1

[9]

M13.

(a)

(i)

thermal decomposition
1

(ii)

hydration
1

(iii)

add bromine (water)/iodine solution (to K and L)


1

K will decolourise these solutions


or
L will not decolourise these solutions
1

(b)

(i)

352 (g)
for correct answer
if answer is incorrect 400 + 114 162 gains 1 mark
2

(ii)

because 2 molecules of hydrocarbon J had 25


molecules of oxygen added
or
because 2 molecules of hydrocarbon J produced 16
molecules of carbon dioxide
allow because oxygen has been added to hydrocarbon J
for 1 mark
2

(c)

(i)

raw materials are renewable


accept does not use crude oil
1

(ii)

alcohol does not need to be distilled


accept alcohol produced is pure
1

process is continuous
1

[11]

Page 41 of 43

##
(a)

Compound A has fewer C atoms


or Compound B has fewer H atoms
Compound A has C = C/double bond
or Compound A is unsaturated
each for 1 mark
(accept converse i.e compound B has not ...)
2

(b)

Compound A is reactive
or can be used to make many substances
or can be used in polymerisation/making plastics/named plastic
or can be used as a fuel
any one for 1 mark
1

[3]

M15.

(a)

C=C
do not accept C2H4
1

four Hs only, two attached to each carbon


credit CH2CH2 for two marks
1

(b)

C3H8 + 5O2 3 C O 2 + 4H2O


two correct formulae LHS
1

can be in either order


two correct formulae RHS
1

can be in either order


correctly balanced, consequential
marking allowed for 10 O
1

[5]

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Page 43 of 43

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