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True/False

1. A value that is typical or representative of the data is referred to as a measure of central location.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

2. The arithmetic mean is the sum of the observations divided by the total number of observations.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

3. For a set of data arranged or sorted in numerical order, the value of the observation in the center is

called the weighted mean.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

4. A set of ordinal, interval or ratio level data may only have one mode.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

5. If a variable is measured at the interval or ratio level, all the values are included when computing the

mean.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

AACSB: EU

6. A variable measured at the interval or ratio level can have more than one arithmetic mean.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

7. The mode is the value of the observation that appears most frequently.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

8. A distribution that has the same shape on either side of the center is said to be symmetrical.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 3

9. A negatively skewed distribution is not symmetrical. The long tail is to the left or in the negative

direction.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 3

10. The geometric mean is the nth root of n observations.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

3

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

12. A parameter is a measurable characteristic of a sample.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

13. The median can be determined for any set of interval-level data.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

14. Extremely high or low scores affect the value of the median.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

15. The sum of the deviations from the mean for the set of numbers 4, 9 and 5 will equal zero.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

16. For salaries of $102,000, $98,000, $45,000, $106,000 and $101,000, the arithmetic mean would be an

appropriate average.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

AACSB: REF

17. Three persons earn $8 an hour, six earn $9 an hour, and one earns $12 an hour. The weighted mean

hourly wage is $9.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

AACSB: AS

18. For any distribution, there are an equal number of values above the mean and below it.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

19. For a data set with an even number of ungrouped values, the median is the arithmetic mean of the two

middle values.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

20. For a data set with an even number of ungrouped values, half of the values will be less than the

median.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

21. In a negatively skewed distribution, the mean is always greater than the median.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 3

29

22. In a negatively skewed distribution, the mean is smaller than the median or mode and the mode

occurs at the peak of the curve.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 3

23. In a positively skewed distribution, the mode is greater than the median.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 3

24. Dispersion is the degree of variation in the data.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

25. The mean deviation is the mean of the actual values of the deviations from the arithmetic mean.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

26. The variance is the mean of the sum of the squared deviations between each observation and the

median.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

27. The standard deviation is the positive square root of the variance.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

28. Chebyshev's Theorem gives the proportion of observations in any data set that occurs within k

standard deviations of the mean, where k is greater than 1.0.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 6

29. The Empirical states that about 68% of the observation will lie within one standard deviation of the

mean; about 95% of the observations will lie within two standard deviations of the mean; and virtually all

(99.7%) will lie within three standard deviations of the mean.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 6

30. The mean absolute deviation is the most widely used measure of dispersion.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

31. For a symmetrical distribution, the variance is equal to the standard deviation.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

32. In a company, the standard deviation of the ages of female employees is six years and the standard

deviation of the ages of male employees is ten years. These statistics indicate that there is more spread in

the ages of the female employees.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

AACSB: MD

30

33. If we find the deviation of each value from the median, the sum of these deviations is always zero.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

34. If a frequency distribution is open-ended, the variance cannot be determined.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

35. The range cannot be computed for data grouped in a frequency distribution having an open end.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

Multiple Choice

36. For which measure of central location will the sum of the deviations of each value from the data's

average will always be zero?

A) Mode

B) Mean

C) Median

D) Geometric mean

E) None of the above

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

37. For a set of grouped or ungrouped data, which measures of central location always have only one

value?

A) Mode and median

B) Mode and mean

C) Mode and geometric mean

D) Mean and median

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

38. Which measures of central location are not affected by extremely small or extremely large values?

A) Mean and median

B) Mean and mode

C) Mode and median

D) Geometric mean and mean

E) None of the above

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

39. What is the relationship among the mean, median and mode in a symmetric distribution?

A) They are all equal

B) The mean is always the smallest value

C) The mean is always the largest value

D) The mode is the largest value

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 3

31

40. For a data set, half of the observations are always greater than the ________ .

A) Median

B) Mode

C) Mean

D) Geometric mean

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

AACSB: REF

41. What is the lowest level of measurement that a median can be computed?

A) Nominal

B) Ordinal

C) Interval

D) Ratio

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 2

42. For an ungrouped data set with an odd number of observations that have been sorted or arrayed from

smallest to largest values, where is the median located?

A) n

B) n/2

C) (n + 1)/2

D) n + 1/2

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

AACSB: AS

43. Which measure of central location is used to determine an average annual percent increase?

A) Arithmetic mean

B) Weighted mean

C) Mode

D) Geometric mean

E) Median

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

44. If a frequency distribution has open-ended intervals at the extremes, which measure of central

location is the most difficult to estimate?

A) Median

B) Mode

C) Mean

D) All of the above

E) None of the above

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 2

45. Which one of the following is referred to as the population mean?

A) Statistic

B)

C) Sample

D) None of the above

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

32

46. Fifteen accounting majors had an average grade of 90 on a finance exam. Seven marketing majors

averaged 85, while ten finance majors averaged 93 on the same exam. What is the weighted mean for the

32 students taking the exam?

A) 89.84

B) 89.33

C) 89.48

D) Impossible to determine without more information

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

AACSB: AS

47. In the calculation of the arithmetic mean for grouped data, which value is used to represent all the

values in a particular class?

A) The upper limit of the class

B) The lower limit of the class

C) The frequency of the class

D) The cumulative frequency preceding the class

E) The class midpoint.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 2

48. On a survey questionnaire, students were asked to indicate their class rank in college. If there were

only four choices from which to choose, which measure(s) of central location would be appropriate to use

for the data generated by that questionnaire item?

A) Mean and median

B) Mean and mode

C) Mode and median

D) Mode only

E) Median only

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

49. What is the median of 26, 30, 24, 32, 32, 31, 27 and 29?

A) 32

B) 29

C) 30

D) 29.5

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

50. The net incomes (in $ millions) of a sample of steel fabricators are: $86, $67, $86 and $85. What is

the modal net income?

A) $67

B) $85

C) $85.5

D) $86

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

33

51. A sample of light trucks using diesel fuel revealed the following distribution based on fuel efficiency,

i.e., miles per gallon (mpg).

10

13

16

19

22

25

u

u

u

u

u

u

m p

p to

p to

p to

p to

p to

p to

g

13

16

19

22

25

28

N u m b e r o f T ru c k s

2

5

10

8

3

2

A) 16.9

B) 18.6

C) 17.0

D) 17.9

E) None of the above

Answer: B

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

52. The ages of newly hired, unskilled employees were grouped into the following distribution:

Ages

18 up to 21

21 up to 24

24 up to 27

Number

4

8

11

27 up to 30

30 up to 33

What is the mean age?

A) 25.51

B) 24.01

C) 26.99

D) 26.58

E) 20.00

Answer: D

Difficulty: Hard

20

7

Goal: 1

53. A sample of the daily production of transceivers was organized into the following distribution.

D a ily P ro d u c tio n

8 0 u p to 9 0

9 0 u p to 1 0 0

1 0 0 u p to 1 1 0

1 1 0 u p to 1 2 0

1 2 0 u p to 1 3 0

1 3 0 u p to 1 4 0

F re q u e n c ie s

5

9

20

8

6

2

34

A) 106.4

B) 101.4

C) 111.4

D) 105.0

E) 20.0

Answer: A

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

54. The net annual sales of a sample of small retail clothing stores were organized into the following

relative frequency distribution.

N e t S a le s (in $ m illio n s )

1 u p to 4

4 u p to 7

7 u p to 1 0

1 0 u p to 1 3

1 3 o r m o re

P e rc e n t o f T o ta l

13

14

40

23

10

A) $7.09

B) $10.09

C) $8.59

D) $8.325

E) Mean cannot be computed

Answer: E

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

55. A stockbroker placed the following order for a customer:

50 shares of Kaiser Aluminum preferred at $104 a share

100 shares of GTE preferred at $25.25 a share

20 shares of Boston Edison preferred at $9.125 a share

What is the weighted arithmetic mean price per share?

A) $ 25.25

B) $ 79.75

C) $ 103.50

D) $ 46.51

Answer: D

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

35

56. During the past six months, the purchasing agent bought:

Tons of C oal

P ric e p e r T o n

1 ,2 0 0

$ 2 8 .5 0

3 ,0 0 0

$ 8 7 .2 5

500

$ 8 8 .0 0

A) $87.25

B) $72.33

C) $68.47

D) $89.18

E) 67.92

Answer: B

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

57. A sample of single persons receiving social security payments revealed these monthly benefits: $826,

$699, $1,087, $880, $839 and $965. How many observations are below the median?

A) 0

B) 1

C) 2

D) 3

E) 3.5

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

58. The number of work stoppages in a highly industrialized region for selected months are: 6, 0, 10, 14,

8 and 0. What is the median number of stoppages?

A) 0

B) 6

C) 7

D) 8

E) 3

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

59. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration reported that passenger revenues on international flights

increased from $528 million in 1983 to $5,100 million in 2006. What is the geometric mean annual

percent increase in international passenger revenues?

A) 10.4

B) 27.9

C) 103.6

D) 9.96

E) 2814

Answer: A

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

36

60. The Investment Company Institute reported in its Mutual Fund Fact Book that the number of mutual

funds increased from 5725 in 1995 to 7977 in 2005. What is the geometric mean annual percent increase

in the number of funds?

A) 1.034

B) 3.37

C) 39.34

D) 71.77

E) 633.5

Answer: B

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

61. Assume a student received the following grades for the semester: History, B; Statistics, A; Spanish,

C; and English, C. History and English are 5 credit hour courses, Statistics a 4 credit hour course and

Spanish a 3 credit hour course. If 4 grade points are assigned for an A, 3 for a B and 2 for a C, what is the

weighted mean for the semester grades?

A) 4.00

B) 1.96

C) 2.61

D) 3.01

E) 2.88

Answer: C

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

62. Production of passenger cars in Japan increased from 3.94 million in 1994 to 6.74 million in 2004.

What is the geometric mean annual percent increase?

A) 4.0

B) 1.9

C) 5.5

D) 16.6

E) 47.3

Answer: C

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

63. A sample of the paramedical fees charged by clinics revealed these amounts: $55, $49, $50, $45, $52

and $55. What is the median charge?

A) $47.50

B) $51.00

C) $52.00

D) $55.00

Answer: B

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

64. The lengths of time (in minutes) several underwriters took to review applications for similar

insurance coverage are: 50, 230, 52 and 57. What is the median length of time required to review an

application?

A) 54.5

B) 141.0

C) 97.25

D) 109.0

Answer: A

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

37

65. A bottling company offers three kinds of delivery service instant, same day and within five days.

The profit per delivery varies according to the kind of delivery. The profit for an instant delivery is less

than the other kinds because the driver has to go directly to a grocery store with a small load and return to

the bottling plant. To find out what effect each type of delivery has on the profit picture, the company

summarized the data in the following table based on deliveries for the previous quarter.

T y p e o f D e liv e ry

N u m b e r o f D e liv e rie s

D u rin g th e Q u a rte r

P ro fit p e r D e liv e ry

In s ta n t

Sam e day

W ith in fiv e d a y s

100

60

40

$ 70

100

160

A) $72

B) $110

C) $142

D) $97

E) $66.67

Answer: D

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

66. The U.S. Department of Education reported that for the past seven years 4,033, 5,652, 6,407, 7,201,

8,719, 11,154, and 15,121 people received bachelor's degrees in computer and information sciences.

What is the annual arithmetic mean number of degrees awarded?

A) About 12,240

B) About 8,327

C) About 6,217

D) About 15,962

Answer: B

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

AACSB: AS

67. Which measure of central location is found by arranging the data from smallest to largest and

selecting the middle value?

A) Arithmetic mean

B) Median

C) Mode

D) Geometric mean

E) Standard deviation

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

AACSB: REF

68. The number of students at a local university increased from 2,500 students to 5000 students in 10

years. Based on a geometric mean, the university grew at an average percentage rate of

A) 2,500 students per year

B) 1.071 percent per year

C) 7.1 percent per year

D) 250 students per year

Answer: C

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

38

69. A question in a market survey asks for a respondent's favorite car color. Which measure of central

location should be used to summarize this question?

A) Mode

B) Median

C) Mean

D) Geometric mean

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

70. Sometimes, data has two values that have the highest and equal frequencies. In this case, the

distribution of the data can best be summarized as

A) symmetric

B) bimodal (having two modes)

C) positively skewed

D) negatively skewed

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 2

71. A disadvantage of using an arithmetic mean to summarize a set of data is

A) The arithmetic mean sometimes has two values

B) It can be used for interval and ratio data

C) It is always different from the median

D) It can be biased by one or two extremely small or large values.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 2

72. The denominator for a mean of grouped data is:

A) N, the population size

B) n, the sample size

C) The sum of the group frequencies

D) The number of groups

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

73. The mean, as a measure of central location would be inappropriate for which one of the following?

A) Ages of adults at a senior citizen center

B) Incomes of lawyers

C) Number of pages in textbooks on statistics

D) Marital status of college students at a particular university

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 2

74. What is a disadvantage of the range as a measure of dispersion?

A) Based on only two observations

B) Can be distorted by a large mean

C) Not in the same units as the original data

D) Has no disadvantage

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 5

39

75. Rank the measures of dispersion in terms of their relative computational difficulty from least to most

difficulty.

A) Mode, median, mean

B) Range, mean deviation, variance

C) Variance, mean deviation, range

D) There is no difference

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

76. A purchasing agent for a trucking company is shopping for replacement tires for their trucks from two

suppliers. The suppliers' prices are the same. However, Supplier A's tires have an average life of 60,000

miles with a standard deviation of 10,000 miles. Supplier B's tires have an average life of 60,000 miles

with a standard deviation of 2,000 miles.

Which of the following statements is true?

A) The two distributions of tire life are the same

B) On average, Supplier A's tires have a longer life then Supplier B's tires

C) The life of Supplier B's tire is more predictable than the life of Supplier A's tires

D) The dispersion of Supplier A's tire life is less than the dispersion of Supplier B's tire life

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

AACSB: AS

77. The sum of the differences between sample observations and the sample mean is

A) Zero

B) The mean deviation

C) The range

D) The standard deviation

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

78. What disadvantage(s) are there of the mean deviation?

A) Based on only two observations

B) Based on deviations from the mean

C) Uses absolute values, which are difficult to manipulate

D) All of the above

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 5

79. Which of the following measures of dispersion are based on deviations from the mean?

A) Variance

B) Standard deviation

C) Mean deviation

D) All of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

40

80. What is the relationship between the variance and the standard deviation?

A) Variance is the square root of the standard deviation

B) Variance is the square of the standard deviation

C) Variance is twice the standard deviation

D) No constant relationship between the variance and the standard deviation

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

AACSB: REF

81. According to Chebyshev's Theorem, what percent of the observations lie within plus and minus 1.75

standard deviations of the mean?

A) 56%

B) 95%

C) 67%

D) Cannot compute because it depends on the shape of the distribution

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 6

82. What is the range for a sample of March electric bills amounts for all-electric homes of similar sizes

(to the nearest dollar): $212, $191, $176, $129, $106, $92, $108, $109, $103, $121, $175 and $194.

A) $100

B) $130

C) $120

D) $112

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

83. A survey of passengers on domestic flights revealed these miles:

1

5

9

1

1

2

00

00

00

30

70

10

M

up

up

up

0 u

0 u

0 u

ile s F lo w n

to 5 0 0

to 9 0 0

to 1 3 0 0

p to 1 7 0 0

p to 2 1 0 0

p to 2 5 0 0

A) 2,499

B) 1,100

C) 2,400

D) 1,999

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

41

N u m b e r o f P a sse n g e rs

16

41

81

11

9

6

Goal: 4

84. Which measure of dispersion disregards the algebraic signs (plus and minus) of each difference

between X and the mean?

A) Standard deviation

B) Mean deviation

C) Arithmetic mean

D) Variance

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

85. The following are the weekly amounts of welfare payments made by the federal government to a

sample of six families: $139, $136, $130, $136, $147 and $136. What is the range?

A) $0

B) $14

C) $52

D) $17

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

86. Measures of dispersion calculated from grouped data are

A) Estimates

B) Biased

C) Means

D) Skewed

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

87. The ages of a sample of the typewriters used by the typists in the typing pool were organized into the

following table:

A g e s (in y e a rs )

2 u p to 5

5 u p to 8

8 u p to 1 1

1 1 u p to 1 4

1 4 u p to 1 7

N um ber

2

5

10

4

2

A) About 10.2

B) About 6.1

C) About 14.0

D) About 3.2

E) None of the above

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

42

88. The weights of a sample of crates ready for shipment to Laos are (in kilograms): 103, 97, 101, 106

and 103. What is the mean deviation?

A) 0 kg

B) 6.9 kg

C) 102.0 kg

D) 2.4 kg

E) 9.0 kg

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

89. The closing prices of a common stock have been 61.5, 62, 61.25, 60.875 and 61.5 for the past week.

What is the range?

A) $1.250

B) $1.750

C) $1.125

D) $1.875

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

AACSB: AS

90. Ten experts rated a newly developed chocolate chip cookie on a scale of 1 to 50. Their ratings were:

34, 35, 41, 28, 26, 29, 32, 36, 38 and 40. What is the mean deviation?

A) 8.00

B) 4.12

C) 12.67

D) 0.75

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

91. The weights (in kilograms) of a group of crates being shipped to Panama are 95, 103, 110, 104, 105,

112 and 92. What is the mean deviation?

A) 5.43 kg

B) 6.25 kg

C) 0.53 kg

D) 52.50 kg

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

92. A sample of the personnel files of eight male employees revealed that, during a six-month period,

they lost the following number of days due to illness: 2, 0, 6, 3, 10, 4, 1 and 2. What is the mean

deviation (in days)?

A) 1

B) 0

C) 3 1/8

D) 2 3/8

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

43

93. A sample of the monthly amounts spent for food by families of four receiving food stamps

approximates a symmetrical distribution. The sample mean is $150 and the standard deviation is $20.

Using the Empirical Rule, about 95 percent of the monthly food expenditures are between what two

amounts?

A) $100 and $200

B) $85 and $105

C) $205 and $220

D) $110 and $190

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 6

94. The ages of all the patients in the isolation ward of the hospital are 38, 26, 13, 41 and 22. What is the

population variance?

A) 106.8

B) 91.4

C) 240.3

D) 42.4

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

AACSB: AS

95. A sample of assistant professors on the business faculty at state supported institutions in Ohio

revealed the mean income to be $32,000 for 9 months with a standard deviation of $3,000. Using

Chebyshev's Theorem, what proportion of the faculty earns more than $26,000 but less than $38,000?

A) At least 50%

B) At least 25%

C) At least 75%

D) At least 100%

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 6

96. A population consists of all the weights of all defensive tackles on Sociable University's football

team. They are: Johnson, 204 pounds; Patrick, 215 pounds; Junior, 207 pounds; Kendron, 212 pounds;

Nicko, 214 pounds; and Cochran, 208 pounds. What is the population standard deviation (in pounds)?

A) About 4

B) About 16

C) About 100

D) About 40

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

97. The weights (in grams) of the contents of several small bottles are 4, 2, 5, 4, 5, 2 and 6. What is the

sample variance?

A) 6.92

B) 4.80

C) 1.96

D) 2.33

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

44

98. Each person who applies for an assembly job at Robert's Electronics is given a mechanical aptitude

test. One part of the test involves assembling a plug-in unit based on numbered instructions. A sample of

the length of time it took 42 persons to assemble the unit was organized into the following frequency

distribution.

L e n g th o f T im e (in m in u te s )

1 u p to 4

4 u p to 7

7 u p to 1 0

1 0 u p to 1 3

1 3 u p to 1 6

1 6 u p to 1 9

N um ber

4

8

14

9

5

2

A) 3.89

B) 6.01

C) 8.78

D) 17.00

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

99. The distribution of a sample of the outside diameters of PVC gas pipes approximates a symmetrical,

bell-shaped distribution. The arithmetic mean is 14.0 inches, and the standard deviation is 0.1 inches.

About 68 percent of the outside diameters lie between what two amounts?

A) 13.5 and 14.5 inches

B) 13.0 and 15.0 inches

C) 13.9 and 14.1 inches

D) 13.8 and 14.2 inches

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 6

100. A sample of the daily number of passengers per bus riding the Bee Line commuter route yielded the

following information:

N u m b e r o f P a sse n g e rs

0 u p to 5

5 u p to 1 0

1 0 u p to 1 5

1 5 u p to 2 0

2 0 u p to 2 5

F re q u e n c y

4

9

15

10

2

A) About 5.2

B) About 20.0

C) About 12.9

D) About 2.3

Answer: A

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 4

45

101. If the sample variance for a frequency distribution consisting of hourly wages was computed to be

10, what is the sample standard deviation?

A) $1.96

B) $4.67

C) $3.16

D) $10.00

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

102. Based on the Empirical Rule, what percent of the observations will lie above the mean plus two

standard deviations?

A) 95%

B) 5%

C) 68%

D) 2.5%

Answer: D

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 6

103. Samples of the wires coming off the production line were tested for tensile strength. The statistical

results (in PSI) were:

Arithmetic mean

Mode

Quartile deviation

Range

500

500

25

240

Median

Standard deviation

Mean deviation

Sample size

500

40

32

100

According to the Empirical Rule, the middle 95 percent of the wires tested between approximately what

two values?

A) 450 and 550

B) 460 and 540

C) 420 and 580

D) 380 and 620

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 6

Fill-in-the-Blank

104. What measure of central location uses all of the observations in its calculation? ______________

Answer: mean

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

105. What is the class with the largest number of observations called? ______________

Answer: mode

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

106. If a set of observations contains an extreme value and none of the observations repeat themselves,

what is the most representative measure of central location? ? _____________

Answer: median

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

46

107. The value that occurs most often in a set of data is called the _____

Answer: mode

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

108. The weekly sales from a sample of ten computer stores yielded a mean of $25,900; a median

$25,000 and a mode of $24,500. What is the shape of the distribution? ___________________

Answer: positively skewed

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 3

109. Which measure of central location requires that the data be ranked before it is possible to determine

it? _____________

Answer: median

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

110. A statistic computed by summing all of the values of a distribution and dividing by the number of

values is called: _____________

Answer: arithmetic mean

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

111. If a distribution is highly skewed, what measure of central location should be avoided?

_____________

Answer: mean

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 3

112. If the n-th root is taken of the product of ""n"" values, what is the result? _____________________

Answer: geometric mean

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

113. What is a characteristic of a population called? __________________

Answer: parameter

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

114. A sample revealed that the ages of musicians playing in small local combos are 36, 29, 37, 32, 36

and 75. What is the most appropriate measure of central location to represent the ages of the musicians?

______________

Answer: median

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 2

115. What measure of central location cannot be determined if the distribution has an open-ended class?

______________________.

Answer: arithmetic mean

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 2

116. What is the measure of central location used to determine the average annual percent increase in

sales from one time period to another? __________________

Answer: geometric mean

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

117. What is the smallest measure of central location in a positively skewed distribution? ____________

Answer: mode

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 3

47

118. A small manufacturing company with 52 employees has annual salaries distributed such that the

mean is $25,459, the median is $24,798 and the mode is $24,000. An additional foreman is hired at an

annual salary of $50,700. What measure of central location that is most affected by the addition of this

salary? ____________________

Answer: arithmetic mean

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 2

119. What is the relationship between the mean and median in a negatively skewed distribution?

________________

Answer: mean is less than the median

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 3

120. What is the relationship between the median and the mode in a positively skewed distribution?

_________________

Answer: median is greater than the mode

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 3

121. Five students were given a page of problems with the instructions to solve as many as they could in

one hour. Five students solved the following number of problems: 12, 10, 8, 6 and 4. What is the

arithmetic mean number of minutes required per problem?________

Answer: 7.5 minutes (average of 8 problems in an hour)

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

122. David Electronics had a profit of $10 million in 2002. Profit doubled from 2002 to 2003 and profit

increased eight fold from 2003 to 2004. What was the annual geometric mean rate of growth from 2002

to 2004? ______________

Answer: 300% (4 fold)

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

123. What is the difference between the largest and the smallest values in a set of data? __________

Answer: range

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

124. When is the only time the variance equals the standard deviation? ________________

Answer: both equal 1

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

125. According to the Empirical Rule, what percent of the observations lie within plus and minus one

standard deviation of the mean? ________

Answer: 68

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 6

126. What is the positive square root of the standard deviation? _________

Answer: variance

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

127. The capacities of several metal containers are: 38, 20, 37, 64, and 27 liters. What is the range in

liters? _____

Answer: 44 liters

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

48

128. What does the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean equal?

_____________________________________

Answer: zero

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 4

129. A company studied the commissions paid to furniture salespersons. If the variance is computed,

what would be measured the unit of measure? ____________

Answer: dollars squared

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

130. A study measured the number of hours a light bulb will operate before it burns out. If the variance

of this distribution were computed, what would be the unit of measure? _____________________

Answer: hours squared

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 4

Use the following to answer questions 131-141.

A sample of five full service gasoline stations, each carrying three grades of gasoline, was taken and the

price per gallon (to the nearest cent) was recorded for each grade of gasoline, as shown in the table below.

Gasolin

eUnleaded

Unleaded Plus

Super Unleaded

STATION

1

2

$2.27 $2.27

2.36

2.37

2.47

2.49

3

$2.27

2.38

2.50

4

$2.27

2.38

2.50

5

$2.27

2.40

2.59

Answer: $2.27

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

132. What is the mean price of Unleaded Plus gas? ________

Answer: $2.38

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

133. What is the mean price of Super Unleaded gas? ________

Answer: $2.51

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

134. What is the median price of Unleaded gas? ________

Answer: $2.27

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

135. What is the median price of Unleaded Plus gas? ________

Answer: $2.38

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

136. What is the median price of Super Unleaded gas? ________

Answer: $2.50

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

49

Answer: $2.27

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

138. What is the modal price of Unleaded Plus gas? ________

Answer: $2.38

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

139. For Unleaded gas, which measure of central location would be the lowest?

Answer: all the same

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 3

140. For Super Unleaded gas, which measure of central location would be the highest? _____________

Answer: mean

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 3

141. For Unleaded Plus gas, which measure of central location would not be appropriate to use?

____________

Answer: mode

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 3

Use the following to answer questions 142-145:

Refer to the following:

The weights of a sample of 100 boxes shipped by Air France from New York to Paris are:

W e ig h ts (p o u n d s )

5 0 u p to 7 5

7 5 u p to 1 0 0

1 0 0 u p to 1 2 5

1 2 5 u p to 1 5 0

1 5 0 u p to 1 7 5

N um ber

4

16

21

46

13

142. What is the approximate mode for the grouped data? ______________

Answer: 137.5 lbs.

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 1

143. What is the approximate mean for the grouped data? _______________

Answer: 124.5 lbs.

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

144. What is the approximate median for the grouped data? _____________

Answer: 0.41

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

50

Multiple Choice

145. The mean for this data is referred to as the

A) Sample mean

B) Population mean

C) Estimated mean

D) Weighted mean

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

Fill-in-the-Blank

Use the following to answer questions 146-149:

A company's human resource department was interested in the average number of years that a person

works before retiring. The sample of size 11 follows:

12

16

18

19

21

21

21

22

24

24

26

Answer: 21

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

147. What is the arithmetic mean? __________

Answer: 20.4

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 1

148. What is the median? ____________

Answer: 21

Difficulty: Easy

Goal: 3

149. Based on the values of the arithmetic mean, median, and mode, what is the most likely shape of the

distribution? __________________

Answer: symmetric

Difficulty: Hard

Goal: 1

51

Essay

150. What are the similarities and differences between the mean, the median, and the mode?

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 2

Answer:

Answers may vary but should include the following points. While all are measures of a distribution's

central location, each is computed and interpreted differently. The mean is the average of all values in a

data set. Its value is affected by extreme values (small and large) in the data set. In this case, the mean is

probably not a good measure of a distribution's central location. The median is also a measure of central

location. However, its value is determined by sorting or arranging data in order and then finding the

value in the middle of the sorted list. Therefore, 50% of all data set values are less than the median, and

50% are greater than the median. The median is not affected by extreme values in a dataset. The mode is

the value in a dataset that has the highest frequency. Sometimes a data set may have more than one mode

because more than one value has the highest and equal frequency.

151. What are the similarities and differences between the range and the standard deviation?

Difficulty: Medium

Goal: 5

Answer:

Both are measures of a distribution's dispersion. However, each is computed differently and have a

different interpretation. The range is computed as the difference between the maximum and minimum

values in a dataset. It represents the dispersion or spread of the data. The standard deviation is based on

the squared differences between all dataset values and the mean of the dataset. In contrast to the range,

the standard deviation measures the dispersion of data values in relation to the mean or central location of

a distribution. Another way to interpret the standard deviation is a measure of the concentration of dataset

values near the mean.

152. When reporting descriptive statistics for a variable, why should the report include measures of

location and dispersion? Difficulty: Hard Goal: 6

Answer: The key is to know that every variable has a distribution. The distribution can be described

using measures of location and dispersion. A measure of location is used to describe the center of the

distribution or the most typical value of the variable. The description must also include a measure of the

dispersion or spread of the distribution. While the range simply shows the spread of a distribution, the

mean deviation and standard deviation measure the concentration of the distribution around the mean.

52

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