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# E1 Détails

Vishal Maheshwari
E1 Fundamentals
Analog to Digital Conversion of a voice signal

• For quality voice transmission the sample rate needs to be at least two
times the highest frequency, typically 3500 Hz. For this reason a sample
rate of 8000 times per second is used.
• Each sample of the signal has an amplitude component this is represented
by an 8 bits binary code.
• Putting these numbers together we have an:
• 8000 Hz (sample rate)
• x 8 bits (binary code)
• = 64000 bits per second (representing one time slot channel)
• The coding technique used for E-1 transmission systems is called “A-law”
companding. In T-1 transmission systems, “µ-law” companding is used
which uses a different method of representing of the amplitude in its 8 bit
binary code.
• The technique used to convert analog to digital is Pulse Code Modulation
or PCM
E1 Transmission Format

• A Frame;
• An E1 system consists of 32 time slots which contain the 64 kbit/s consecutive samples. This is
called a frame.
• The Transmission Rate;
• When combined together 32 time slots x 64 Kbits/s = 2048 Kbits/s which is the speed of the E-1
transmission system.
• ITU-T Specifications;
• ITU-T Rec. G.703
– Bit rate: 2048 Kbit/s +/- 50 ppm
– Code: HDB3 (high density bipolar 3)
Pulse shape All marks of a valid signal must conform with the mask
Table 6/G.703 (normally rectangular) (see figure 15/G.703) irrespective of the sign. The value V
corresponds to the peak value.

## Ratio of the amplitude of positive and negative pulses at 0.95 to 1.05

the centre of the pulse interval

## Ratio of the widths of positive and negative pulses 0.95 to 1.05

at the normal half amplitude

## Maximum peak-to peak jitter at an output port Refer to § 2 of Recommendation G.823

E1 Transmission Format

ITU-T Specifications;
• ITU-T Rec. fig.15/G.703
sample capture of an
E1 signal with the
E1 CAS Transmission Format
ITU-T Rec. G.704

## Multiframe (16 frames)

Frame 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

## Frame 0 (32 Time Slots) Frame 1 (32 Time Slots)

Time Slot 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415161718192021222324252627282930310 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031

Time Slot 0
Time Slot 1 Speech Time Slot 16 Speech Time Slot 0 Speech Time Slot 16 Speech
(8 bits)
Speech (Ch. 1) Ch. 1-15 (8 bits) Ch. 16-30 (8 bits) Ch. 1-15 Signalling Bits Ch. 16-30
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LSB 11111111
X0011011 0 0 0 0X0XX X1 0XXXXX
00000000 Fr. 0 0 Ch.
0 0 0 0Ch.
00
Multi-
Frame Changes to 1 on Changes to 1 on
Frame A BCD A BCD
Alignment loss of distant loss of distant frame
Alignment
Word Word multiframe (remote alarm) 1 1 16
Not-Frame 2 2 17
alignment word
3 3 18
• Time Slot 16 : Frames 2 through 15 are the same as frame 1 : : :
15 15 30
• Time Slot 0: Even number frames 2 through 14 are the same as frame 0
• Time Slot 0: Odd number frames 3 through 15 are the same as frame 1

## 1 = bit set to 1 0 = bit set to 0

1/0 = speech / signalling (varying data) X = unassigned bit (normally set to 1)
E1 CAS Transmission Format

## Applying this framing method to the Omniplexer.

• TS 0 is used for framing and alarm information
• TS 16 contains the voice signalling bits:
– the A bit is used for the call status indication.
– the B bit is used as a busy indication.
– bit C & D are not used in most voice applications.
• The Omniplexer assigns channel numbers 1 to 30, for usable transmission.

## ITU-T G.704 (32 Time Slots)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

## Omniplexer - 30 Channel Assignments

- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 - 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
E1 CCS Transmission Format
ITU-T Rec. G.704

## Time Slot 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516171819202122232425262728293031

Speech
Ch. 1-31
Time Slot 0 Time Slot 1
(8 bits) Speech (Ch. 1)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
X 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Frame
Alignment
Word

## Applying this framing method to the OMNIBranch and OMNIFlex.

• TS 0 is used for framing and alarm information
• The OMNIBranch assigns channel numbers 1 to 31, for usable transmission.

## CCITT G.704 (32 Time Slots)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

## OMNIBranch / OMNIFlex - 31 Time Slot Assignments

- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
PDH Asynchronous Transmission Format

## • 32 time slots = an E1 (2.048 Mbps)

(30 user channels + 1 synchronization and 1 framing channel)

## • 16 x E1 = E3 (34.368 Mbps) 480 channel PCM system

SDH Synchronous Transmission Format

## • 32 time slots = 1 x E1 (2.048 Mbps)

(30 user channels + sync and framing)

## • 4 x STM4 = STM16 (2500 Mbps or 2.5 Gbps)

Theory of Drop & Insert

• The conventional way of performing drop and insert is with the use of back-to-
back channel banks.
• At a Drop/Insert site all channels are converted to analog levels.

## Site A Site B Site C Site D Site E

Channel Bank Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Channel
D/A A/D D/A A/D D/A A/D Bank

E1 E1 E1 E1

## Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Drop/Insert

analog channels analog channels analog channels

 While this technique works, there are several draw backs including:
» Distortion caused by the multiple D/A and A/D conversion is cumulative across the system.
» The overall high cost of the system
» Increase in noise level
OMNIPlexer Drop & Insert

• The Omniplexer allows for drop and insert at every site but only converts to
analog the channels that are required. The remaining are passed through
digitally.

A B C D E
Channel Bank Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Channel Bank

## Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Drop/Insert

channels channels channels

## Drop Insert Pass through

Synchronization
Point - Point

E1 Tx with Clock E1 Rx

Bi-Directional E1

E1 Rx E1 Tx with Clock

## Master Clock Source Loop Time Mode

- Internal Stratum III clock Redirects incoming clock
Or to outbound E1
- External Clock

## • Only one E1 clock in the network

• Far end is loop timed to keep both directions of E1 synchronized
Synchronization
Drop/Insert

West E1 East E1

## • Mux clock derived from

Master Clock Source Loop Time Mode
West and East E1 clocks
- Internal Stratum III Clock - Redirects incoming clock
+/- 128 bit slip buffer
Or to outbound E1
- External Clock
Recovered Mode
- Clock extracted from
incoming E1

## • Only one E1 clock in the network

• Drop/Insert terminal recovers clock from incoming E1
• Far end is loop timed to keep both directions of E1 synchronized
Point-to-Point E1
Single Hop

E1; 1 – 30 channels

• Voice • Voice
• Full-Rate Data • Full-Rate Data
• Sub-Rate Data • Sub-Rate Data
Point-to-Point E1
3 Hops

E1; 12 channels

E1; 8 channels

E1; 10 channels

## • Poor utilization of E1’s

• Excessive multiplex equipment
• Does not support multipoint interface
Drop/Insert E1
3 Hops

## E1; 30 channels (12+8+10)

E1; 18 channels
• 12 channels (8+10)

• 30 channels

• 8 channels

## • Good utilization of E1’s

• Minimal multiplex equipment
• Supports multipoint interfaces E1; 10 channels

• 10 channels

Drop/Insert
Channel Re-Use

## Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

V V V V V V
F F F F F F

TS #1
TS #1 D/I to Site 1
D/I to Site 2

TS #1 TS #1
D/I to Site 3 D/I to Site 2
(Re-Use)
TS #2
To Site 3 TS #2
Pass Through Site 2 To Site 1

## • Time-slot #1 is re-used at Site 2

• Individual channels may be dropped and re-used
• Time-slots “pass through” site where channel is not accessed
Drop/Insert
Sub-Channel Re-Use

L L L L
S S S S
D D D D
C C C C
M M M M

Drop TS-1
Sub-Ch A,B
from Site 1

## Insert into TS-1 Insert TS-1 Drop TS-1

Sub-Channels Sub-Ch A,B Sub-Ch
A,B to Site 2 to Site 3 A,B from Site
C,D to Site 3 2
C,D fro Site 1

## • Time slot divided into 8 data sub-channels

• Individual sub-channels may be dropped and
inserted
Drop/Insert
Multidrop Interfaces

## Insert into TS-1 Drop TS-1 Drop TS-1

Multipoint Voice or Multidrop Voice or Multidrop Voice or
Data Channel Data Channel Data Channel

## Applications: Time slot digitally bridged and

dropped at each site
• Polling Channels
• Inter-Station communications
• Maintenance Orderwire channels
E1 Testing
E1 Bit Error Rate Testing

## Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

E1
Test
Set

Laptop or PC connected to
Local Port

## • From one location, technician can selectively test each link

• E1 remote loopback enabled sequentially to test link-by-link
• Testing performed in both “West” and “East” directions (using drop/insert E1 test set)
• Can test entire E1 bandwidth or time slot increments
• Duration of test is ½ to 1 hour
• Error rate of 10E-6 is acceptable, error rate of 10E-8 to 10E-9 is expected
• OMNIPlexer’s built-in E1 error rate testing will raise alarm if error rate rises above pre-programmed
threshold (10E-6 to 10E-9)
E1 Testing
Data Channel Testing

## Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

D D
C C
M M

Data
Test
Set

• From one location, technician can perform end-to-end bit error rate test for each data circuit
• Data channel remote loopback enabled
• Can test entire one time slot, multiple time slots or sub-rate time slot data channels
• Duration of test is ½ to 1 hour
• Error rate of 10E-6 is acceptable, error rate of 10E-8 to 10E-9 is expected
E1 Testing
Voice Channel Testing

## Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

E E
& &
M M

Analog Level
Meter

Analog Signal
Generator

• From one location, technician can perform end-to-end bit test for each analog circuit
• Analog channel remote loopback enabled
• Measure analog level, signal-to-noise ratio, noise floor, distortion