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E1 Détails

Vishal Maheshwari
E1 Fundamentals
Analog to Digital Conversion of a voice signal

• For quality voice transmission the sample rate needs to be at least two
times the highest frequency, typically 3500 Hz. For this reason a sample
rate of 8000 times per second is used.
• Each sample of the signal has an amplitude component this is represented
by an 8 bits binary code.
• Putting these numbers together we have an:
• 8000 Hz (sample rate)
• x 8 bits (binary code)
• = 64000 bits per second (representing one time slot channel)
• The coding technique used for E-1 transmission systems is called “A-law”
companding. In T-1 transmission systems, “µ-law” companding is used
which uses a different method of representing of the amplitude in its 8 bit
binary code.
• The technique used to convert analog to digital is Pulse Code Modulation
or PCM
E1 Transmission Format

• A Frame;
• An E1 system consists of 32 time slots which contain the 64 kbit/s consecutive samples. This is
called a frame.
• The Transmission Rate;
• When combined together 32 time slots x 64 Kbits/s = 2048 Kbits/s which is the speed of the E-1
transmission system.
• ITU-T Specifications;
• ITU-T Rec. G.703
– Bit rate: 2048 Kbit/s +/- 50 ppm
– Code: HDB3 (high density bipolar 3)
Pulse shape All marks of a valid signal must conform with the mask
Table 6/G.703 (normally rectangular) (see figure 15/G.703) irrespective of the sign. The value V
corresponds to the peak value.

Pair(s) in each direction One coaxial pair One symmetrical pair

Test load impedance 75 ohms resistive 120 ohms resistive

Nominal peak voltage of a mask (pulse) 2.37 V 3V

Peak voltage of a space (no pulse) 0 ± 0.237 V 0 ± 0.3 V

Nominal pulse width 244 ns

Ratio of the amplitude of positive and negative pulses at 0.95 to 1.05


the centre of the pulse interval

Ratio of the widths of positive and negative pulses 0.95 to 1.05


at the normal half amplitude

Maximum peak-to peak jitter at an output port Refer to § 2 of Recommendation G.823


E1 Transmission Format

ITU-T Specifications;
• ITU-T Rec. fig.15/G.703
sample capture of an
E1 signal with the
pulse shape mask
E1 CAS Transmission Format
ITU-T Rec. G.704

Multiframe (16 frames)


Frame 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Frame 0 (32 Time Slots) Frame 1 (32 Time Slots)


Time Slot 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415161718192021222324252627282930310 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031

Time Slot 0
Time Slot 1 Speech Time Slot 16 Speech Time Slot 0 Speech Time Slot 16 Speech
(8 bits)
Speech (Ch. 1) Ch. 1-15 (8 bits) Ch. 16-30 (8 bits) Ch. 1-15 Signalling Bits Ch. 16-30
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LSB 11111111
X0011011 0 0 0 0X0XX X1 0XXXXX
00000000 Fr. 0 0 Ch.
0 0 0 0Ch.
00
Multi-
Frame Changes to 1 on Changes to 1 on
Frame A BCD A BCD
Alignment loss of distant loss of distant frame
Alignment
Word Word multiframe (remote alarm) 1 1 16
Not-Frame 2 2 17
alignment word
3 3 18
• Time Slot 16 : Frames 2 through 15 are the same as frame 1 : : :
15 15 30
• Time Slot 0: Even number frames 2 through 14 are the same as frame 0
• Time Slot 0: Odd number frames 3 through 15 are the same as frame 1

1 = bit set to 1 0 = bit set to 0


1/0 = speech / signalling (varying data) X = unassigned bit (normally set to 1)
E1 CAS Transmission Format

Applying this framing method to the Omniplexer.


• TS 0 is used for framing and alarm information
• TS 16 contains the voice signalling bits:
– the A bit is used for the call status indication.
– the B bit is used as a busy indication.
– bit C & D are not used in most voice applications.
• The Omniplexer assigns channel numbers 1 to 30, for usable transmission.

ITU-T G.704 (32 Time Slots)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Omniplexer - 30 Channel Assignments

- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 - 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
E1 CCS Transmission Format
ITU-T Rec. G.704

Frame (32 Time Slots)

Time Slot 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516171819202122232425262728293031

Speech
Ch. 1-31
Time Slot 0 Time Slot 1
(8 bits) Speech (Ch. 1)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
X 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Frame
Alignment
Word

Applying this framing method to the OMNIBranch and OMNIFlex.


• TS 0 is used for framing and alarm information
• The OMNIBranch assigns channel numbers 1 to 31, for usable transmission.

CCITT G.704 (32 Time Slots)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

OMNIBranch / OMNIFlex - 31 Time Slot Assignments

- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
PDH Asynchronous Transmission Format

• PDH = Pleisiochronous Digital Hierarchy

• One time slot channel = 64000 bits per second or 64 Kbps

• 32 time slots = an E1 (2.048 Mbps)


(30 user channels + 1 synchronization and 1 framing channel)

• 4 x E1 = E2 (8.448 Mbps), 120 channel PCM system

• 4 x E2 = E3 (34.368 Mbps) 480 channel PCM system

• 16 x E1 = E3 (34.368 Mbps) 480 channel PCM system


SDH Synchronous Transmission Format

• SDH = Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

• 32 time slots = 1 x E1 (2.048 Mbps)


(30 user channels + sync and framing)

• 63 x E1 = STM1 (155 Mbps)

• 4 x STM1 = STM4 (622 Mbps)

• 4 x STM4 = STM16 (2500 Mbps or 2.5 Gbps)


Theory of Drop & Insert

• The conventional way of performing drop and insert is with the use of back-to-
back channel banks.
• At a Drop/Insert site all channels are converted to analog levels.

Site A Site B Site C Site D Site E


Channel Bank Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Channel
D/A A/D D/A A/D D/A A/D Bank

E1 E1 E1 E1

Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Drop/Insert


analog channels analog channels analog channels

 While this technique works, there are several draw backs including:
» Distortion caused by the multiple D/A and A/D conversion is cumulative across the system.
» The overall high cost of the system
» Increase in noise level
OMNIPlexer Drop & Insert

• The Omniplexer allows for drop and insert at every site but only converts to
analog the channels that are required. The remaining are passed through
digitally.

A B C D E
Channel Bank Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Channel Bank

Drop/Insert Drop/Insert Drop/Insert


channels channels channels

Drop Insert Pass through


Synchronization
Point - Point

E1 Tx with Clock E1 Rx

Bi-Directional E1

E1 Rx E1 Tx with Clock

Master Clock Source Loop Time Mode


- Internal Stratum III clock Redirects incoming clock
Or to outbound E1
- External Clock

• Only one E1 clock in the network


• Far end is loop timed to keep both directions of E1 synchronized
Synchronization
Drop/Insert

West E1 East E1

• Mux clock derived from


Master Clock Source Loop Time Mode
West and East E1 clocks
- Internal Stratum III Clock - Redirects incoming clock
+/- 128 bit slip buffer
Or to outbound E1
- External Clock
Recovered Mode
- Clock extracted from
incoming E1

• Only one E1 clock in the network


• Drop/Insert terminal recovers clock from incoming E1
• Far end is loop timed to keep both directions of E1 synchronized
Point-to-Point E1
Single Hop

E1; 1 – 30 channels

• Voice • Voice
• Full-Rate Data • Full-Rate Data
• Sub-Rate Data • Sub-Rate Data
Point-to-Point E1
3 Hops

E1; 12 channels

E1; 8 channels

E1; 10 channels

• Poor utilization of E1’s


• Excessive multiplex equipment
• Does not support multipoint interface
Drop/Insert E1
3 Hops

E1; 30 channels (12+8+10)

E1; 18 channels
• 12 channels (8+10)

• 30 channels

• 8 channels

• Good utilization of E1’s


• Minimal multiplex equipment
• Supports multipoint interfaces E1; 10 channels

• 10 channels
Drop/Insert Advantages

• Supports time-slot channel re-use

• Supports sub-rate data channel re-use

• Supports multipoint (miltidrop) voice and data interfaces

• Low throughput delay (less than 100 microseconds)

• Low jitter accumulation


Drop/Insert
Channel Re-Use

Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

V V V V V V
F F F F F F

TS #1
TS #1 D/I to Site 1
D/I to Site 2

TS #1 TS #1
D/I to Site 3 D/I to Site 2
(Re-Use)
TS #2
To Site 3 TS #2
Pass Through Site 2 To Site 1

• Time-slot #1 is re-used at Site 2


• Individual channels may be dropped and re-used
• Time-slots “pass through” site where channel is not accessed
Drop/Insert
Sub-Channel Re-Use

Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

L L L L
S S S S
D D D D
C C C C
M M M M

Drop TS-1
Sub-Ch A,B
from Site 1

Insert into TS-1 Insert TS-1 Drop TS-1


Sub-Channels Sub-Ch A,B Sub-Ch
A,B to Site 2 to Site 3 A,B from Site
C,D to Site 3 2
C,D fro Site 1

• Time slot divided into 8 data sub-channels


• Individual sub-channels may be dropped and
inserted
Drop/Insert
Multidrop Interfaces

Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

Insert into TS-1 Drop TS-1 Drop TS-1


Multipoint Voice or Multidrop Voice or Multidrop Voice or
Data Channel Data Channel Data Channel

Applications: Time slot digitally bridged and


dropped at each site
• Polling Channels
• SCADA Systems
• Inter-Station communications
• Maintenance Orderwire channels
E1 Testing
E1 Bit Error Rate Testing

Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

E1
Test
Set

Laptop or PC connected to
Local Port

• From one location, technician can selectively test each link


• E1 remote loopback enabled sequentially to test link-by-link
• Testing performed in both “West” and “East” directions (using drop/insert E1 test set)
• Can test entire E1 bandwidth or time slot increments
• Duration of test is ½ to 1 hour
• Error rate of 10E-6 is acceptable, error rate of 10E-8 to 10E-9 is expected
• OMNIPlexer’s built-in E1 error rate testing will raise alarm if error rate rises above pre-programmed
threshold (10E-6 to 10E-9)
E1 Testing
Data Channel Testing

Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

D D
C C
M M

Data
Test
Set

• From one location, technician can perform end-to-end bit error rate test for each data circuit
• Data channel remote loopback enabled
• Can test entire one time slot, multiple time slots or sub-rate time slot data channels
• Duration of test is ½ to 1 hour
• Error rate of 10E-6 is acceptable, error rate of 10E-8 to 10E-9 is expected
E1 Testing
Voice Channel Testing

Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

E E
& &
M M

Analog Level
Meter

Analog Signal
Generator

• From one location, technician can perform end-to-end bit test for each analog circuit
• Analog channel remote loopback enabled
• Measure analog level, signal-to-noise ratio, noise floor, distortion