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Experiment Torque

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Abstract

The experiment used the beam as the system in order to analyze

systems using the second condition of equilibrium. The data shows

that the group was able to put the beam into equilibrium with respect

to the second condition of equilibrium or rotational equilibrium.

The

acting on a body is zero which would cause the object to have zero

angular momentum and cause no rotation on the object or the body.

The experiment also conclude that in order to keep the system in both

the translational and the rotational equilibrium, the sum of all the

forces and the torques should be zero. The total summation of forces

and torques on the object means that the forces and torques acting on

the body balances each other. The experiment also found out that the

factors affecting torque is the force applied on the body and the

distance of the point where the force is being applied from the axis of

rotation. Which means that torque is directly proportional to both the

force applied and the distance or displacement from the axis of

rotation.

II.

Objectives

The main objectives of this Physics laboratory experiment were

to (a) analyze systems in equilibrium using the second condition and

(b) to distinguish some of second condition of equilibriums use and

experiment was able to understand the applications and significance of

the second condition of equilibrium in which the group also learned the

principles of torque acting on rigid bodies.

III.

Procedure

In this Physics laboratory experiment, the materials that are

used are (a) one set model balance, (b) one set weights, (c) one piece

meter stick, (d) one piece protractor, (e) two pieces weight pans, and

(f) one piece spring balance.

In Procedure A, the weight of the fans were determined. First,

the model balance was set up, the group made sure that the axis of

rotation passed through the center of gravity of the beam. Second, the

pans were marked as P1 and P2, then a 10-g weight (W1) was placed on

P1 and the two pans were placed on the beam and the system was put

in equilibrium and measured L1 and L2. Third, the weight from P1 were

taken off and a W2 of 5 g was placed on P2 and the system was set

again in equilibrium and L3 and L4 were measured. Fourth, procedures 2

and 3 were repeated for trials 2 (where W1 = 15 and W2 = 25 g) and 3

(where W1 = 30 and W2 = 20 g).

In Procedure B, the force need to be in equilibrium was

determined. First, The spring balance = was placed and W1 = 50 g was

weighted on P1 at the left side of the beam. The group made sure that

the angle of inclination of the spring balance was less than 90 and the

beam was kept in its horizontal position. Second, the reading of the

spring balance was recorded and marked as F

Measured

. Third the

distance of P1 and the spring balance were measured from the axis of

rotation and were marked as L1 and L2 respectively. Fourth, the angle

of inclination () of the spring balance with the beam was measured.

Fifth, the second condition of equilibrium was used to compute the

force F exerted by the spring balance on the beam to keep it in

equilibrium. Sixth, procedures 1-5 were repeated but the spring

balance was placed on the right side of the beam this time.

In Procedure C, the weight of the beam was determined. First.

The second hole of the beam was used as the axis of rotation so that

the center of the gravity of the beam did not pass through the new

axis of rotation. Second, a W1 = 50 g was placed on P1 and its location

was adjusted to have the system in equilibrium. The distance between

P1 and WB from the axis of rotation was measured and was marked as

L1 and L2 respectively. Fourth, the weight of the beam, WB, was

computed. Fifth, procedures 1-4 were repeated for trials 2 (where W1

IV.

Interpretation of Data and Results

Actual value of pan 1, P1 = grams

Actual value of pan 2, P2 = grams

Trial

L1

L2

L3

L4

1 W1 = 10 g 18.3 cm

25 cm 21.5 cm 17.5 cm

W2 = 5 g

2 W1 = 15 g 12.6 cm 19.6 cm 20 cm

10.1 cm

P1(computed)

23.8 g

P2(computed)

25.4 g

23.58 g

24.11 g

W2 = 25 g

W1 = 30 g

W2 = 20 g

11.4 cm

25 cm

25 cm

14.1 cm

24.39 g

23.97 g

Average weight of pan 2, P2 = 24.5 grams

Percent Difference for pan 1, P1 = 3.49 %

Percent Difference for pan 2, P2 = 1.22 %

Computation

Table 1 shows the different computed values for P1 and P2 for the

three trials conducted. It can be observed that for each trials different

weights were added on the weight pans but it could be observed that

the P1 and P2 are still almost the same as shown by the percentage

difference for P1 and P2. The small percentage difference for both P1

and P2 shows that the group was able to maintain the beam in

equilibrium through the three trials as for each trials, different weights

were put to the pans.

Tria

L1

L2

W1 + P 1

F Computed

F Measured

%difference

l

1

25 cm

7.5 cm

74.8 g

44.35 g

43.88 g

1.07 %

2

15 cm

12.5 cm

74.8 g

9.75 g

9.69 g

0.62 %

Computation

equilibrium, for the two trials conducted the force needed is both

measured and calculated. The measured force was measured using the

spring balance, the small percent difference of the measured force

from the calculated force shows that the group was able to bring the

beam into equilibrium in the two trials. Which means that the angle

the group inclined the spring balance from the beam was less than 90

and that is why the beam was put into equilibrium.

TABLE 3. Determining the Weight of the Beam

Tria

l

1

2

3

L1

L2

13.5 cm

12 cm

10.7 cm

7.5 cm

7.5 cm

7.5 cm

W1 + P1

WB (Computed)

WB (Measured)

74.8 g

134.64 g

84.8 g

135.68 g

135.1 g

94.8 g

135.248 g

Average weight of Beam, WB = 135.19 grams

Percent Difference = 0.07 %

Computation

Table 3 shows that actual value of the weight of the beam (WB

(Measured)

) and the computed weight of the beam (WB (Computed)). The very

value of the weight of the beam to its actual value means that the

group was also able to put the beam into equilibrium while weighing it

in this part of this experiment. Which also shows that the group was

able to put the second condition of equilibrium on the beam

throughout the experiment.

V.

Conclusion

From the data gathered and interpreted from the results of the

experiment, the group learned the principles of the second condition of

equilibrium. The group learned to analyze systems on equilibrium

using the second condition of equilibrium and hot to put it in

application in objects and activities. As from this experiment, the

group used the beam as the system to be put it the equilibrium and

the data shows that the group was able to put the beam into

equilibrium with respect to the second condition of equilibrium.

Therefore it can be concluded that, the second condition of

equilibrium is where all the summation of torques acting on a body is

zero which would cause the object to have zero angular momentum

and cause no rotation on the object or the body. Thus it can be also

concluded that when the object is in rotational equilibrium it does not

mean that the object or the system is also in translational equilibrium.

This is because translational equilibrium is defined as all the forces

acting on the system is equal to zero or simply the first condition of

equilibrium and rotational equilibrium is defined as the second

condition of equilibrium. Then it means that it order to keep the

system in both the translational and the rotational equilibrium, the

sum of all the forces and the torques should be zero. The total

summation of forces and torques on the object means that the forces

and torques acting on the body balances each other. Torque is defined

as the rotational force or the ability of a force to rotate a body, and

torque is the force applied on the body and the distance of the point

where the force is being applied from the axis of rotation.

These concepts can be shown in the experiment conducted. For

example in Part A, the P1 with added weights was moved closer to the

rotational axis and the P2 where no weights was added was moved

farther from the axis. The same way, the spring balance was not

inclined equal to 90 as the force needed to be in equilibrium would be

measured as zero because the force being applied would be in the

same direction of the object. Lastly in Part C, the support of the beam

was adjusted to the second hole to expose the effect of the gravity on

the beam, which means that on that part of the experiment, the beam

is not in equilibrium. These examples are also concluded to be the

possible sources of errors in this experiment.

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