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: V (B1/2)

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I. Translate into English ( p.2 )


1

,
.
People will decide which candidate to represent them in Parliament, and who
will lead the government at national and local level.

,
.(
)
Democratic elections are free, without any limitations when citizens have the
right to choose the candidates and the party (which will run in the elections).

,
.
The voters should be able to vote in secret, without intimidation, or violence.

,

, .
Its a civic duty to participate in the elections, but it's a reasonable choice for
all citizens to consider the views of different parties and candidates in order to

decide whom to support.

,
.
The majority of the population does not want to participate in politics, elections
and taking responsibility.

.
Every citizen must respect the dignity of its fellow citizens.

.
Freedom of expression an opinion, is an important part of human identity.


, .
Clear distribution of power in a democratic society is very important, that the
court must be autonomous and independent.


- , , ,
.
Freedom of speech guarantees the individual's ability to think and express their
thoughts in material form - speech, writing, film, performance.

10 ,
,
.
Each country can hold elections, but it requires great preparation, training of
political parties and citizens to achieve free and fair elections.

:
II. Choose the correct word: (2p)

11 Fizzy / soft drinks are gazzy because theyve got carbon dioxide in them.
12 Any meat that is kept in the fridge / freezer should be defrosted thoroughly before
cooking.
13 My qualifications / qualities include a degree and an MA in chemistry.
14 our headteacher had had her hair cut and I didnt know / recognise her at first.
15 The days of Athens being one of the most polluted cities in the world have gone /
come to an end.
16 . I wish Dad would get a new costume / suit to ewar for his job interview.

17 During the design / manufacture of the clothes, lasers are used to cut the material
accurately.
18 Not only did we all have to work overtime / promotion this weekend, but we didnt
get paid for it!
19 Have you any news about that work / job / career you applied for yet?
20 She became a full-time member of employees / staff/ employers last year.
21 My grandfather made a wealth / fortune by investing at the right time.
22 Exuse me, but I dont suppose you have make / change for fifty, do you?
23 Voicing / Speaking your opinion on a live TV or radio discussion programme is not as
easy an it sounds.
24 Come in! Make / Have yourself at home.
25 Do you think the average / everyday person is interested in fashion?

III. Choose the most suitable word in each sentence( using relative
clause) ( p.1):
26 My friend Jack, a.that b.who c.whose parents live in Glasgow, invited me to spend
Christmas in Scotland.
27 Heres the computer program a.that b. whom c.whose I told you about.
28 I dont believe the story a.that b.who c.whom she told us.
29 Peter comes from Witney, a.that b.who c.which is near Oxford.
30 This is the gun with a.that b.whom. c. which the murder was committed.
31 Is this the person a.who b.which c.whose you asked about?
32 Thats the girl a.that b.who c.whose brother sits next to me at school.
33 The meal, a.that b. which c. whose wasnt very tasty, was quite expensive.
34 We didnt enjoy the play a.that b. who c. whose we went to see.
35 Have you ever received the parcel a.whom b. whose c. which we sent you?
IV. Read the article: Goodbye to the Golden Age of Global Brands( p.3).
Goodbye to the Golden Age of Global Brands
In the Harvard Business School Professor Theodore Levitts seminal paper The Globalisation of Markets, written in 1983,
he argued that, as new media and technology shrank the world, peoples tastes would converge, creating a single global
market, that would be dominated by the worlds most successful brands. So, when the Berlin Wall fell and the barriers to
the world fell and the barriers to the world trade came down, it seemed Prof Levitt proved to be right. Global brand
owners poured into the newly opened markets and, facing little competition in countries unaccustomed to consumer
culture, they thought they would clean up, Then, some awkward commercial realities started to close in.
Once local consumer tried these new products, they found them far too expensive to buy on a regular basis, even if they
liked them. And soon, local producers sprang up offering much better value for money with products of only slightly
inferior quality at a vastly lower price. Usually, too, these products are better suited to local tastes and cultural preferences
than those being foisted onto consumers by the global corporations.
The global brand owners were left spreading their advertising and other fixed costs over tiny market shares and often
faces extra costs, such as tariffs.
In many of these countries today, global brand owners commend the super-premium end of the market in any given
product category, while local brands command the rest. The global brand owners could try to move into the mass market
by creating low-price products designed to suit the local tastes, but that would throw them into head-on competition with
local companies possessing better distribution channels and a far deeper understanding of the market. Increasingly,

therefore, they have restored to buying local brands and the companies that own them. And here, of course, lies the
paradox. Whatever is the point of owning a global brand if it doesnt work in global markets?
Let us be optimistic and suppose the poor countries do become rich. But what do we see happening in rich countries?
Ever-proliferating brand choices. There are3 more soft drink brands than there have been for years, more fast food chains,
more packaged goods, more cars. Supermarkets are competing with brand owners by selling own-label products that are
as good as the branded version but cost 20 30% percent less.
Global brands, of course, are not about to disappear. But it must now be clear that Prof. Levitt was mistaken in believing
that worlds tastes would converge on standardized products. Everything we have learned about consumerism over the
decades shows that, as people become better off, they want more choices, not fewer. Global brands may be here to stay,
but their golden age is over.
(From the Financial Times)

Read the statement whether they are true or false.


36 When the Berlin Wall fall and the barriers to world trade came down, Prof Levitt
was proved right. T / F
37 Shortly after that time, local producers in countries with newly opened markets
began supplying similar products to global brands at a much more attractive
price. T / F
38 Currently global brand products sell best as luxury products in many of these
countries. T / F
39 In rich countries there are fewer brand choices in supermarkets. T / F
40 The more money customers have, the more choices they want. T / F
41 Global brands conquered mass markets.
T/F
42 Global brands owners bought local brands.
T/F
43 Global brands are to disappear.
T/F
44 Worlds tastes would converge on standardized products. T / F
45 Global brands are flourishing and proliferating. T / F
V
Put the sentences into the reported speech: 1.5p
46 He works in a bank, I said.
I said that he worked in an bank.
47 We went out last night, he replied.
He replied that we had gone out last night.
48 I was waiting for the bus when he arrived, she explained.
She explained that she had been waiting for the bus when he arrived.
49 I had never been there before, Nick said.
Nick said that he had had never been there before.
50 He hasnt eaten breakfast, mom said.
Mom said that he hadnt eaten breakfast.
51 I can help you tomorrow, he remarked.
He remarked that he could help her the next day.

52 Shes living in Paris for a few months, she said.


She said that she was living is Paris for a few months.
53 I will visit my parents at the weekend, she promised.
She promised to visit her parents at the weekend.
54 Where will you live after graduation? She asked.
She asked where he would live after graduation.
55 What are you doing? He inquired.
He inquired what she was doing.
56 Why did you go out last night? He asked.
He asked why she had gone out last night.
57 Is this the road to the station? He wanted to know.
He wanted to know if the road was to the station.
58 Can you help me with my homework, please? She asked.
She asked if he could help her with her homework.
59 Tidy your room! Mother ordered.
Mother ordered to tidy his room.

60 Dont smoke! He shouted.


He shouted not to smoke.

VI Fill in the prepositions: P.2


61 A goal may be accessible __in__ the sense that it can be reached ___in__ a finite
number of steps __in___ a finite time.
62 We just need to realize that __in___order to produce new and better things we might
have to go through some rough times __on___ the way.
63 Machinery today keeps __on__ getting better and better
64 People have to work faster than___before___ and it makes them nervous.
65 __With___ the evolution of civilization over the past several thousand years, man has
made tremendous progress ___in___ all aspects of human society
66 Weapons made ___with___ modern technology have brought ___about___ such large
causalities and devastations that could never been done by people __in___ the
previous time

67 It is acquired during the evolution __from___ animals to human beings


68 We see that the progress __in___ chemistry increases crop yield but engenders health
problems.
69 Modern industry shows one more aspect of contradiction __in___ progress.
70 We could not enjoy television, cars and Internet ___without___ achievements __in__
industry, but extensive industry produces a vast pollution.
71 What is democracy composed __of__ ?
72 The power of the democratic idea prevailed ___through____ a long and turbulent
history
73 Democracy is in many way nothing more than a set ___of____rules for managing
conflict.
74 Democratic societies are committed ___to____ the values of tolerance, cooperation
and compromise.
75 Voting ___in____ Elections is another important civic duty___of____ all citizens.
76 _In______order to strengthen social commitment and awareness____of___ the
democratic values, political education is indispensable.
77 Relationship___of____ citizen and state is fundamental __to_____democracy.
78 Every individual has the right to enjoy their own culture along___with____ other
members ___of____their group.
79 You have the right to associate ___with____other people.
80 Freedom ____of___ speech means the freedom to communicate ideas
___without____ government suppression.

VII Fill in the gaps with the given words( p.1):


Devastation;
subconscious;
frustration;
eradicating ;

imbibe;
accessible;

obvious;
constantly;

controversial;
suppress;

81 Culture acts in subconscious . Way and whatever we see and perceive, seems to
be normal and natural.
82 Love is constantly .changing but it exists in our minds and hearts.
83 If we are brought up in a culture different from that in which we are born, we
imbibe . The culture of our society.
84 It is obvious that in spite of great differences, people around the globe are
similar in their essential humanity.
85 If people are always excluded and failed to be heard, it may turn against democracy
in anger and frustration ..

86 Even societies that consider themselves free and democratic suppress ..


Opposing parties.
87 Pluralism is based on controversial discussions whose results are often built on
compromises.
88 A goal is considered to be accessible . In the sense that it can be reached in finite
number of steps and time.
89 Scientific progress has been effective in eradicating .diseases.
90 Weapons made with modern technology have brought about devastation .that
could never been done by people.

VIII

Fill in the gaps with the given phrasal verbs ( p.2):

Put across;
through;

burn up;

call on;
out;

put on;

butt in;

stand for;

back up;

wear out;

get
bail

91 We were highly excited by the fact that our compatriots were bailed out.. of the
prison.
92 She is on endless diet that exhausted and wore her out.
93 His younger brother is really nosy and impolite. He constantly attempts to butt in
.. every conversation.
94 Not with standing his extraordinary wits, stammering prevents him to Put across
his vanguard ideas.
95 The Prime Minister was really burnt up..when he heard of the process of brain
drain from his country to more affluent nations.
96 Did you really find $50 dollars or you are putting on..?
97 The Government hopes that it will have called on. a number of promises it had
given to the population.
98 Its a pity that when youd like to be assessed you are never backed up.
99 For a year or so everything went well; they used to go out, but then somehow they
slowly began to drift apart, until finally they decided to get through .. their
relationship.

100
Though Im aware of some slang words, I dont quite understand what does ta or
nuts stand for . The first means thank you and the second -mad
OPEN QUESTIONS

IX ANSWER THE QUESTIONS (P. 2)

101 What is the key role of citizens in a democracy?


The key role of citizens in a democracy is to participate in public life.
102 What did research outcomes about young people show?
102.5) Speak briefly of the factors that contribute political aversion. (How

many factors may contribute to the political aversion?)

103

What are the 3 powers that should be publicly controlled and ruled?

104

What triangular relation can be traced in democracy?

X. TRANSLATE INTO GEORGIAN( p.2 ):


105
To reduce bigotry and discrimination

106
To become extinct

107 To require majority support in parliament



108 To observe the voting and the vote counting

109 To exercise influence on decision making processes

110An exhaustive list of the rights that citizens enjoy in a democracy
,
.
111 To hold power temporarily

112 The process free of corruption, intimidation, and fraud
,
113 To observe certain principles and rules of democratic conduct

114 To be convinced of the rightness of your views

XI . Complete the sentences by changing the form of the word in capitals ( p.2 )

WALKING HOLIDAYS
The Real Walkers Company offers a selection of small group walking holidays which
explore some delightful hidden corners of Europe, the Americas and Australasia. There is
something for everyone to enjoy on these holidays, ___regardless____ (115. REGARD)
of age or level of ____fitness_____ (116. FIT). The brochure includes various destinations
and
a
range
of
itineraries.
These
range
from
sightseeing
tours
of
______historic_______(117. HISTORY) cities to undemanding walking trips in unspoilt
coastal and country regions and, for the more ___ adventurous_____ (118. ADVENTURE)
traveler, challenging mountain or hill-walking expeditions. But it would be
_____unfair______ (119. FAIR) to give the impression that these holidays are just about
walking. According to the brochure, an ____enjoyment____ (120.ENJOY) of walking is
often the thing that brings together a group of like-minded people, who share the
____pleasure___ (121. PLEASE) of good companionship in ____attractive___
(122.
ATTRACT) surroundings. The company believes that its tour leaders are the key to its
success. These people are ___fully___ (123. FULL) trained and are particularly keen to
___ensure___ (124. SURE) that each individual traveler makes the most of their trip.
XII. Make

the sentences passive:

( p.1.5 ):

125. Julia rescued three cats.


Three cats were rescued by Julia.
126. Steven has forgotten the book.
The book has been forgotten by Steven.
127. The girls had lost the match.
The match had been lost for the girls.
128. They will pay the bill.
The bill will be paid by them.
129. The mechanic has not repaired the DVD recorder.
The DVD recorder has not been repaired.
130. Jack swam the 200 metres.
The 200 metres were swam by Jack.
131. Tom and Max ate five hamburgers.
Five hamburgers were eaten by Tom and Max.
132. They don't speak English in this shop.
English is not spoken in this shop.

133. Mother is watering the flowers.


The flower are being watered.
134. The children were playing football.
Football was being played by the children.
135. Ann can write a new project.
A new project can be written by Ann.
136. He may invite his classmates.
His classmates may be invited by him.
137. The teacher would tell us a joke.
A joke would be told by the teacher.
138. He could have visited his friend, while being in London.
His friends could have been visited by him, while being in London.

139.

Kevin has asked lots of questions.


Lots of questions have been asked by Kevin.

Laboratory Section
Grading: 8 points

ASSIGNMENT I: Read the passage and choose the correct words to complete the sentences.
Can culture and globalization come together in today's
interconnectedness) and cooperation? Let's take a look

world

of

(1)

-------------

(intra-connectedness

Culture and globalization are two different concepts. Culture is a way of life adopted by a certain group of people of a (2)
------------- (peculiar / particular) society at a specific time and place. While the second term, globalization, is an economic
(3) ------------- (relations / interaction) amongst more than two countries.
Every society has its own culture and way of life. Culture is established by a group of people who live together and (4)
------------- (follow / adhere) to some principles in their society. In a broader sense, culture is a (5) ------------(phenomenon / phenomena) of inheritance, (6) ------------- (inconsciously / unconsciously) adopted by a person who is
born within that group. When a culture is introduced to the globalization people find it (7) ------------- (harm / detrimental)
to their way of life.
What is culture in the national (8) ------------- (subtext / context)? It is a way of life - an (indigenous / aborigines) way of
life - that includes religion, spirituality, language, moral and social norms, family values, eating habits, and so on. There is
(9) ------------- (genuine / actually) concern that huge American corporations such as MacDonald's, with their equally
massive advertising and publicity budgets, are able to set up operations almost anywhere they wish, and (10) ------------(affect / exert) strong influence on local character and lifestyles. No matter where we are, we view Hollywood movies, eat
American food, and wear jeans.

ASSIGNMENT II: Read the paragraphs and answer the questions that follow each of them.
Unfortunately, conflict is an integral part of our life. Conflicts can be observed everywhere, starting from
misunderstandings in our families to the tension in the world. "Conflict" is a word that causes discomfort, anger,
frustration, sadness, and pain.
11 The word integral, used in the first sentence of the paragraph above, can best be replaced with:
a essential, important
b exciting, amusing
12 The meaning of the word frustration, used in the paragraph above, is:
a annoyance, disappointment
b curiosity, interest
The dictionary defines "conflict" as "a struggle to resist or overcome; contest of opposing forces or powers; battle; a state
or condition of opposition; antagonism; discord; a painful tension set up by a clash between opposed and contradictory
impulses." No matter how hard we try to avoid it, conflict periodically enters our lives.
13 The word antagonism", in the paragraph above, is closer in meaning to:
a hostility, unfriendliness, aggression
b hospitality, generosity, kindness
c suspicion, lack of trust
Conflicts arise when people's beliefs clash. Religious and political views are particularly sensitive, because people often
depend on these for a sense of identity and belonging.
14 The word clash", used in the first sentence of the paragraph above, can best be replaced with:
a come into conflict
b collide
15 The word particularly", used in the second sentence of the paragraph above, can best be replaced with:
a especially
b peculiarly

ASSIGNMENT III: Fill in the gaps with the correct nouns.


misunderstanding subculture community backbone identity
16
17
18
19
20

Your comments indicate a serious ----- misunderstanding ---- of the situation.


Ordinary volunteers form the --- backbone --- of most charitable organizations.
I wanted to work somewhere where I could serve the --- community ---.
You have to let the children develop a sense of their own --- identity ----.
Pop music is an important part of the youth --- subculture ---.

ASSIGNMENT IV: Fill in the gaps with the correct verbs.

survived shifted occurred transmitted acquired


21
22
23
24
25

The Cup Final was ---- transmitted --- via satellite to over 20 countries.
We --- acquired --- the shares for 1.75 each.
His doctor says it's a miracle that he --- survived ---.
Public opinion had ---- shifted --- sharply to the left following the war.
The police said that the accident ---- occurred --- at about 4.30 pm.

ASSIGNMENT V: Complete the sentences with the words in brackets.


26 Board of Directors calls on communities, governments, and researchers to put poverty and HIV ------------- (in the
agenda list / on the agenda).
27 The presidents ------------- (era-making / epoch-making) visit has already made international news headlines.
28 For most of young people ------------- (villagesides /countrysides) are too boring, they like to party all day long in
disco and dance clubs.
29 The Communist Party, obsessed with enforcing ------------- (social stability / sociological stability), has some fears.
30 ------------- (Official waste / Public spending) is money expended by a government to pay for defense, development
projects, education, health, infrastructure, etc. Public spending is supported by taxation.

ASSIGNMENT VI: Read the sentences and fill in the gaps with correct prepositions to form phrasal verbs with the
verbs to give and to look. At the end of the sentences there are definitions of the phrasal verbs you are
supposed to form.
31 If your car is giving ---- off ---- a burning rubber smell for more than a day or two, you should take it to a mechanic to
have it checked out. (emit, send off a smell, gas, etc.)
32 The terrorists gave themselves --- up ----- to the federal authorities. (surrender)
33 We all gathered to give the day ---- back ----- to the Lord. (devote)
34 When you look ---- back on --- your life, you'll regret the things you didn't do more than the ones you did.
(remember and think about the past; reflect on the past)
35 We all look ---- up to --- Saba because he always makes time to help others. (respect, admire)
36 The new neighbour looks --- down at ---- us because our house is so modest. (regard with contempt)
37 I should look --- in on ---- my grandpa. He had a surgery two days ago. (visit in order to check something's /
someone's condition)
38 The committee promised to look ---- into ---- the case. (investigate, get more details about)
39 Before we make the final decision, we should look --- over ---- all the options we have. (check; review; examine
carefully and fully)
40 She looked ---- on --- the whole affair as a joke. (consider or regard)