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Math 190: Winter 2016

Homework 8 Solutions
Due 5:00pm on Wednesday 3/9/2016
Problem 1: Prove that the one-point compactification of Rn is homeomorphic to S n .
Solution: We know that Rn is a locally compact Hausdorff space (which is not compact) and that S n is a compact Hausdorff space. By the uniqueness of the one-point
compactification, it is enough to show that there is a subspace X of S n such that
S n X is a single point and X is homeomorphic to Rn . But we know that
X = S n {N },
where N = (1, 0, . . . , 0) is such a subspace (where the homeomorphism with Rn is
afforded by stereographic projection).
Problem 2: Prove that the one-point compactification of S is homeomorphic to S .
Solution: Both of the spaces S and S are order topologies, and hence Hausdorff.
The sets S and S are both well orders. In particular, they have the least upper bound
property. If a0 S is the smallest element, we have that S = [a0 , ] is compact. If
x S and x < y < , we have that x [a0 , y) [a0 , y] with [a0 , y] compact, so that
S is locally compact. Finally, we have that S S = {} is a single point. By the
uniqueness of the one-point compactification of a locally compact Hausdorff space, it
follows that the one-point compactification of S is homeomorphic to S .
Problem 3: Let (X, d) be a metric space and assume that X has a countable dense
subset (i.e., X is separable). Prove that X is second-countable.
Solution: Let D = {x1 , x2 , . . . } be a countable dense subset of X and let
B := {Bd (xn , 1/m) : n, m Z>0 }.
Then B is a countable collection of open sets in X.
We claim that B is a basis for the topology of X. To see this, let U X be open and
let y U . It is enough to show that there exists B B such that y B U . Indeed,
let 0 <  < 1 be such that Bd (y, ) U . Since D is dense, there exists n Z>0 such
that xn Bd (y, /4). Choose m Z>0 so that /4 < 1/m < /2. Since /4 < 1/m,
we have that y Bd (xn , 1/m). On the other hand, if z Bd (xn , 1/m), we have that
d(y, z) d(y, xn ) + d(xn , z) < /4 + 1/m < 34 < . It follows that
y Bd (xn , 1/m) Bd (y, ) U,
so that B is a countable basis for the topology on X and X is second-countable.
Problem 4: Suppose X is a second-countable space and A X is an uncountable
subset. Prove that uncountably many points in A are limit points of A.
Solution: Let B = {B1 , B2 , . . . } be a countable basis for the topology on X. We
define a function
: (A A0 ) Z>0
1

as follows. For any a (A A0 ), there exists a basic open set Bna such that A Bna =
{a}. Choose one such na and set (a) := na . We claim that is an injection. Indeed,
for a1 6= a2 in A A0 , we have that A B(a) = {a} 6= {a0 } = A B(a0 ) . The
injectivity of implies that A A0 is countable. Since A is uncountable, this forces A0
to be uncountable.
Problem 5: Which of the four countability axioms (first-countable, second-countable,
Lindelof, separable) does S satisfy? What about S ?
Solution: We claim that S is not separable. Indeed, if A S is countable, then
there is an upper bound b for A. Choosing b0 > b, we get that (b, ) is a neighborhood
of b0 which does not meet A. Thus, b0
/ A. It follows that S is also not secondcountable.
S is not Lindelof because {[a0 , x) : x S } (where a0 is the smallest element of
S ) is an uncountable open cover without a proper subcover.
S is first-countable. Indeed, for any x S , let x0 be the immediate successor of
x. Provided x 6= a0 , we have that {(z, x0 ) : z < x} is a countable basis at x. If x = a0 ,
then {[x, x0 )} is a singleton basis at x.
We claim that S is not first-countable. Indeed, there does not exist a countable
basis at . If {B1 , B2 , . . . } were such a basis, for all n 0 there would be xn S such
that (xn , ] Bn . Let b be an upper bound in S of the countable set {x1 , x2 , . . . } and
let b0 be the immediate successor of b. Then (b0 , ] is a neighborhood of containing
none of the Bn . This completes the proof that S is not first-countable. It follows that
S also fails to be second-countable.
S is not separable. If A S is countable, let b S be an upper bound for AS .
If b0 is the immediate successor of b, we get that (b, ) is a neighborhood of b0 which
does not meet A. Therefore, b0
/ A.
S is Lindelof. To see this, let U be an open cover of S . There exists U U such
that U . Choose x S such that (x, ] U . We have that [a0 , x] is countable.
Write [a0 , x] = {y1 , y2 , . . . }. For every n, there exists Un U such that yn Un . Now
{U, U1 , U2 , . . . } is a countable subcover of U.
Problem 6: Let X be a regular space and let x, y X be distinct points. Prove that
there exist neighborhoods U, V of x, y such that U V = .
Solution: Since X is regular, X is Hausdorff. Choose neighborhoods U of x and W of
y such that U W = . Now X W is a closed set with y
/ X W . By regularity, there
0
is a neighborhood V of y and an open set V containing X W such that V V 0 = .
Now X V 0 is a closed set with V X V 0 . In particular, we get that V X V 0 .
On the other hand, we have U X W . But (X V 0 ) (X W ) = , forcing
U V = .
Problem 7: Prove that every order topology is regular.
Solution: Let X be an order topology, let x X, and let A X be a closed set with
x
/ A.

Suppose x is the smallest element of X. If x0 is the immediate successor of x, then


[x, x0 ) and (x, ) are disjoint neighborhoods of x and A, respectively. If x has no
immediate successor, choose y > x such that [x, y) A = . Now choose y 0 (x, y).
We have that [x, y 0 ) and (y 0 ) are disjoint neighborhoods of x and A, respectively.
If x is the largest element of X, we reason as in the previous paragraph, with the
order < reversed.
If x is neither smallest nor largest, consider the closed subspaces X1 = (, x] and
X2 = [x, ) of X and let Ai = X Xi for i = 1, 2. Then Ai is closed in Xi and,
by the previous arguments, there exist neighborhoods Ui of Ai and Vi of x in Xi such
that Ui Vi = . We get that U V = , where U = U1 U2 and V = V1 V2 . We
claim that U and V are open in X. Indeed, we have that V1 is open in the open ray
(, x) and V2 is open in the open ray (x, ). Similarly, U contains an open interval
containing x and Ui {x} is open in X for i = 1, 2.