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Single Effect Evaporation

Robi Andoyo, STP., M.Sc., Ph.D

Heat is added to a solution to vaporize the solvent, which is usually water.
Steam is introduced into HE indirectly
Vapor from a boiling liquid solution is removed and a more concentrated
solution remains.
Example: concentration of aqueous solutions of sugar. In these cases the
crystal is the desired product and the evaporated water is discarded.


The feed (usually dilute) enters at TF and saturated
steam at TS enters the heat-exchange section.
Condensed leaves as condensate or drips.
The solution in the evaporator is assumed to be
completely mixed and have the same composition at
The pressure is P1, which is the vapor pressure of the
solution at T1.
Wasteful of energy since the latent heat of the vapor
leaving is not used but is discarded.
Are often used when the required capacity of operation
is relatively small, but it will wasteful of steam cost.


T1 is controlled by maintaining vacuum inside the heating
Heat and mass balancees conducted on the evap.
system allow determination of various design and
operating variables
Variables : mass flow rate, final concentration of product
and HE area

to condenser
T1 , yV , HV
feed, F
TF , xF , hF.
steam, S


condensate, S
TS , hS

concentrated liquid, L
T1 , xL , hL
Simplified Diagram of single-effect evaporator

1. Vapor chamber
Allow separation of vapor from
liquid and prevent carry-over of
solids by the vapor

2. Condenser
To condensed water vapor, heat
exchanger cooled by refrigerant
or by cooling water

3. Heat Exchanger
The rate of evaporation in an
evaporator is determined by the
amount of heat transferred in the
heat exchanger, HE determined
the type of evaporation


vapor, V and liquid, L flowrates.
heat transfer area, A
overall heat-transfer coefficient, U.
Fraction of solid content, xL.
(1) To calculate V & L and xL,
- solve simultaneously total material balance &
solute/solid balance.
mF = mL + mV
total material balance
mF (xF) = mL (xL)
solute/solid balance

(2) To calculate A or U,

No boiling point rise :

calculate hF, hL, Hv and
= (HS hs) = latent heat of vaporization
hF = cPF(TF Tref)
hL = cPL(T1 Tref)
HV and hs See Steam table

Tref = 0 0C = (as datum)

cPF and cPL = Specific heat of product (kJ/(kg 0C)
H and h = enthalpy at specific T (kJ/kg)

solve for S:
mF hF + mS HS = mL hL + mV HV + mS hS
solve for A and U:
q = mS = mS (HS hS) = U A T = UA (TS T1)

(3) Steam economy

Steam economy is a term often used in
expressing the operating performance of an
evaporator system
This term is the ratio of rate of mass of water
vapor produced from the liquid feed per unit rate of
steam consumed
Steam economy = mV / mS

Effects of Processing Variables on

Evaporatos Operation
Effect of feed temp. TF, Hs to heat the cold
feed to the BP. Pre heating the feed can reduce
the size of evaporator HT area needed
Effect of pressure. Larger T is desirable, since,
as T increases, the heating surface area A and
cost of evaporator decrease. P BP of water
Effect of steam pressure. Higher pressure,
saturated steam increased T, size and cost

Example 2
Apple juice is being concentrated in a natural circulation
single effect evaporator. At steady state conditions,
dilute juice is the feed introduced at a rate of 0,67 kg/s.
the concentration of diluted juice is 11 % total solids. The
juice is concentrated to 75 % TS. The specific heat of
dilute apple juice and concentrate are 3,9 and 2,3 kJ/(kg
0C), respectively. The steam pressure is measure to be
304,42 kPa. The inlet feed temp. Is 43,3 0C. The product
inside evaporator boils at 62,2 0C. The overall HT
coefficient is assumed to be 943 W/(m2 0C). Assume
negligible boiling point elevation. Calculate the mass flow
rate of concentrate prod, steam requirement, steam
economy and HT area

Solution steps
Draw the schematic diagram of the system
Write known variables
Find mL mV
HF hL Hs HV hS
Steam economy A

Example 1
A continuous single-effect evaporator concentrates
9072 kg/h of a 1.0 wt % salt solution entering at 311.0 K
(37.8 C) to a final concentration of 1.5 wt %. The vapor
space of the evaporator is at 101.325 kPa (1.0 atm abs)
and the steam supplied is saturated at 143.3 kPa. The
overall coefficient U = 1704 W/m2 .K.
Calculate the amounts of vapor and liquid product and
the heat-transfer area required. Assumed that, since it its
dilute, the solution has the same boiling point as water
and Enthalphy of the food products are neglected

F = 9072 kg/h
TF = 311 K
xF = 0.01
P1 = 101.325 kPa
U = 1704 W/m2
S , TS , HS
PS = 143.3 kPa
T1 , hL
xL = 0.015

T1 , yV , HV

S, TS , hS

Flow Diagram for Example 1


Refer to Fig. 1 for flow diagram for this solution.
For the total balance,
9072 = L + V
For the balance on the solute alone,
F xF = L xL
9072 (0.01) = L (0.015)
L = 6048 kg/h of liquid
Substituting into total balance and solving,
V = 3024 kg/h of vapor


Since we assumed the solution is dilute as water;

cpF = 4.14 kJ/kg. K
From steam table,
At P1 = 101.325 kPa,
T1 = 373.2 K (100 C).
HV = 2257 kJ/kg.
At PS = 143.3 kPa,
TS = 383.2 K (110 C).
= 2230 kJ/kg.
The enthalpy of the feed can be calculated from,
hF = cpF (TF T1)
hF = 4.14 (311.0 373.2)
= -257.508 kJ/kg.


Substituting into heat balance equation;

F hF + S = L hL + V H V
with hL = 0, since it is at datum of 373.2 K.
9072 (-257.508) + S (2230) = 6048 (0) + 3024 (2257)
S = 4108 kg steam /h
The heat q transferred through the heating surface area, A is
q = S ()
q = 4108 (2230) (1000 / 3600) = 2 544 000 W
Solving for capacity single-effect evaporator equation;
q = U A T
= U A (TS T1)
2 544 000 = 1704 A (383.2 373.2)
A = 149.3 m2.