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EVAPORATION

Heat is added to a solution to vaporize the solvent, which is usually water.

Steam is introduced into HE indirectly

Vapor from a boiling liquid solution is removed and a more concentrated

solution remains.

Example: concentration of aqueous solutions of sugar. In these cases the

crystal is the desired product and the evaporated water is discarded.

The feed (usually dilute) enters at TF and saturated

steam at TS enters the heat-exchange section.

Condensed leaves as condensate or drips.

The solution in the evaporator is assumed to be

completely mixed and have the same composition at

T1.

The pressure is P1, which is the vapor pressure of the

solution at T1.

Wasteful of energy since the latent heat of the vapor

leaving is not used but is discarded.

Are often used when the required capacity of operation

is relatively small, but it will wasteful of steam cost.

T1 is controlled by maintaining vacuum inside the heating

chamber

Heat and mass balancees conducted on the evap.

system allow determination of various design and

operating variables

Variables : mass flow rate, final concentration of product

and HE area

vapor,V

to condenser

T1 , yV , HV

feed, F

TF , xF , hF.

steam, S

TS , HS

P1

T1

heat-exchanger

tubes

condensate, S

TS , hS

concentrated liquid, L

T1 , xL , hL

Simplified Diagram of single-effect evaporator

Components

1. Vapor chamber

Allow separation of vapor from

liquid and prevent carry-over of

solids by the vapor

2. Condenser

To condensed water vapor, heat

exchanger cooled by refrigerant

or by cooling water

3. Heat Exchanger

The rate of evaporation in an

evaporator is determined by the

amount of heat transferred in the

heat exchanger, HE determined

the type of evaporation

SINGLE-EFFECT EVAPORATOR

CALCULATIONS

vapor, V and liquid, L flowrates.

a)

b)

heat transfer area, A

c)

overall heat-transfer coefficient, U.

d)

Fraction of solid content, xL.

(1) To calculate V & L and xL,

- solve simultaneously total material balance &

solute/solid balance.

mF = mL + mV

total material balance

mF (xF) = mL (xL)

solute/solid balance

(2) To calculate A or U,

calculate hF, hL, Hv and

where,

= (HS hs) = latent heat of vaporization

hF = cPF(TF Tref)

hL = cPL(T1 Tref)

HV and hs See Steam table

where,

cPF and cPL = Specific heat of product (kJ/(kg 0C)

H and h = enthalpy at specific T (kJ/kg)

solve for S:

mF hF + mS HS = mL hL + mV HV + mS hS

solve for A and U:

q = mS = mS (HS hS) = U A T = UA (TS T1)

Steam economy is a term often used in

expressing the operating performance of an

evaporator system

This term is the ratio of rate of mass of water

vapor produced from the liquid feed per unit rate of

steam consumed

Steam economy = mV / mS

Evaporatos Operation

Effect of feed temp. TF, Hs to heat the cold

feed to the BP. Pre heating the feed can reduce

the size of evaporator HT area needed

Effect of pressure. Larger T is desirable, since,

as T increases, the heating surface area A and

cost of evaporator decrease. P BP of water

decrease

Effect of steam pressure. Higher pressure,

saturated steam increased T, size and cost

decrease

Example 2

Apple juice is being concentrated in a natural circulation

single effect evaporator. At steady state conditions,

dilute juice is the feed introduced at a rate of 0,67 kg/s.

the concentration of diluted juice is 11 % total solids. The

juice is concentrated to 75 % TS. The specific heat of

dilute apple juice and concentrate are 3,9 and 2,3 kJ/(kg

0C), respectively. The steam pressure is measure to be

304,42 kPa. The inlet feed temp. Is 43,3 0C. The product

inside evaporator boils at 62,2 0C. The overall HT

coefficient is assumed to be 943 W/(m2 0C). Assume

negligible boiling point elevation. Calculate the mass flow

rate of concentrate prod, steam requirement, steam

economy and HT area

Solution steps

Draw the schematic diagram of the system

Write known variables

Find mL mV

HF hL Hs HV hS

Steam economy A

Example 1

A continuous single-effect evaporator concentrates

9072 kg/h of a 1.0 wt % salt solution entering at 311.0 K

(37.8 C) to a final concentration of 1.5 wt %. The vapor

space of the evaporator is at 101.325 kPa (1.0 atm abs)

and the steam supplied is saturated at 143.3 kPa. The

overall coefficient U = 1704 W/m2 .K.

Calculate the amounts of vapor and liquid product and

the heat-transfer area required. Assumed that, since it its

dilute, the solution has the same boiling point as water

and Enthalphy of the food products are neglected

F = 9072 kg/h

TF = 311 K

xF = 0.01

hF.

P1 = 101.325 kPa

U = 1704 W/m2

T1

A=?

S , TS , HS

PS = 143.3 kPa

L=?

T1 , hL

xL = 0.015

V=?

T1 , yV , HV

S, TS , hS

15

Solution

Refer to Fig. 1 for flow diagram for this solution.

For the total balance,

F=L+V

9072 = L + V

For the balance on the solute alone,

F xF = L xL

9072 (0.01) = L (0.015)

L = 6048 kg/h of liquid

Substituting into total balance and solving,

V = 3024 kg/h of vapor

16

cpF = 4.14 kJ/kg. K

From steam table,

At P1 = 101.325 kPa,

T1 = 373.2 K (100 C).

HV = 2257 kJ/kg.

At PS = 143.3 kPa,

TS = 383.2 K (110 C).

= 2230 kJ/kg.

The enthalpy of the feed can be calculated from,

hF = cpF (TF T1)

hF = 4.14 (311.0 373.2)

= -257.508 kJ/kg.

17

F hF + S = L hL + V H V

with hL = 0, since it is at datum of 373.2 K.

9072 (-257.508) + S (2230) = 6048 (0) + 3024 (2257)

S = 4108 kg steam /h

The heat q transferred through the heating surface area, A is

q = S ()

q = 4108 (2230) (1000 / 3600) = 2 544 000 W

Solving for capacity single-effect evaporator equation;

q = U A T

= U A (TS T1)

2 544 000 = 1704 A (383.2 373.2)

Solving,

A = 149.3 m2.

18

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