You are on page 1of 29

Oct 97

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
Piping
Plant
ASME B31.3
Guide
Table of Contents
Scope.....................................................
References............................................
Guidance...............................................
1. CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS................
1.7 Gaskets................................................
1.8 Noise Control........................................
1.10 Positive Material Identification (PMI)..
2. GENERAL..................................................
2.2 Fluid Service Category [Paragraph 300.2]
3. DESIGN TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES
3.1 Design Temperatures [Paragraph 301.3]
3.2 Variations in Design Pressure and Design Temperature [Paragraph 302.2.4]
4. SIZING.......................................................
4.1 Minimum Size.......................................
4.2 Prohibited Sizes....................................
4.3 Velocity.................................................
4.4 Capacity................................................
4.5 Pressure Drop Calculations..................
5. PIPE WALL THICKNESS AND CORROSION ALLOWANCE [PARAGRAPH 304]
5.1 General.................................................
5.2 Minimum Thickness..............................
6. PIPING LAYOUT........................................
6.1 Arrangement.........................................
6.3 Accessibility..........................................
7. BRANCH CONNECTIONS.........................
7.3 Reinforcement......................................
7.5 Welded Reducing Branches.................
8. SAMPLE CONNECTIONS.........................
9. DRAINS, VENTS, AND PUMPOUTS.........
11. INSTRUMENT PIPING.............................
12. FLEXIBILITY.............................................
12.1 Calculations........................................
12.4 Expansion Joints................................
13. PIPE SUPPORTS AND HANGERS.........
13.1 General...............................................
13.2 Support Spacing.................................
13.4 Hangers..............................................
13.5 Applications........................................

Amoco Corporation

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PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

13.8 Non-integral Attachments [Paragraph 321.3.1]


13.9 Integral Attachments [Paragraph 321.3.2]
13.10 Sway Braces and Vibration Dampeners
13.11 Equipment Loading...........................
14. PIPE JOINTS...........................................
14.1 General...............................................
14.3 NPS 2 and Smaller.............................
15. COMPONENTS........................................
15.2 Pipe....................................................
15.3 Fittings................................................
15.4 Bends [Paragraph 306.2 and 306.3]...
15.5 Plugs...................................................
15.6 Flanges...............................................
15.8 Strainers and Filters...........................
15.9 Circular and Figure 8 Blanks (Blinds)
16. PIPING MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS.
16.4 Pipe....................................................
16.5 Valves, Fittings and Flanges...............
17. RELIEF VALVE PIPING............................
17.1 General...............................................
17.3 Discharge Piping................................
18. PUMP PIPING..........................................
18.1 Pump Suction Piping..........................
18.2 Pump Discharge Piping......................
18.4 Drains and Vents................................
18.5 Cooling Water Lines...........................
18.6 Relief Valve Piping.............................
18.7 Heat Tracing.......................................
19. STEAM TURBINE AND STEAM ENGINE DRIVER PIPING
19.2 Live Steam Piping..............................
19.3 Exhaust Steam Piping........................
19.4 Heat Tracing.......................................
20. COMPRESSOR PIPING..........................
20.1 General...............................................
20.2 Suction Lines......................................
20.3 Discharge Lines..................................
20.5 Drains and Vents................................
20.7 Cooling Water Piping..........................
20.8 Relief Valves and Relief Valve Piping
20.9 Instrument Connections and Piping....
20.10 Heat Tracing and Winterization Piping
21. EXCHANGER PIPING (INCLUDING REBOILER, COOLER, AND CONDENSER PIPING)
21.1 General...............................................
21.2 Oil Piping............................................
21.3 Cooling Water Piping..........................
21.4 Steam and Steam Condensate Piping
21.5 Relief Valve and Vent Piping..............
22. VESSEL PIPING......................................
22.1 General...............................................
22.2 Drains, Vents, and Pumpouts.............
22.3 Utility Connections..............................
22.4 Relief Valve Piping.............................
23. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS STORAGE VESSEL PIPING
24. HEATER PIPING......................................
24.1 Process Piping....................................
24.2 Blowdown Piping................................
24.4 Burner Gas (Fuel Gas) Piping System
24.5 Burner Oil Piping System...................

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Oct 97

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

24.6 Atomizing Steam Piping.....................


24.7 Smothering (Snuffing) Steam Piping. .
25. STORAGE TANK PIPING.........................
Table 1 Key to Figures 1 and 2.......................
FIGURES
Figure 1 Support Spacing for Continuous
Straight Line...........................................30

Figure 2 Support Spacing for Single


Straight Line...........................................31

Scope
This document provides guidelines for the design of plant piping as specified in
A PN-PLT-31.3-E. Numbering of the following sections and paragraphs corresponds to
section and paragraph numbering of A PN-PLT-31.3-E.

References
The most recent edition, except as otherwise specified, of the following standards, codes and
specifications are cited in this guide.

Amoco Corporation (A)


A MM-TEST-PMI-G

Metallic MaterialsTestPositive Material Identification


Guide
A NM-I-00-E
Non-Metallic MaterialsInsulationEngineering Specification
A PN-PLT-HTAP-G
PipingPlantHot TappingGuide
A PC-PRD-00-E
Process ControlPressure Relief DevicesDevice Selection and
System Design Specification
A FE-FH-AC-P
Fabricated EquipmentFired HeatersAccessory Connections
Flue Gas SideSpecification
A PN-PLT-31.3-P
PipingPlantASME B31.3Procurement Specification
A PN-PLT-UTIL-E
PipingPlantUtilityEngineering Specification
A RE-COMP-LIQ-S
Rotating EquipmentCompressorsTypical Liquid Drain
FacilitiesSpecification
Process Safety Standards
No. 2
General Rules for the Use of Block Valves in Relief Systems
No. 20
Valves of Butane and Propane Storage Tanks

American Petroleum Institute (API)


API Spec 5L
API 570
API Std 605
API RP 686
API STD 610
API STD 618

Amoco Corporation

Specification for Line Pipe


Piping Inspection Code
Large-Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges
Recommended Practice for Machinery Installation and
Installation Design
Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Heavy Duty Chemical, and
Gas Industry Services
Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas
Industry Services

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Oct 97

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC)
Section I
Rules for Construction of Power Boilers
ASME B16.1
Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B16.5
Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B16.28
Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and Returns
ASME B16.34
Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End
ASME B16.36
Orifice Flanges
ASME B16.47
Large Diameter Steel Flanges, NPS 26 Through NPS 60
ASME B31.3
Process Piping- 1993, hereinafter called Code

Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry,


(MSS)
MSS SP-44

Steel Pipe Line Flanges

Guidance
The delineation between Inside Battery Limits and Outside Battery Limits is usually well
defined for existing facilities. If the delineation is not or if the facility is new, ASME B31.3
may help in determining the definition by its definition of a processing facility.

1.

CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS

1.7

Gaskets
To ensure tight joints, ring joint gasket hardness should be less than the flanges. With some
alloys, this may not be possible.

1.8

Noise Control
To determine if noise attenuation is required, the following should be checked:

.1 Piping with high velocities.


.2 Pellet conveying piping.
.3 Systems associated with equipment such as compressors, blowers, control valves and jet ejectors.
The use of a silent control valve for high pressure drop control valve installations is an
example of noise abatement.

1.10

Positive Material Identification (PMI)


Guidance regarding application of positive material identificaton (PMI) testing is contained
within A MM-TEST-PMI-G.

2.

GENERAL

2.2

Fluid Service Category [Paragraph 300.2]

.1 There is no known fluid service in any Company plant that Company could designate as Category M at this
date.
.2 Determination of fluid service category should be made by application of Code Paragraph 300.2.

Amoco Corporation

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A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

The design pressure and temperature and the medium in each piping system determine the
applicable Company service specification. Individual piping service specifications have been
developed to cover most pressure and material classes.

3.

DESIGN TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES

3.1

Design Temperatures [Paragraph 301.3]


Extreme temperatures may control material requirements, the basis for expansion and
flexibility calculations. Extreme temperature may be caused by fouled exchangers and unit
upsets, for example, after burning.

3.2

Variations in Design Pressure and Design Temperature


[Paragraph 302.2.4]
Consideration of temperature and/or pressure variation may be warranted by conditions such
as:

.1 Pump shut-off pressure.


.2 Control valve by-pass lines.
.3 Fouled heat exchangers.
.4 Relief valve set pressures.
Short-time variations in design pressure and temperature are coexistent values based on more
severe than normal design conditions that may exist during start-up, shut-down, or an
interruption in normal operation of the process.
Examples of short-time variations in design pressure and temperature are:
Case 1:

To and (Pw + Po)

Case 2:

Tr and Pr

Case 3: To and Pc (for centrifugal pump or centrifugal compressor


discharge)
Case 4:

To and Ps (for positive displacement pump or compressor lines)

Where:
To

Operating temperature.

Tr

Temperature while relief valve is discharging.

Pc

=
Centrifugal pump shut-off pressure or pressure at maximum
point of pump characteristic curve, whichever is greater, or centrifugal
compressor surge point pressure.

Po

=
Operating pressure at rated design capacity of pump or
compressor.

Pr

=
Set pressure plus accumulation of relief valves which govern
pressure in the lines.

Ps

=
Relief valve setting on positive displacement type pumps and
compressors (for example, reciprocating, rotary, or gear). Use stalling
pressure in the event no relief valve is required to protect the
equipment.

Pw

=
Surge pressure resulting from rapid valve closure (water
hammer).

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A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Note:

Water hammer may damage equipment associated with piping, for


example, instrumentation, even though the permissible stresses for piping
components are not exceeded.

For detailed analysis of water hammer problems and their solution, see:
(1)

Water Hammer Analysis by John Parmakian, Prentice-Hall,


Incorporated, 1955.

(2)
(3)

Cook Electric Company, Technical Review, Volume 2, Number 2.


How To Combat Water Hammer In Process Piping Systems by A. D.
Bogart (see Heating, Piping and Air Conditioning, October 1963).

4.

SIZING
In addition to the requirements in Section 4 of A PN-PLT-31.3-E, the following should be
taken into consideration when designing piping:

i.
ii.

The original cost of the piping, insulation and pumping equipment.


The estimated maintenance and operating costs of added pumping cost, repair part availability and life
of equipment.

4.1

Minimum Size
When used in NPS 4 and smaller piping, smaller-than-line-size valves for pump discharge
piping do not generally result in an economical installation. The pump size and the deltapressure required for control valves in some installations will be such that even in small piping,
installation of smaller-than-line-size valves may be economical.
Reducing the size of check valves results in full opening of the valves and produces the
advantages of preventing noisy operation and premature wear of the moving parts. Crane
Companys rule-of-thumb is to size swing check valves for a delta-pressure of 1/2 psi in the
fully open position.

4.2

Prohibited Sizes
Prohibited sizes are pipe sizes not readily available. If connections to equipment in the
prohibited sizes are required, a transition can be used between the prohibited size and the next
larger readily available pipe size. In addition, the size of the next larger pipe size should be
checked for both cost and flow.

4.3

Velocity

4.3.1

Maximum Velocity
Piping velocities listed in A PN-PLT-31.3-E may be used as an aid in determining the size of
piping. These velocities are based on economic considerations and will be acceptable limits for
many applications. However, piping velocities should not be considered as absolute
maximums. Piping velocities can be exceeded if adequate pressure drops are available or can
be provided economically. If there is a tendency for unusual or high corrosion or erosion, the
listed line velocities may be reduced.
The V = 150 0.5 erosional velocity guideline should be used with caution. The resulting
calculated velocity is often too low if the erosion mechanism is inhibitor stripping or liquid
impingement. The calculated erosional velocity is too high if the mechanism is due to solids
such as sand.
a. Pump Suction Piping.

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A PN-PLT-31.3-G
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The primary consideration in sizing pump suction piping is to ensure a large enough line size to
provide the necessary net positive suction head (NPSH) required at process design capacity. At
velocities greater than 9 ft/sec, any change in direction at the pump may cause cavitation and
radial pump imbalance. No suction line velocities should exceed 9 ft/sec unless a substantial
length of straight pipe exists ahead of the pump.
b. Pump Discharge Piping.
Listed velocities may be used as a general guide in determining the size of piping. The most
economic line size is generally obtained by evaluating the initial installation cost versus the
operating cost for different line sizes. Velocities lower than those listed should be considered to
allow reductions in power consumption.
c. Gas or Vapor Piping (other than steam piping).
At some high velocity, erosion, vibration and noise may become excessive. This limiting
velocity cannot be listed because the velocity varies with the fluid and the piping configuration.
The problem does not occur at velocities less than and equal to 125 ft/sec and there has been
considerable satisfactory experience with velocities less than and equal to 200 ft/sec.
d. Heater Transfer Piping.
Liquid-gas mixture piping velocity should not exceed 75 ft/sec except where higher velocities
are used in specific heater transfer piping for economic design.
e. Thermo-syphon Reboiler Piping.
The friction losses in the inlet and outlet piping must be smaller than the available driving
force. As a rule-of-thumb limitation, the downcomer is sized for a velocity of 3 7 ft/sec. For
economic purposes, the outlet line velocity may be higher than the 40 ft/sec limit by designing
on the basis of head available. A minimum velocity should be established to avoid slug flow
problems.
f.

Pulverized Catalyst Carrier Piping (Dilute Phase Flow).

25 ft/sec is preferred. If densities are less than 0.5 lb/ft3, higher velocities may be used.

4.3.2

Minimum Velocity
4. For slurry piping, the minimum 3 ft/sec velocity prevents settling and separation.
Mixed phase (liquid/gas) flow piping design should avoid slug flow conditions at normal
operating rates. Slugging may occur if the piping proves to be unduly oversized, in both
horizontal and vertical runs, to handle lower rate operating conditions.

4.4

Capacity

4.4.4

Cooling Water Piping


Cooling water piping is often designed for 125% of normal flow to accommodate variations in
cooling water system. If variations are defined, a lower design flow rate may be considered.

4.4.5

Fire Water Piping


Estimated fire water needs should be established for insurance protective rating credits.
The required water quantities for water deluge systems on spheres and spheroids are specified
in A PC-PRD-00-E.

Amoco Corporation

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4.5

Pressure Drop Calculations

4.5.3

Allowable Pressure Drop


The maximum allowable pressure drop listed in A PN-PLT-31.3-E represents the best
economical design for most cases. If a larger pressure drop can be justified, guideline for
maximum velocity provided in paragraph 4.3.1 of A PN-PLT-31.3-E should be taken into
consideration.

4.5.4

Formulas

.1 The simplified form of the Darcy Equation presented in Crane Companys Flow of Fluids, Technical
paper No. 410 provides a good pressure drop estimate for gases in turbulent flow.
For liquid streams, the Darcy equation is not valid if the downstream pressure is reduced to cause
cavitation and resulted in two-phase flow.
.2 For gas piping longer than 2000 equivalent feet, the Weymouth, AGA, or Panhandle gas equations provide
more accurate pressure drop predictions. The Weymouth equation is generally applied for low pressure
(less than 50 psig) systems. The AGA and Panhandle equations are generally used to predict the pressure
drop in higher pressure gas transmission piping.
.3 For liquid piping longer than 2000 equivalent feet, the Darcy Equation with the Moody friction factor may
be used to determine pressure drop; however, the Tomer equation (for crude oils), the Miller equation (for
less viscous petroleum products), and the Hazen-Williams (for water) may provide more accurate pressure
drop predictions.
Tomer equations for crude oil pipeline:
P2 = P1 L1 - 0.43313 S (E1 - E2)
For R < 2000:
P1 = 1.008 B / d4
For R > 2000:
P1 = 34.87 F S B2 / d5
Where S = 141.5 / (131.5 + API)
R = 2214 B S / ( d)
F = e{0.37403 - 0.55149 ln R + 0.01477 (ln R) (ln R) }
Miller equations for refined product pipeline:
P2 = P1 L1 - 0.43313 S (E1 - E2)
For R < 2000:
P1 = 1.008 B / d4
For R > 2000:
P3 = 1.653 0.252 B1.748 S / d4.748
P1 = P3 when (ABS Y) < 0.1
Where Y = { 0.16917 d2.5 P30.5 (0.4343 ln G + 4.35) / S0.5 } - B
G = P3 S d3 / 2
S = 141.5 / (131.5 + API)
R = 2214 B S / ( d)

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A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

If ABS (Y) > 0.1, calculate


X1 = 0.4343 (ln P3 + ln (S d3 / 2)) + 4.35
X2 = 0.16917 d2.5 (0.5 X1 + 0.4343) / (S P3)0.5
use P3 = P3 - (Y / X2) to recalculate G and Y until P3 satisfies (ABS Y) < 0.1
Nomenclature:
The symbols used in the above equations are defined as follows:
ABS

Absolute value

API

API gravity

Flow rate, Bbl/Hr

ID of pipe, inches

E1

Beginning elevation, ft

E2

Final (Receiving) elevation, ft

Exponential function

L1

Equivalent pipe length, miles

ln

Natural logarithm

Absolute viscosity of fluid at mean flow temperature, centipoise

P1

Pressure drop, psi/mile

P2

Total pressure, psi

Reynolds Number

Specific gravity

.4 For two-phase fluids, frictional pressure drops are much harder to calculate. The equation that best
approximates the pressure drop will vary depending on flow characteristics or flow regime (mist, bubble,
slug, or stratified). Line orientation (vertical, inclined, or horizontal) will also affect the equations used.
Some of the more common equations used primarily for horizontal flow are Lockhart - Martinelli, Eaton Dukler, Hughmark - Dukler, and Chenoweth - Martin and the Averaging Method. For primarily vertical
flow, consider Beggs & Brill, Hagedorn & Brown, Fair, Griffith & Wallis, and Govier et al.

4.5.5

Pressure Drop Sizing

.1 Pipe roughness.
The 0.0005 feet absolute roughness value should be used for piping with scaled surface after in
service. For new piping or piping in non-corrosive service such as sweet gas piping,
0.00015 feet absolute roughness may be used.
.2 Pump suction lines.
Permanent pump suction strainer is normally assumed to be 25% plugged for pressure drop
calculation. If instrumentation is provided to measure pressure drop across the strainer, the
percent of plugging can be reduced. If pressure drop is not a governing factor, larger plugging
percentage can be assumed.

Amoco Corporation

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A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

5.

PIPE WALL THICKNESS AND CORROSION ALLOWANCE


[PARAGRAPH 304]

5.1

General
In determining which piping systems will be subject to corrosion monitoring, reference should
be made to API 570, Section 4.
The required thickness of straight sections of pipe is determined by one of the following:

.1 Pressure design thickness (Code Paragraph 304).


.2 One-half the pressure design thickness plus the thickness required to support the pipe (Code Paragraph
302.3.5(c).
The thickness so computed should be checked to ensure that the thickness is adequate for the
various combinations of loads (Code Paragraph 302.3.6). Corrosion allowance should also be
added.
In the final selection of pipe schedule, consideration should be given to the manufacturers mill
tolerance which permits the wall thicknesses to be less than nominal thickness; for example,
12.5% for seamless carbon steel pipe.

5.2

Minimum Thickness
The minimum pipe wall thickness should meet the Code requirements. For low pressure
applications, the Code required thickness may be too thin to provide adequate pipe wall
thickness for mechanical strength. Table 5.2 in A PN-PLT-31.3-E provides the minimum pipe
wall thickness for mechanical strength consideration as well as for weldability.

6.

PIPING LAYOUT

6.1

Arrangement

6.1.1

General
1. Pockets are undesirable in piping since one or more of the following conditions may occur:

.i

Accumulation of liquids, such as water, that flash when meeting hot fluids.

.ii

Liquids, such as caustic or acid, may congeal or freeze.

.iii

Slurries may have solids settle out.

.iv

Corrosive condensates may accumulate.

.v

Maintenance required hydrostatic testing may be complicated.


4. Locating orifice flanges on the outer edge of the pipeway facilitates routing of orifice leads
and minimizes space requirements in the pipeway.
Vertical meter runs may be acceptable for non custody transfer gas measurement if space
limitations dictate.
Care should be exercised in the installation of orifices in gas lines where liquid (slug flows)
might be presnet upstream, causing erosion of plate, pressure surges on the upstream side,
erroneous meter readings, possible failure of plate, or possible freezing of liquid
(especially fuel gas), and hydrates formation.
5. Solid wedge and flexible wedge gate valves should be installed with their stems not lower
than horizontal. If space limitation dictates that the valve stem be installed below
horizontal, the valve bonnet shall be provided with a drain and the drain should be treated
as a low-point drain.

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A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

6. Split wedge and double disc gate valves should be installed in an upright position. Any
other position may cause the valve to be inoperable.
8. Drain valves should be installed without upstream elbows.

6.1.3

Underground Piping
1. Underground piping is discouraged because of:

.i

Potential environmental impact from leaks.

.ii

Maintenance and inspection required by API 570, Section 7.

.iii

Possible external corrosion protection coating required.

.iv

Possible cathodic protection required.


3. Trenches are normally not permitted because they provide a conduit through which
flammable vapors may travel through the facility. Trenches may be used if the piping in
the trench does not carry flammable fluids and the trench is not located in areas where
flammable fluids are likely to be present. If this option is used, facility EH and S should
be consulted.

6.1.4

Overhead
Approval to run north-south and east-west piping at the same elevation is an economic
consideration. A short section of elevation separation (with associated elbows and increased
frictional flow loss) may be more attractive than long pipe runs at higher elevations.

6.2.1

General
2. Minimum clearances have been established based on maintenance and safety experience.

6.3

Accessibility

6.3.1

Operational Accessibility
NPS 2 and smaller valves with chain operators have some risk of breakage due to the chain
operator. Risk may be acceptable depending on the cost of making the valve directly accessible
from grade or a platform.

6.3.2

Maintenance Asscessibility
4. Piping should isolate equipment to allow maintenance and ensure operation of the process
during maintenance.
Industry recommended practices for piping installations at equipment or machinery are
included in API RP 686.

7.

BRANCH CONNECTIONS

7.3

Reinforcement
Reinforcement pads should be proportioned so the diameter of the vent hole is not greater than
one-third of the pad width. Joints between pieces of a multi-piece pad or saddle should
preferably be at the sides of the ring or saddle, oriented to extend circumferentially on the
headers.

7.5

Welded Reducing Branches

7.5.1

NPS 2 and Smaller Run Pipe


NPS 1 and smaller run pipe should only be used if run is short, rigid, or well supported.

Amoco Corporation

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7.5.2

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

NPS 2 1/2 and Larger Run Pipe


Full Encirclement Tee - Company has not approved the use of these tees for general plant use
due to lack of complete design detail and because of the need for fillet weld attachment. This
fitting encircles the run pipe and provides a projected connection for attachment of the branch
pipe. The projected connection is the same size as the branch pipe. The tee is provided in two
sections and requires two longitudinal welds. Fillet welds are used to attach the tee to the run
pipe. See A PN-PLT-HTAP-G for use in hot-tap connections.

8.

SAMPLE CONNECTIONS
2.

9.

For environmental reasons, significant quantities of sample materials should be


returned to piping systems rather than piped to an open drain system or to
atmosphere.

DRAINS, VENTS, AND PUMPOUTS


1. Except if necessary for safety, operation, or testing, drains and vents should be avoided.
4. If absolutely necessary, during startup, shutdown, or emergency conditions, hydrocarbon
vapor may be discharged to atmosphere providing that:

.i

Gaseous hydrocarbons are discharged to atmosphere in a safe manner.

.ii

Such discharge is permitted by environmental laws and regulations.


7. Vents are required at high point traps to allow venting of piping during hydrostatic testing.
8. Light oils carried over to hot equipment may create a possible flashing hazard.
9. Vent is required to check for oil leakage.
13. On small pumps, compressors, and turbine and steam engine drivers, if NPS 3/4 or larger
drain and vent connections are not practical, NPS 1/2 drains and vents are acceptable.
14. Rodding out may be accomplished by using a straight nipple or a nipple fabricated with a
5 times diameter, minimum, radius bend. Nipples fabricated with elbows are difficult to
rod through and should not be used if plugging is a problem.

11.

INSTRUMENT PIPING
1. NPS 3/4 instrument connections are preferred.

12.

FLEXIBILITY

12.1

Calculations
For carbon steel and 12% Cr or less alloy steel piping with a design metal temperature of
300F and less, and for stainless steel piping with a design metal temperature of 200F and
less, piping flexibility analysis may not be necessary since the amount of thermal expansion is
minimal unless the piping system has long straight runs of pipe with few elbows.
For a simple two-anchor system, piping flexibility may be evaluated by the method outlined in
Piping Engineering, by Tube Turns Division of Chemetron Corporation, 1971.
If sufficient flexibility is not provided in the small line that branches off a large hot line, such
as a heater transfer line, fatigue cracking may occur at the branch connection. In addition, the
movement of the large line may require additional flexibility of the small line.
For a complex multi-anchor system, the following computer programs can be used:

Amoco Corporation

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A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

1. Caesar II.
2. PIPELINE.
3. CAEPIPE.
Background information pertaining to the method of calculating the flexibility of a piping
system is given in:
1. Piping Flexibility Analysis, by A. R. C. Markl, Transactions ASME, pp. 127-149,
February, 1955.
2. Design of Piping Systems, by M. W. Kellogg Company, 1964.)
When using computer programs, the actual density of the insulation should be specified if the
density is different from the default value used by the program. Densities of the same type of
insulation may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The weight of jacketing should be
included.

12.4

Expansion Joints
For steam turbine application, approval of expansion joint metallurgy other than Monel should
be reviewed by Company metallurgists. One example where Monel is not required is the use of
stainless steel where chloride concentration is low and chloride stress cracking will not occur.

13.

PIPE SUPPORTS AND HANGERS

13.1

General
Items to consider in the design of supports and hangers are:
a. Determination of support and hanger locations.
b. Determination of thermal movement of the piping at each support and hanger location.
c. Calculation of support and hanger loads in the hot and cold positions.
d. Selection of support and hanger types, either spring assembly of the constant support or
variable spring type, or rigid assembly.
e. Checking of clearance between the support and hanger components and nearby piping,
conduits and equipment.
Where the piping system is subject to shock loads, such as seismic disturbances or thrusts
imposed by the actuation of safety valves, support and hanger design should include provision
for shock absorbing devices.
The increased allowable stresses for pressure parts allowed by Code Paragraph 302.3.6 also
apply to allowable stresses specified in Paragraph 321.1.3 for pipe supporting elements.

13.2

Support Spacing
1. Support spacing should be calculated using appropriate beam formulas for
pipe stress and deflection.
The operating dead load and the test dead load include all sustained external
loads and the weight of all the materials forming a permanent part of the
completed piping system, including the weight of the piping, its insulation and
contents.
In accordance with Code Paragraph 302.3.6, earthquake loads are not to be
considered as acting concurrently with lateral wind force. Neither need be
considered as acting concurrently with test loads.

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PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Pipe supports are designed to resist the effects of the following load
combinations:
a. Operation.
Operating dead load, thermal expansion or contraction load, and wind or
earthquake load.
b. Test.
Test dead load and test thermal expansion or contraction load (for example, a
cold gas line tested for tightness with steam). Assume all hydrocarbon piping
will be filled with water for test purposes. If the test fluid is heavier than
normal line contents, temporary supports may be required in addition to
regular supports.
c. Short Time.
Operating and supplemental loads resulting from short-time operational upsets
comprising increased temperature differential or increased contents load, such
as may occur during start-up, shut-down, or an interruption in operation of the
process.
Spans adjacent to changes in direction (lateral or vertical) of more than
30 degrees should be considered as single spans with free ends.
For single spans with free ends, shear stress is zero at the center of the span
where bending stresses are a maximum. Combined shear and bending stresses
at any other point should not exceed the maximum bending stress. For
continuous piping, the point of maximum stress is over the support where both
shear and bending are maximum. However, the shear stresses generally will
be insignificant and may be ignored.
2. For large size pipe and/or pipe spans exceeding the maximum recommended
span for the type of shoes permitted in 13.2.2 of A PN-PLT-31.3-E, the
following equations can be used to evaluate the pipe stress at the support
(Reference: Roark and Youngs Formulas for Stress and Strain, Chapter 12,
Fifth Edition):
a. For tee type shoes (Type A shoes)
S = W R1/4 / (4.67 t)
b. For two-angle type shoes (Type B shoes) or shoe with saddle
S = [ 0.02 - 0.00012 ( - 90 ) ] [ W / t2 ] [ ln ( R / t )
]
Where:
S = stress, psi
t = required thickness exclusive of mechanical, corrosion and erosion
allowances, inches
W = total load at support, lbs.
R = mean radius of pipe, in.
ln = Natural logarithm
= saddle angle or angle of the sector of the pipe between the twoangle shoe, degrees

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PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

The stress, S, obtained from the above equations, must be less than the
allowable stress at temperature as permitted by the Code. If S is greater than
the allowable stress, a saddle must be provided to avoid buckling of the pipe at
the support.
For a small project where detail calculation cannot be justified, support spacing as shown in
Figures 1 and 2 (together with Table 1, Key to Figures 1 and 2) may be used. Figure 1 is for a
straight line supported by more than two supports and Figure 2 is for a straight line supported
by two supports.

13.4

Hangers
Hanger rods should be subjected to tensile loading only. At hanger locations where lateral or
axial movement is anticipated, suitable linkage should be provided to permit swing.
If horizontal piping movements are such that the hanger rod angularity from the vertical is
greater than four degrees from the cold to hot position of the pipe, the hanger, pipe and
structural attachments should be offset to ensure that the rod is vertical in the hot position.

13.5

Applications
2. If the piping or sliding shoe is to bear directly on existing fireproofing, a bearing plate
rigidly fixed to the stanchion cross-arm may be provided between the pipe or sliding shoe
and the fireproofing.

13.8

Non-integral Attachments [Paragraph 321.3.1]


Wherever possible, pipe attachments for horizontal piping should be pipe clamps.

13.9

Integral Attachments [Paragraph 321.3.2]


Welding to any lined pipe should take into consideration the type of lining. Welding can
separate bonded lining, can crack ceramic or glass linings, damage or destroy plastic, phenolic,
coat tar, or other sprayed or extruded linings. Cement lined piping may be welded.
Welding of stress relieved piping may cause unacceptable residual stress. Weld procedures
which limit heat input may be acceptable, or piping may need additional heat treatment to
relieve residual stress. Company welding experts should be consulted before approving any
welding procedure.

13.10

Sway Braces and Vibration Dampeners


If necessary to prevent abnormal movement or vibration in piping, sway braces or vibration
dampeners should be used. Sway braces or vibration dampeners should be installed so as to
cause minimum possible restraint to prevent abnormal thermal movements. The use of sway
braces of the energy-absorbing or instant counter force acting type are recommended for
control of undesirable movement provided sway braces do not restrict the flexibility of the
piping or provided the effect of sway braces is taken in account in the design of the piping for
flexibility.
Vibration can generally be kept within controllable limits by limiting pressure pulsation to
1-3 % of line pressure. Pressure pulsations can be minimized by the use of hydro-pneumatic
accumulators, snubbers, or surge drums. Consider increasing the closure time of valves to
eliminate pressure pulsations at the source.

13.11

Equipment Loading
Supports for piping attached to equipment should be located and designed to ensure that
excessive stresses, including those caused by temperature changes, are not transmitted to the
equipment.

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PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Piping attached to rotating equipment requires special consideration if the equipment operates
at cold or hot temperature relative to ambient. Thermal growth or contraction may result in
adverse equipment strain.
Piping attached to the upper nozzles of tall vertical vessels, and supported from the vessel,
requires special consideration (particularly if the piping and vessel experience different thermal
expansions).

14.

PIPE JOINTS

14.1

General
1. Non-consumable backing rings, if not removed, will promote cavity corrosion and may
damage downsteam equipment if they become loose. Where non-comsumable backing
rings are not to be removed,

.i

Their use should be reviewed by Company metallurgist.

.ii

They should not create additional pressure drop or flow disturbance. Typical backing ring
installation in accordance with Figure 328.3.2 of ASME B31.3 is acceptable.

.iii

They should be secured to the equipment wall by a continuous fillet weld at the upstream edge of
the ring.
2. Quick connectors should rarely be approved for normal fluid service.

14.3

NPS 2 and Smaller


1. For some fluid services, such as lube and seal oil piping downstream of a filter, socketwelded fittings should not be used because particles may collect in the crevice between the
fitting and the end of the pipe.

15.

COMPONENTS

15.2

Pipe

15.2.1

Seamless
Straight seam electric fusion welded (EFW) carbon steel pipe may be approved for piping
larger than 24 inches diameter.
For acceptable piping materials for Severe Cyclic Conditions, as defined in Code,
Paragraph 300.2, refer to Code Paragraph 305.2.3.

15.2.2

ERW Pipe
Electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe should not be installed ISBL. ERW pipe should also
not be used for OSBL for a design temperature higher than 400F, vapor pressure exceeding
18 Reid vapor pressure (RVP), or for fluids that are toxic or that will auto-ignite if leaked.
This restriction is due to the fact that the weld location in an ERW pipe is not visible and the
weld may be difficult to inspect creating a potential for hard spots in the weld that cannot be
detected.

15.3

Fittings

15.3.2

Elbows
Limitation on the use of short radius elbows shall be in accordance with ASME B16.28.

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15.3.4

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Lap Joint Stub Ends and Flared Laps


If stub ends are not available, flared laps, cold formed on the pipe ends may be used. If
300 series stainless steel is flared for laps, the flaring should be followed by solution annealing
or stress relieving at 1650F. Cold worked stainless steel is susceptible to stress corrosion
cracking. Therefore, fabricator and fabrication procedure should be approved by Company. In
addition to Code requirements, flared laps are limited to lined carbon steel or stainless steel
piping in Class 300 and less.

15.3.5

Unions
Socket welding unions should not be used for dismantling socket welding component. Socket
welding unions may be used for dismantling flanged components.

15.4

Bends [Paragraph 306.2 and 306.3]

15.4.2

Induction Bending
Unless properly controlled, induction bending may alter the physical and metallurgical
properties of the pipe. Induction bending also discolors austenitic stainless steels. When
approving induction bending, a detailed bending procedure, including bend test results for each
type of bend, should be required.

15.5

Plugs
1. In a plant site that uses low chrome steel piping:

.i

Carbon steel plugs are not allowed because of the potential of installing a carbon steel plug into a
low chrome piping system.

.ii

Carbon steel plugs are not allowed for the process unit which uses primary carbon steeel piping
because carbon steel plug may find a way into other process units during a unit turnaround.
4. Plastic plugs as shipping plugs are prohibited because, if painted, plastic plugs are not
noticed in the field and may not be replaced with permanent metal plugs.

15.6

Flanges

15.6.2

Flange Types
a. 304 stainless steel may be used with titanium lap-joint stub ends.
b. Grey iron flanged valves and equipment should have flanges in accordance with
ASME B16.1.
c. ASME B16.1 Class 125, NPS 12 through 60 have the same bolting pattern as
MSS SP-44, Class 150.
d. Exceptions are NPS 54 and 60 where the bolt hole diameters differ by 1/8 inch.
e. ASME B16.1, Class 125, NPS 1 through 24 have the same bolting pattern as
ASME B16.5, Class 150.

15.6.4

NPS 26 and Larger

.1 Steel flanges NPS 26 through 60 are available up to, and including, Class 900 (NPS 48 maximum),
conforming to ASME B16.47:
.i

Series B (same as API Std. 605).

.ii

Series A (same as MSS SP-44).

.2 Series A and B do not have matching bolting patterns except in Classes 400, 600 and 900, NPS 38 and
larger.

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15.6.5

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Orifice Flanges
1. For low flow rate, a smaller orifice flange or meter run may be used in order to maintain
the beta ratio within range.
7. For gasket thickness, refer to ASME B16.36.

15.8

Strainers and Filters

15.8.3

Temporary Strainers
1. As a rule, tee type strainers are preferred at pump suction.

15.8.4

Permanent Strainers
2. Tee type permanent strainers may be used.

15.9

Circular and Figure 8 Blanks (Blinds)

15.9.3

Operating Blanks
4. Generally, only NPS 6 and smaller piping may be sprung, depending on configuration.
6. Fetterolf Corp Cam-Set is an acceptable in-place rotatable line-blind.

16.

PIPING MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS

16.4

Pipe
Compatibility of the process fluid with the selected material should be confirmed. Certain
fluids can degrade, corrode, or cause premature failure of piping materials.
Table 16.4, Note 12 - Although Code Table A-1 lists allowable stresses for straight grades
TP304 and TP316 greater than 1000F, Code Appendix F323.4(c)(2) should be considered.
Table 16.4, Note 2 - Graphitization is a phenomenon whereby carbon precipitates from the iron
carbide in the steel in the form of graphite particles upon prolonged exposure to temperature
above 800F for carbon steel and 875F for carbon-moly steel. Graphitization becomes
dangerous when these graphite particles line up creating a weak cross-section. If carbon steel
and carbon-moly steel piping are used for design temperature exceeding 800F and 875F
respectively, Company metallurgist should be consulted unless satisfactory experience for
similar service is available or consequence of failure has no detrimental effect.

16.5

Valves, Fittings and Flanges


Selection Guidelines for Type 316 Stainless Steel Valves

i.

All Type 316 SS valves are specified to be in accordance with:


(1) ASTM A182, Gr. F316 (forged) or F316L (forged - socketwelded,
threaded and buttwelded).
(2) ASTM A351, Gr. CF8M (cast - flanged).
(3) ASTM A351, Gr. CF3M (cast - socketwelded, screwed and
buttwelded).

ii.

Grades F316 and CF8M, when intended for use at temperatures greater than 1000F, must be
specified to have a carbon content equal to or greater than 0.04 %. Alternatively, Grade F316H
may be specified.

b.

Grades F316L and CF3M both have a low carbon content, are preferred for welded construction and
are limited to 850F design temperature.

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PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

c.

Class 150 flanged-end valves should not be used at temperatures greater than 1000F because
ASME B16.34 does not provide pressure rating for Class 150 valves greater than 1000F.

d.

There is a lower pressure-temperature ratings of Grade F316L valves conforming to ASME B16.34,
Table 2-2.3, than the ratings of all the other grades (Table 2-2.2) mentioned above.

17.

RELIEF VALVE PIPING

17.1

General
3. The primary cause of mechanical stress is forced alignment during installation of the
pressure-relief valve in the piping system. Additional problems may arise if the discharge
piping is not adequately supported.
4. An abrupt change of temperature in the pressure-relief system may occur when the
pressure-relief valve opens. The accompanying thermal expansion for hot outflow, or
contraction for subambient outflow, may result in nonuniform temperature conditions
across the cross section of the pipe. Improper design or construction of relief valve
discharge piping may set up stresses that will be transferred to the pressure relief device,
causing it to leak or malfunction.
Thermal expansion or contraction may also result in reactions at anchors or terminal
connections that will cause stresses in the piping system itself. Piping should be designed
with consideration of the flow characteristics. Pressure-relief system should be guided,
supported, and anchored to control transient movements.

17.3

Discharge Piping

17.3.1

General
2. Bracing discharge piping of a pressure-relief valve is important to prevent damage to the
pressure-relief valve and pressure-relief system. If compressible fluids are relieved
through a pressure-relief valve into unsupported discharge piping, an equal reaction is
transmitted into the valve body and the inlet flange.

17.3.3

Discharge to Closed System or Header


2. Connecting the discharge lines from two or more relief devices together before routing a
common line to a header may create unacceptable back pressures. Running laterals
separately to the header to minimize the impact of variable superimposed back pressure is
preferred. If economic and routing considerations are significant, discharge lines may be
joined together in sub-headers provided that all back pressure sources are considered
and/or balanced relief valves are used appropriately. If backpressure may be present,
balanced pressure-relief valves may be used as needed to reduce overall discharge system
cost.

18.

PUMP PIPING

18.1

Pump Suction Piping


1. If the pump is spared, a simplex strainer on each pump is safer and cheaper than the
duplex type. Some locations prefer tee type permanent strainers.
2. Basket type is preferred over cone type due to ease of maintenance.
4. Improper location of elbows, tees, valves, strainers, and other items may cause turbulence
in the flow and can appreciably affect the operation and serviceability of the pumps.
5. Gas pockets in the suction piping may allow gas to enter the pump and cause damage.

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PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

7. Heat from hot lines, equipment, or the sun can vaporize the cold fluid.
8. An equalizing line is required to vent the pump at startup.

18.2

Pump Discharge Piping


2. If a reversal of flow or pressure surge is not possible under any conditions, discharge check
valve may be eliminated. If pressure drop considerations allow, the block and check valves
may be smaller than discharge line size.
The bypass may be attached to the check valve body to drain liquid trapped between the
closed block valve and the check valve.
In lines with solids or slurries, locating the check valve in the horizontal position is
recommended. This prevents solidification on top of the valve when in the closed position.
3. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I requires a non return valve close to the boiler.
4. Non-slam checks should be used in the pump discharge line near the pump to reduce shock
waves and water hammer in case of pump failure. Ordinary swing check valves slam shut
if flow reverses and may result in shock loads greater than twice the normal head.
On large water systems, such as cooling water systems, a power failure on a centrifugal
pump will create shock waves or water hammer. In such a failure, the liquid continues to
coast due to inertia. Low pressure results at the pump, and liquid coming to rest after
spending its kinetic energy reverses its direction of flow towards the point of low pressure.
Non-slam check valves are more sensitive to pressure changes than swing or lift checks.
Their purpose is to close as flow slows and be closed before flow reverses.
Types of non-slam check valves include:

.i
.ii

Wafer-style with center-guided spring-loaded split disc.


Tilting disc check valves that are swing checks with the hinge located so the
disc acts like a slightly unbalanced butterfly (or damper).
Liquid systems are subject to water hammer. The problem is considerably greater in water
systems, since water systems tend to be larger.
External spring-loaded air cylinders and oil-filled dash pots are not recommended.
6. Minimum flow through a pump might be reached on operating units with large turn-down
ratios, or if a remotely located valve in the pump discharge can be closed and the pump
does not shut off automatically. To prevent pump overheating during extended low flow
operations, the recirculation line may be routed through a cooler, or directly back to the
suction vessel if sufficient volume is present for thermal dilution.
10. The purpose of the warm-up lines is to eliminate undesirable thermal effects on lines and
equipment, and plugging of idle pump and piping laterals.
Pump warm-up may best be accomplished by having the warm-up fluid enter through the
pump drain and discharge through the pump suction line.

18.4

Drains and Vents


2. Draining all low points in multistage pumps may not always be practical. In such cases,
startup procedures should be carefully reviewed.

18.5

Cooling Water Lines


1. Cooling water requirements are provided in API STD 610. Cooling water piping on a
centrifugal pump baseplate is normally supplied by the pump vendor and normally
terminates in a single pair of inlet and outlet connections.

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18.6

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Relief Valve Piping


1. To prevent excessive pressure that may be harmful to piping or equipment, a relief valve is
required upstream of the first block valve on the discharge line. In some applications a
relief valve is not required if the pump is not capable of over-pressuring the system.

18.7

Heat Tracing
1.b An example of an on off cycle is asphalt transfer service.

19.

STEAM TURBINE AND STEAM ENGINE DRIVER PIPING

19.2

Live Steam Piping


1. To reduce the amount of steam condensate and dirt entering a steam driver, steam lines to
turbines and steam drivers should preferably be connected to top of steam mains. If line to
steam driver is at least one size smaller than steam main, and the steam has a considerable
amount of superheat, making a centerline connection to the side of the steam main is
permissible. If steam is at or near saturation temperature, the line to a steam driver should
be connected to top of main, and installation of a knockout pot or drum, or steam separator
in the line may be necessary.
2. One block valve should be located at driver and the second block valve should be located
preferably at header. The only consideration in locating the second valve is to ensure that
closing the second valve does not shut off steam to a location where steam would be
needed while the driver is shut down. (Acceptable valves could be a valve at the header, the
block valve in the main at battery limits, or even an OSBL sectionalizing valve in the
system.)
For a steam turbine with a combined trip and throttle valve, block valve nearest the
machine should be fitted with a bypass valve sized to pass sufficient steam to slow roll the
turbine and its driven equipment.
3. The preferred strainer for the driver is self-cleaning.
4. Expansion joints are not generally used on lines operating at pressures greater than
75 psig.

19.3

Exhaust Steam Piping


3. Valves are required as specified so that the position of the gate (open or closed) will be
obvious to the inlet valve operator.
5. Stainless steel should not be used for expansion joints in exhaust steam service because of
chloride attack.
Monel expansion joints should be installed preferably adjacent to the flange on the steam
driver. Particular attention should be given to the anchorage and support of the connecting
piping.

19.4

Heat Tracing
In general, provisions for winterization (other than drains) are needed for outdoor steam
turbines that cannot be started cold (almost all steam turbines must be started warm and free of
liquids). In many cases, providing for bleeding warming steam into the turbine is sufficient.
In general, the only winterization needed, other than drains, for steam engine drivers is steam
tracing or a steam coil for lube oil reservoirs. This piping is normally furnished by the vendor.
The only additional piping is required to bleed warming steam into the steam end.

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PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

20.

COMPRESSOR PIPING

20.1

General
1. To reduce fatigue failures, caution is necessary in the design and fabrication of the piping
at and near compressors.

20.2

Suction Lines
2. Motor operators are sometimes required for suction line block valves. Requirement for
motor operators depends on hazards associated with a failure of compressor or piping.
Such potential hazards should be investigated for each installation. A motor-operated
valve generally is necessary if compressors are located inside a building. On reciprocating
gas compressors, any motor-operated valve must be interlocked with the driver so that the
machine will stop if the valve starts to close.
4. Laterals should come off the top of the header to avoid getting liquids or debris into the
compressor. If the lateral is at least one pipe size smaller than the header, then making a
centerline connection to the side of the header is acceptable.
5. Consider equipping reciprocating compressors with dual filters that are in process service
with a full-flow transfer valve in the suction piping. The filters are often of the replaceable
cartridge-type and filtering to less than 5 micron size is normally recommended.
8. Usually air or nitrogen compressors do not require knockouts.

20.3

Discharge Lines
4. For large volume low pressure systems such as fluid catalytic unit process air systems, a
non-slam low differential pressure type check valve should be considered.
6. Low points in the discharge line from an air compressor should be avoided because of the
hazard of oil entrapment and subsequent ignition.
7. For air compressors, bypass is normally a blow-off line with a control valve sized for
greater than minimum flow and equipped with a silencer. For gas compressors, to prevent
overheating of the compressor during extended low flow operations, the minimum flow line
is normally routed through a cooler, or directly back to the suction vessel if sufficient
volume is present for thermal dilution.

20.5

Drains and Vents


1. Often installation of drip legs at low points in the piping and at the ends of headers is
desirable to aid in collecting condensate. Refer to A RE-COMP-LIQ-S for a schematic
diagram of the drain facilities that may be used with compressors.

20.7

Cooling Water Piping


The compressor engineer usually determines if cooling water piping is needed and who is to
furnish. Cooling water is not generally needed on centrifugal compressors except for lube oil
coolers, but is needed for reciprocating and rotary compressors and is normally furnished by
the compressor vendor up to and including the first block valve.
API STD 618 shows a typical reciprocating compressor cooling water system. For multistage
units, this arrangement is recommended to allow easy access to compressor between cylinders.

20.8

Relief Valves and Relief Valve Piping


1. Unless there is a potential of overpressure to compressor or piping, relief valves are not
normally required downstream of centrifugal compressors.
4. Inlet relief valves may be specified if compressor suction is from a pressurized source.

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20.9

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Instrument Connections and Piping


Company has standardized instrument installation drawings.

20.10

Heat Tracing and Winterization Piping


Heat tracing generally is not required for outdoor compressors in tropical (or warm
climate)locations.

21.

EXCHANGER PIPING (INCLUDING REBOILER, COOLER, AND


CONDENSER PIPING)

21.1

General
1. The removable spool is provided to facilitate removal of the channel section. A top
connection is preferable, if available, for the removable item.

.i

To facilitate blinding, installation of elbows in exchanger nozzles should be considered. By


locating nozzle flanges in the horizontal run, moving the more flexible sections of piping for insertion of
blinds is easier.

.ii

Block valves are not usually provided at an exchanger except if needed for flow control or if the
exchanger may be bypassed. Multiple shells or exchangers in series that cannot operate independently of
each other are considered to be a single exchanger.
2. For the most part, exchanger bypasses should be provided only if required for temperature
control. In some cases, however, with exchangers subject to severe fouling or corrosion,
the increase in operating efficiency resulting from cleaning or repair during the operation
of the rest of the process unit justifies the cost of installing a bypass. The process unit
must continue to be able to operate with the exchanger out of service. The other situation
that may require a bypass is that of a condenser handling a stream with a large quantity of
noncondensibles which might cause vapor binding.
3. The exchanger nozzle is considered to be part of the exchanger. Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code does not allow cutting or welding of coded vessels in the field. If installation in the
field is required, cleaning connections may be installed in the piping adjacent to the nozzle.

21.2

Oil Piping
4. The top entry requirement for coolers may be waived if either:

.i

The system will function properly without it and piping costs may be appreciably reduced.

.ii

Recommended by process designer to avoid trapped vapors.


6. Pressure drops should be the same in order to equalize flow to the exchangers.

21.3

Cooling Water Piping


4. Exceptions to the requirement for freeze protection would include spray pond water.

21.4

Steam and Steam Condensate Piping


2. A check valve may be considered for the steam supply line to an exchanger if the steam
side of the exchanger has a lower pressure than the supply side.

21.5

Relief Valve and Vent Piping


Because of leakage through water valves and flanges, building hydrostatic pressure by thermal
expansion alone, sufficient to cause catastrophic failure, is extremely improbable. Modern
design does not normally provide valves both in and out of a water cooler. Therefore, providing
relief valves on the water side for thermal expansion only is not necessary, except at those
locations where legislation specifically requires such relief for conformance with Boiler and

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Pressure Vessel Code, API and ASME standards, or other specified codes. If the possibility of
steam generation exists at design pressure, a relief valve is required for steam relief.
Relief valve inlet block valves are not required if repairs can be performed without unit shut
down.

22.

VESSEL PIPING

22.1

General
1. Keeping piping close to vessels is for economy and ease of support and is especially true of
reboiler drawoffs.
3. Piping requirements should be coordinated with vessel design to achieve the optimum
nozzle locations so that valves, instruments, blinds, and other items will be accessible from
grade, platforms, or ladders (should be avoided), and not located to obstruct passageways.
Process and operating requirements determine if valves are needed in piping connected to
vessels. Valves, if needed, may be installed at the vessel nozzle or in the line as dictated by
operating conditions. Valves are usually not required in the following vessel piping:

.i

Vapor and reboiler lines.

.ii

Safety and relief valve lines, except as required by paragraph 7.4.

.iii

Furnace transfer lines to vacuum vessels.


In deciding if valves are needed, one consideration is if a leak in a line connected below the
vessel liquid level (or to the dense phase in fluid solids vessel) would drain the vessel
unless a valve is at the vessel nozzle. Justifying valves for this purpose alone is difficult.
The likelihood of failure of the line is the prime consideration.
4. No piping connections should be made to manway covers other than on coke drums. The
bottom manway cover (or bottom head) on coke drums is the preferred location for the
main charge, quench, and drain nozzles.
5. Locating the first flange outside of the vessel skirt eliminates:
a. Leakage and potential fire hazard inside skirt.
b. Need for fireproofing inside surface of skirt.

22.2

Drains, Vents, and Pumpouts


1. An auxiliary drain should be considered for any portion of the vessel below the main drain
connection. (For example, if manways are located on the bottom of vessels, auxiliary
NPS 1 drain connections should be made to the manway covers to make complete drainage
of the vessel possible.)

22.3

Utility Connections
1. Normally, vessels need not be connected with pipe to a source of water or steam. If pipe is
used, the connection should be at the bottom of the vessel and should be blinded off if the
vessel is in operation (See A PN-PLT-UTIL-E).

22.4

Relief Valve Piping


1

Amoco Process Safety Standard No. 2 is used in refinery locations.

Two relief valves are sometimes used so that in the event of relief valve leakage, shutting
off the defective valve and replacing it while the vessel is in service will be possible.

Amoco Corporation

Page 24 of 29

Oct 97

23.

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS STORAGE VESSEL PIPING


1. For application of dead-man valves in refinery service refer to Amoco Process Safety
Standard No. 20.

24.

HEATER PIPING

24.1

Process Piping
2. A PN-PLT-31.3-E, figure 3 shows a piping arrangement for decoking in direction of
normal flow. A PN-PLT-31.3-E, figure 4 shows a piping arrangement for decoking
alternately in two directions:

.i

Direction of normal flow.

.ii

In a reverse direction.
Detailed arrangement of piping is determined by the heater design. Location to recover
coke fines (at unit or from plant separator) depends on the expected volume of coke fines
and disposal cost of waste. Plant EH&S personnel can provide further information.

24.2

Blowdown Piping
1. Heaters may or may not require a blowdown valve (or valves), depending on process
conditions. If it is possible to blow down into a process vessel, a blowdown valve is not
required.
Motor-operated valves are normally recommended for use on high-pressure heaters
handling products at high temperatures.
Manually-operated valves with extension stems are recommended for use on low-pressure
heaters handling heavy products.

24.4

Burner Gas (Fuel Gas) Piping System


The heater burner gas piping system consists of a gas supply main, a branch line to each
heater, a distribution header at the heater, and a supply lead to each burner.
The most desirable furnace burner, and the one usually provided for new construction,
incorporates a separate gas fired pilot burner.
If feasible and practical, a completely independent pilot gas source (natural gas or liquified
petroleum gas) is preferred to achieve greater reliability.

24.5

Burner Oil Piping System


2. The burner oil piping system generally consists of:

.i

Burner oil storage tanks.

.ii

Burner oil pumps.

.iii

Oil supply main.

.iv

Branch line to each heater.

.v

Distribution header at the heater.

.vi

Supply leads to each burner.

.vii

Return branch from each distribution header.

.viii

Oil return main back to the oil storage tanks.

Amoco Corporation

Page 25 of 29

Oct 97

24.6

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Atomizing Steam Piping


The atomizing steam piping system usually consists of:

.1 Branch line from a 100 psig (690 kPa) steam main.


.2 Distribution header around each furnace.
.3 Supply lead to each burner.
A schematic arrangement of atomizing steam piping is shown in Figures 6 and 7 of
A PN-PLT-31.3-E.

24.7

Smothering (Snuffing) Steam Piping


2. Typical header box smothering steam connection is shown in A FE-FH-AC-P.

25.

STORAGE TANK PIPING


1. Many storage tanks do not require separate discharge and suction headers, connections,
and piping. Piping design should be coordinated with tank design to determine how the
tank suction and discharge piping should be arranged. One case where separate discharge
and suction connections are required is when it is necessary to have facilities for
recirculating or blending and no mixer is in the tank.
2. Filling lines should discharge near the bottom of the tank, no free-fall being allowed
because of the danger of static electricity. If top connections on tanks containing stocks
with flash points of less than 100F (38C) are necessary, provisions shall be made to
avoid free-fall.

Table 1
Key to Figures 1 and 2

Amoco Corporation

Pipe Size (NPS)

Wall Schedule

Figure 1 Curve

Figure 2 Curve

3/4

Sch 80 (XS)
Sch 160 and XXS

A
B

AA
BB

Sch 80 (XS)
Sch 160 and XXS

C
D

BB
CC

Sch 80 (XS)
Sch 160 and XXS

E
F

DD
EE

Sch 40 (STD)
Sch 80
Sch 160 and XXS

G
H
I

FF
GG
HH

Sch 40 (STD)
Sch 80 (XS) and Sch
120
Sch 160
XXS

H
J
K
K

II
JJ
JJ
KK

Sch 40 (STD)
Sch 80 (XS)
Sch 120
Sch 160 and XXS

K
M
N
O

LL
MM
NN
NN

Page 26 of 29

Oct 97

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Pipe Size (NPS)

Wall Schedule

Figure 1 Curve

Figure 2 Curve

Sch 30
Sch 40 (STD)
Sch 60
Sch 80 (XS)
Sch 120 through Sch
160

L
M
P
Q
R

MM
NN
OO
PP
QQ

10

Sch 30
Sch 40 (STD)
Sch 60
Sch 80 (XS)

N
Q
S
T

OO
QQ
RR
RR

12

Sch 30
STD
Sch 40
XS

P
Q
R
Y

RR
RR
RR
TT

14

Sch 20
STD
Sch 40
XS

P
R
T
W

RR
SS
TT
UU

16

Sch 20
Sch 30 (STD)
Sch 40 (XS)
Sch 60
Sch 80

Q
R
X
Y
Z

SS
TT
WW
XX
YY

18

Sch 20
STD
Sch 30
XS

Q
Q
W
X

TT
VV
WW
XX

20

Sch 20 (STD)
Sch 30

T
X

WW
YY

24

Sch 20 (STD)
XS

V
Y

XX
ZZ

Note: The curves are based on the deflection limit and allowable stress specified in
paragraph 13.2.1 of A PN-PLT-31.3-E with the following assumptions:
.i

Piping is fabricated from API 5L, Grade B or equal seamless carbon steel.

.ii

Piping is full of water and is subjected to maximum allowable pressure.

.iii

Piping is insulated in accordance with A NM-I-00-E.

.iv

Line thickness used in calculations is nominal thickness less 12.5% manufacturers tolerance plus
0.1 inch corrosion allowance.

.v

There are no concentrated loads between supports, such as valves, flanges and specialties.

Amoco Corporation

Page 27 of 29

Oct 97

Amoco Corporation

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Page 28 of 29

Oct 97

Amoco Corporation

A PN-PLT-31.3-G
PipingPlantASME B31.3Guide

Page 29 of 29