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# Anglo-Chinese School (Independent)

## Science Department Y3 Physics

Worksheet 3B1 Newtons Laws

1.

## Which statement best describes the weight of an object?

A
The resistance to change its motion.
B
The gravitational pull acting on it.
C
The amount of matter contains inside.
D
The amount of pressure acting on a flat surface.
(B

2.

A bottle, filled with water, is hung by a string close to the surface of the Earth.
An identical bottle is also hung by a string close to the surface of the Moon.

Surface of
Earth

Surface of
Moon

## Which of the following statements is true?

A
The mass of the 2 bottles is the same but their inertia is different.
B
The weight of the 2 bottles is the same but their inertia is different.
C
The mass and inertia of the 2 bottles are the same.
D
The weight and inertia of the 2 bottles are different.
(C
3.

A bus has a mass of 6 000 kg. What is the net braking force needed to slow it
down from 20.0 ms-1 to rest in 4.0 s?
v = u +at
F = ma = 6000 x 5 = 30000 N
20 = 0 + a(4)
(C
)
a = 20/4 = 5m/s2

4.

## The graph below shows the velocity-time graph of a car in motion.

v / ms-1

time / s

Which of the following graph shows the possible resultant force-time graph of the
car?
F = ma = m (gradient of v-t graph)
Resultant
force / N

Resultant
force / N

(B
t
Resultant
force / N

time / s

time / s

Resultant
force / N

time / s

time / s

5.

shown below.
P
Q
10 N

2 kg

3 kg

## Find the force on Q by P and force on P by Q.

(B

Q5. F = ma
10 = (2.0+3.0) a
a = 10/5.0 = 2.0m/s2
force on Q by P and force on P by Q, according to Newtons 3rd law of
motion;for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction,
F = 3.0 kg x 2.0 m/s2= 6.0 N Ans (B)
2

6. An airborne ranger jumps off a plane during an army exercise. The graph shows how his
vertical speed varies with time until he reaches the ground.
a) Calculate
(i) the average speed of the ranger
during the first 5.0 s,
Average speed = (u + v) / 2
= (0 + 40) / 2
= 20 m/s
(ii) the acceleration of the ranger
during this period.
= (change in velocity) / (change in time)
= (40 0) / (5.0 0)
= 8.0 m/s2
b) (i) State and explain briefly what happens at the part of the curve marked as AB.
As the airborne ranger increases in speed, the air resistance also increases.
When the air resistance is equal in magnitude to his weight, resultant force becomes zero.
According to Newtons 2nd Law, acceleration will be zero.
The ranger has reached his terminal velocity at AB.
(ii) At which point did the ranger open his parachute?
Position B
c) If the ranger has used a larger surface area parachute, how do you think the graph will be
1. The line BC will be steeper.
This is because the larger surface area parachute will provide a greater air resistance.
This will result in a greater deceleration.
2. The line CD will also be at a lower value for velocity.
The larger surface area will result in a lower value of terminal velocity.
7.

A stunt man has one end of a thick elastic cord attached to him; the other end
of the cord is firmly attached to a point on a high bridge. When the man jumps from
the bridge he falls freely under gravity for 2.5 s. Take the acceleration of free fall to
be 10 m/s2 and assume that the man is initially at rest. [N88/2/1]

a)
i

Calculate
the vertical speed the man acquires during his free fall,
v = u + at
= 0 + (10) (2.5)
= 25 m/s

ii

## the vertical distance fallen.

S = ut + at2
= 0 + (10) (2.5)2
= 31.25 m
= 31 m (2sf)

iii.

Suggest one reason why, in a real jump, the distance fallen in 2.5 s and the speed
reached would be less than your calculated answers, even though the cord was slack
throughout the 2.5 s.
In a real jump, there will be air resistance. Thus, the acceleration of free fall will be
less than 10 m/s2

b)
T, tension
of cord

After this time the cord begins to stretch and the man falls with continually reducing
downward acceleration. Why is this?
As the cord begins to stretch, the tension T will increase.
This will lead to a decrease in the downward resultant force.
Thus, according to Newtons 2nd Law, the downward acceleration will also decrease.

W, weight
of man

c)

Eventually his downward acceleration becomes zero. Explain why this happens.
As the cord continues to stretch, the tension will continue to increase.
The downward resultant force will also decrease accordingly.
When the magnitude of the tension is equal to the weight of the man, the downward
resultant force will be zero.
Thus, the downward acceleration will also become zero.

d)

If the mass of the man is 80 kg, suggest a value for the tension in the cord when
his downward acceleration is zero.
Tension = weight of man = 800 N

e)

Without making any further calculations, describe his motion after the point where
his downward acceleration has become zero.
[N88/2/1]
The man will continue to fall, but the tension will now be greater than the weight of
the man.
This will result in a negative downward resultant force. Thus, the man will start to
decelerate.
He will decelerate until his velocity is zero (or until he reaches the lowest point).
After this point, the tension of the cord will cause him to accelerate upward.