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Introduction to Research in

Communication

(08-01-16)

Subject: Module Communication


Degree in Publicity and Public Relations
January 2016
Teacher: Jordi Serra
jordi.serras@udg.edu

Lets start with 6 presentations.

6 candidates + examples & questions


+ doubts related to the lectures (test)

Different phases in the process of research


Conceptual phase (I)
Design phase (II)

Empirical phase (III)


Analytical phase (IV)

Different phases in the process of research


Conceptual phase (I)
We are supposed to have determined our topic of
research.
1st : Initial question (in relationship our topic of
research)
2nd: Initial conception (wider than initial question)

3rd: we have to define the objectives of our


investigation.

Setting objectives
Are all the verbs the same?

Objective:

(These actions are


required in the process of
investigating. Therefore,
they are not a goal by
themselves).

Establish, Identify,
Analyse, Calculate, Investigate,
In this context, these verbs are wrong!
WHY?
These actions are not an objective by themselves. They are just a
consequence of the process of research.

Different phases in the process of research


Conceptual phase (I)
We are supposed to have determined our topic of
research.
1st : Initial question (in relationship our topic of
research)
2nd: Initial conception (wider than initial question)

3rd: we have to define the objectives of our


investigation.

In the process of research, we need internal


coherence. We have to provide an answer to these
questions at the end of the research. (Conclusions)

Different phases in the process of research


Conceptual phase (I)
4th: We have to write our theoretical framework.

it must take into consideration:


-Antecedents (compulsory)
-Theoretical approach
-Conceptualization

In the process of research, we need internal


coherence. We have to provide an answer to these
questions at the end of the research. (Conclusions)

Different phases in the process of research


Conceptual phase (I)
We are supposed to have determined our topic of
research.
GENERAL OBJECTIVE

Specific objective 1
Specific objective 2

They have to give an answer to


the initial question

Specific objective 3

(if there is a lack of coherence ,


the quality of research decreases)

As researchers, we are supposed to provide an answer for every single


specific objective.

Different phases in the process of research


Design phase (II).
Methodology (which criteria will we follow?)

Depending on the finality of the research:

Different phases in the process of research


Design phase (II).
-Some criteria, depending on:

-finality
-temporal scope
-depth
-sources of information
-character
-nature

Different phases in the process of research


Design phase (II). Criteria:

Methodology (which criteria will we follow?)

Depending on the finality of the research:


- basic: it just focuses on theoretical research.
(concept)

- applied: it investigates any phenomena using


observation. Ex: city image

Different phases in the process of research


Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we
follow?)
Depending on the temporal scope of the research:
- sectional: research based in a particular period of
time.
- longitudinal: research that spreads within time.
(we study something through years)
-

Retrospective
Prospective
Panel
Tendency

Depend on time
Depend on cases/ objects
of study

Different phases in the process of research


Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we
follow?)
Depending on the temporal scope of the research:
-sectional
- longitudinal: research that spreads within time.
(we study something through years)
-

Retrospective: series of time referred to the past.

- Prospective: series of time referred to the present/ future.


Ex: Willingness to vote X political party in 2016 and 2020.
-

Panel: when we study the same person in different moments.

Tendency: when we study similar people* in different


moments. Ex: grade of happiness of students 1r Publicity and
Public Relations (2015-2016); (2020-2021)

Different phases in the process of research


Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we
follow?)
Depending on the depth of the research:
-exploratory: the investigation just consists in looking for
information
-descriptive: the investigation consists in describing what is
going on (regarding the research)
-explicative: the investigation gives reasons why something
happens (regarding the research)

Different phases in the process of research


Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we
follow?)
Depending on the sources of information:

Different phases in the process of research


Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we
follow?)
Depending on the sources of information:
-Primary: interview, questionnaires, observation,..
-Secondary: documents which exist before our investigation.
Ex: (studies, %, data, ex 1)
-Combined: depending on the research

Different phases in the process of research


Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we
follow?)
Depending on the character of our investigation:
-Qualitative
-Quantitative

Qualitative Character
Main ideas:
they crave to discover the sense and the meanings of the topic of
research (qualitative techniques)
Ex: in-depth interviews, focus group,.

Quantitative Character
Main ideas:
They pay attention to objective aspects and easy to quantify.
They require quantitative techniques.
They are used to describe situations as well as explain them.
Ex: survey, quantitative analysis of content.

Different phases in the process of research


Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we
follow?)
Depending on the nature of the research:
-Empirical: they work with facts from direct experience, no
treaten data.
-Experimental: to induce phenomena or situations created in
laboratory.
-Documental: direct observation from documental sources.

-Surveys: data provided by verbal or written information


provided by objects of research.

Different phases in the process of research


METHODOLOGY(which criteria will we follow?)
If it is not coherent, the whole process fails.
(I) Unity of observation
(II) Population and Sample
(III) Techniques of investigation
(IV) Tools to collect data