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Chapter 1: The Problem and Its Background

Introduction
Education is the process of acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and
habits. There is also an Educational method that we can use included by storytelling,
discussion, teaching, and direct research. According to Martin Luther King Jr. - "The
function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically.
Intelligence plus character - that is the goal of true educator". The function of education
is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically, but education which stops with
efficiency may prove the greatest menace to society. The most dangerous criminal may
be the man gifted with reason, but no morals. We must remember that intelligence is not
enough, the complete education gives individual not only power of concentration, but
worthy objectives upon which to concentrate. Educators transmit to the pupils/students
not only the accurate knowledge of the race but also the accumulated experience of
social living.
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7784 - An act to strengthen teacher education in the
Philippines by establishing centers of excellence, creating a teacher education council
for the purpose, appropriating funds therefore, and for other purposes. In Section 3.
Teacher Education Centers of Excellence. - There shall be identified, designated,
established and developed in strategic places in each of the regions of the country, one
or more centers of excellence for the teacher education based on criteria listed
hereunder, assessed and adjudged by the Council. These centers of excellence shall be
initially chosen from among existing public and private educational institutions by the

Teacher Education Council created under this Act.


Should the need arise, certain centers of excellence for teacher education at the
provincial level may later be identified and developed.
The criteria for identifying schools and colleges are centers of excellence shall include
the following: (a) highly educated, professionally qualified and experienced faculty
dedicated to the Philosophy, mission, vision and goals of the institution and education;
(b) well-settled students; (c) adequate library, research and study facilities; (d)
competent administrative and support staff; (e) well-planned and relevant instructional
programs; (f) adequate student development programs; (g) adequate student services;
(h) relevant extension service and outreach programs; (i) percentage of graduates who
become teachers; and (j) such other criteria as may be established and operationalized
by The Education Council.
The Teacher Education Centers of Excellence shall form a national network
which in turn shall network with elementary schools, high schools and/or part thereof for
laboratory purposes. Any center of excellence that is established shall be maintained for
at least five (5) years before any proposal or review is made to transfer it elsewhere.
The reason why the researcher conducted a study of The Relationship of
Teaching Strategies in Academic Performance in English is to know the different
teaching strategies that can help pupils to learn or achieve the academic performance in
easy ways of learning. So that they can cope in the subject easily and not getting
confused.

Background of Study
English as a subject to educate on the English language in general and to aid in
the understanding and the employment of the language. Literacy instruction in the junior
grades has one overriding purpose: to enable all students to develop as competent
communicators in a multi-literate, multicultural, multimedia world. Embedded in this
broad purpose are four major goals for each junior level: (1) to become a strategic
reader, writer, and oral communicator (2) to expand thinking skills (including
metacognitive and critical-literacy skills), developing the necessary habits of mind (3) to
deepen the motivation to learn (4) to develop independence as a learner.
These four goals are linked to one another, and they permeate literacy instruction
across the curriculum. They provide a lens through which educators can view all
planning, assessment, instruction, and related classroom practices. The strategies
involved in achieving these goals are all discussed in this guide;
In first goal become a Strategic Reader, Writer, and Oral Communicator; many
students who enter Grade 4 are able to understand text at the literal level, can engage
in paired and group discussions, and can communicate thoughts, feelings, and ideas in
writing. In other words, they come with the basic foundation for literacy development.
However, as many experts describe, this basic foundation is only the beginning. To
progress through the junior grades and beyond, students need to continually develop
their strategies for "Making meaning" and communicating effectively. Strategic readers,
written, and oral communicators are able to do the following: (1) identify the purpose of
a text, and the intended audience (2) work with a variety of text forms, technologies, and

media (3) apply their literacy and communication skills in all subjects and in new
situations (4) make choices about which strategies and skills to use in a given situation.
In goal number 2 it, Expand Thinking Skills, Developing the Necessary Habits of
Mind; research has shown that "effective readers and writers use international thinking
skills to regulate their reading and writing processes, to formulate ideas, to solve
problems, and to make meaning. Using higher-order thinking, they are able to move
beyond rote learning and literal interpretation to a deeper, more discerning
understanding of texts" (Literacy for Learning, p.32).
In junior classrooms where effective literacy instruction takes place, there is an
emphasis on higher-order thinking. Higher-order thinking refers to the transformation of
information and ideas that occurs when students combine facts and ideas and use them
to synthesize, generalize, explain, hypothesize, or arrive at some conclusion or
interpretation. By manipulating information and ideas through these processes, students
able to solve problems, acquire understanding, and discover new meaning (Literacy for
Learning, p.116).
As well, higher-order thinking involves the development of "metacognitive" and
"critical-literacy" skills. Metacognition is the process of thinking about one's own thought
processes. Using metacognition, students reflect on how they learn, what they know
and need to know, what strategies they need they need to make sense of what they
see, hear, and say. Teachers model how to think metacognitive to give students the
ability to construct meaning from texts and to plan, monitor, and improve their own
learning. Metacognitive skills help students to achieve independence as learners.

Critical literacy requires the ability and willingness to look beyond the literal
meaning of text to observe what is present and what is missing, in order to analyze and
evaluate the meaning and the authors' intent (Literacy for Learning, p. 116). It goes
beyond conventional critical thinking to engage with issues of fairness, equity, and
social justice. Critical-literacy skills equip students with the ability to analyze how
authors develop text in order to influence readers; they also give students the
knowledge, skills, and confidence to develop their own perspectives and world view
(Literacy for Learning, p. 37). For reflective learners, these skills can become a call to
social action, challenging them to examine their role in making the world a better place.
Necessary Habits of Mind, According to Costa and Kallick

Thinking about our Thinking (metacognition)


Taking Responsible Risks
Thinking Flexibility
Finding Humor
Persisting
Striving for Accuracy and Precision
Listening to others with Understanding
Learning Continuously
Gathering data through all senses
Thinking and Communicating with Clarity and Precision

Habits of Mind necessary for higher-order thinking include open-mindedness,


perseverance, curiosity, and independent thinking. Costa and Kallick define habit of

mind as the stance that individuals adopt when confronted with problems that do not
have immediate answers. The habits of mind that facilitate higher-order thinking
transcend all subjects areas. "They are what make . . . learning continual, workplaces
productive and democracies enduring" (Costa and Kallick, p.12)
Costa and Kallick believe that students need to develop the habits of mind
represented in the diagram above. They agree that these habits of mind are
characteristic of peak performers in fields.
As well as in goal number 3, deepen the Motivation to Learn; another major goal
of literacy instruction is to insist in students an appreciation of the value and power of
reading and writing so that they will choose read and write throughout their lives for
personal and professional reasons. Students need to understand how reading and
writing will help them learn about themselves, solve problems, and explore and
influence the world.
Lastly the goal number 4, Develop Independence as a Learner; Proficient
communicators dig deep for meaning and develop their own stance and voice as
independent thinkers. Effective literacy instruction strives to move students along a
continuum of learning towards this independence, scaffolding their learning and
gradually releasing responsibility to students as they master strategies and skills. Along
the way, students learn to do the following: (a) use appropriate strategies during reading
and writing, with limited teacher support (b) select texts and text forms for different
purposes (c) engage in accountable talk (d) draw on internal motivation to read and
write (e) transfer learning to new situations (f) persist when faced with a difficult task (g)

pursue meaningful activities after completing assigned tasks (h) set personal goals and
assess progress towards their goals (i) draw on their strengths and develop new
abilities (j) think independently.
A large number of students with initial reading and writing skills may be
challenged by the more intricate tasks required to make meaning of the subject-specific
texts that are introduced in the junior grades. Starting in Grade 4, students are faced
with demands and responsibilities - they are asked to read and write longer texts
involving more complex subjects matter and to think about more abstract ideas.
Grade 4 teachers are challenged to guide students carefully towards developing
the skills and knowledge they need to meet these new demands, while at the same time
preserving and nurturing in them a love of reading and an appetite for discovering new
ideas and gaining new understanding and new perspectives on the world through
reading, writing, and thinking.
Many students reach the middle grades (4-8) lacking the language and literacy
skills required to access grade-level content instruction and texts. English learners in
the middle grades must also contented with the additional challenge of developing
language and literacy skills in a second language. In these critical grades, English
learners lag behind their English proficient peers in content area knowledge as seen on
the National Assessment of Educational Progress (National Center of Education
Statistics, 2011). Additionally, when English learners reach high school, these students
have higher drop-out rates than their English proficient peers (Chapman, Laird, Ifill, and
KewalRamani, 2011).

Despite the unique strengths and needs of English learners in the middle grades,
there is little research on effective instruction for these students (Biancarosa and Snow,
2004). The National Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching
of English Language Learners (CREATE) has a focused program of research designed
to address the critical challenge of improving the educational outcomes of English
learners in content area classrooms by; enhancing the empirical research base for the
development of language and literacy in Grades 4-8; developing and testing effective
interventions that promote content knowledge and language and literacy development
simultaneously; investigating the features of scaffolder instruction that facilitate learning
for English learners in content area classroom (e.g., oral language development, shared
interactive reading, direct vocabulary instruction, traditional text v. modified text);
designing, testing, and delivering professional development that ensures that teachers
implement effective classroom practices to help English learners achieve high
standards; and implementing a comprehensive school-wide intervention delivering
curricula, professional development, and coaching sessions for content areas teachers.
The achievement gap between English language learners and their Englishproficient peers in U.S schools is persistent and well documented (California
Department of Education, 2004; Lee, Grigg and Donahue, 2007; Siegel, 2002).
Research shows that among in-school factors that contribute to student achievement,
teachers have the biggest impact. Given this, it is imperative that all teachers know how
to make academic content comprehensible to learners who are not yet proficient in
English.
One Promising approach to improve the academic performance of English

language learners is the STOP (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) Model, an


empirically tested, research-based model of sheltered instruction developed by
researchers at California State University, Long Beach, and the Center for Applied
Linguistics under the auspices of the National Center for

Research on Education,

Diversity & Excellence (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008). The SIOP Model is a lesson
planning and delivery system that incorporates best practices for teaching academic
English and provides teachers with a coherent approach for improving the achievement
of their students. Using strategies and techniques that make academic content
comprehensible to students, teachers present curricular content concepts that are
aligned with state standards. While doing so, teachers are developing students
academic English skills across the four domainsreading, writing, listening, and
speakingin addition to building their academic vocabulary. Many features of the SIOP
Model, such as cooperative learning, reading comprehension strategies, and
differentiated instruction, are recommended for high-quality instruction for all grade
levels and content areas (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008; Genesee, Lindholm-Leary,
Saunders, & Christian, 2006). However, the SIOP Model adds key features for the
academic success of English language learners, such as including language objectives
in every content lesson, providing opportunities for oral language practice, developing
background knowledge and content related vocabulary, and emphasizing academic
literacy. It is not a step-by-step approach but rather a framework for organizing best
practices. The SIOP Model provides teachers with specific lesson features that, when
implemented consistently and to a high degree, lead to improved academic outcomes
for English language learners (Echevarria, Short, & Powers, 2006; Short, Fidelman, &

Louguit, 2009).
One of the latest development in the Philippine educational system is the Mother
Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTB MLE). MTB MLE refers to the use of
students mother tongue and two or more additional languages as Languages of
Instruction (LoI) in school. In other contexts, the term is used to describe bilingual
education across multiple language communities each community using its own
mother tongue aside from official school language of instruction. In South Asia,
multilingual education usually follows the first definition, learning and using multiple
language in school. In some countries, MTB MLE includes four languages the
students mother tongue or first language, a regional language, the national language
and an international language (Malone, 2007).
According to the official language policy of the 1987 Educational Act (Revised in
2004), children in Grades 1 3 were to be instructed in their first language, while those
in Grade 4 onwards are set to be instructed using a second language (L2), which is
English. This language policy can be identified as a possible model for bilingual
education (Borch & Tombari, 1997 as cited by Ndamba, 2008).

Theoretical Framework
According to Jerome Bruner the Constructivist Learning Theory was the
foundation for the theories, but he reached different conclusions about the best way to
teach. He advocated Discovery-based instruction in which teachers provide situations
that let students discover ideas for themselves, as they explained by Learning-Theories
and Greg Kearsley and Life Circles.
Jerome Bruner credited with originating discovery learning in the 1960s, but his
ideas are very similar to those of earlier writer (e.g. John Dewey). Bruner argues that
Practice in discovering for oneself teaches one to acquire information in a way that
makes that information more readily viable in problem solving Bruner, 1961, p. 26)
The label of discovery learning can cover a variety of instructional techniques.
According to a meta-analytic review conducted by Alfieri, Brooks. Aldrich and
Tenenbaum (2011), a discovery learning task can range implicit pattern detection to the
elicitation of explanations and working through manuals to conducting simulations.
Discovery learning can occur whenever the student is not provided with an exact
answer but rather the materials in order to find the answer themselves.
Discovery learning takes place in problem solving situation where the learner
draws on his own experience and prior knowledge and is a method of instruction
through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating
objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments.
Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from
observing others, one from an idea of how new behavior are performed, and on later

occasions this coded information serves as guide for action. Bandura


Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal
interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. Some of the
necessary conditions for effective modeling; attention, retention, reproduction and
motivation. Bandura believed in reciprocal determinism, that is, the world and a
persons behavior cause to eh other, while the behaviorism essentially states that ones
environment causes ones behavior. Bandura soon considered personality as an
interaction between three components: the environment, behavior and ones
psychological processes (ones ability to entertain images in minds and language).
The researcher want to tell is that every pupils are capable to learn from their
own ideas, we just need to provide a situation that they can solve by themselves. They
also have to socialize to have a motivation on what theyre doing, and also a guide for
their actions that they will perform.

Conceptual Framework
In this study the Relationship of Teaching Strategies in Academic Performance in
English conceived the conceptual framework based on the Input Process Output
system approach. This approach is composed of interrelated elements that served as
guide by the researchers in solving problem under investigation.

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT
Academic
Performance

Profile of the
Respondents
Age
Gender

FEEDBACK

Statement of the Problem


1. What is the profile respondent in term of relationship of teaching strategies?
2. What are the teaching strategies of Grade IV Students?
3. What is the academic achievement of Grade IV in English?

Hypothesis of the Study


The hypothesis of this study is a null hypothesis:
That there is significant relationship in the Teaching Strategies in Academic
Achievement in English of Grade 4 Pupils at Cainta Catholic College.
That there significant in teaching strategies in academic achievement in English
and their respondents profile.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Scope: The geographical scope of the present study is located at A. Bonifacio Avenue
English teachers of Cainta Catholic College (Elementary Department).
Limitation: The study is intended only to the grade 4 pupils of Cainta Catholic College
Significance of the Study
English is important in helping you to read and write well, how to use the English
language to its greatest effect and be creative with the language itself. The study of both
topics can increase your vocabulary, increase your creative ability and teach you about
the history of the language and the culture from which great writers were writing their
books.
Teacher They can benefit from the study in case of information in the teaching

strategies in academic achievement.


Future Educators this study will help them to their study in teaching strategies in
teaching English subjects.
Pupils This study will help the pupils to know what will be the teaching strategies that
will help them to their academic.
Parents They will benefits from the study in the sense that they will come and
appreciate the teaching strategies for their children.
The School Personnel and Administrators The school administrators could gain
enough knowledge for this study in the English subject in terms of teaching strategies in
academic achievement.