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Lab.

1 Two Component Systems

Physical Pharmacy I

Hamid Alghurabi

Lab. 1

Two Component Systems


Introduction
Phase is the part where physical and chemical properties are completely
equal and homogenous. It is separated from other parts of the system by interfaces
e.g. a system containing water and its vapor is a two system. An equilibrium
mixture of ice, water, and water vapor is a three phase system.
Water and ethyl alcohol are miscible in all proportions, whereas water and
mercury are completely immiscible regardless of the relative amounts of each
present. Between these two extremes lies a range of systems that exhibit partial
miscibility. One such system is phenol and water. Their miscibility depends on
their relative proportions and temperature as shown in the diagram below:
The curve that separates two phases area from one phase area is called
Binodal curves.
The maximum temperature at
which the two-phase region exists is
termed the critical solution temperature
(or upper consolute temperature). All
combinations above this temperature are
completely miscible and yield onephase liquid systems.
The line drawn across the region
containing two phases is termed a tie
line; it is always parallel to the base line
in two-component systems. All systems
prepared on a tie line will separate
into phases of constant composition at
equilibrium. These phases are termed
conjugate phases. For example, any
system represented by a point on the
Fig 1-1: Temperaturecomposition diagram
line bc at 50C separates to give a pair for the system consisting of water and phenol.
of
conjugate
phases
whose
compositions are b and c. The relative
amounts of the two layers or phases
vary.

University of Kerbala

College of Pharmacy

Lab. 1 Two Component Systems

Physical Pharmacy I

Hamid Alghurabi

For example consider a system containing 24% by weight of phenol and


76% by weight of water (point d in the diagram). At equilibrium we have two
liquid phases present in the tube. The upper one, A, has a composition of 11%
phenol in water (point b on the diagram), whereas the lower layer, B, contains
63% phenol (point c on the diagram). The relative weights of the two phases can
be calculated by the equation below:
Weight of phase A Length dc
=
weight of phase B Length bd
Weight of phase A 63-24
=
weight of phase B 24-11

The lengths dc and bd can be expressed by


the units of percent weight of phenol

If the liquid system in equilibrium represented by point d weigh 10 g, then


the relative weight of the two phases are 7.5 g of phase A and 2.5 g of phase B.
The weight of composition of each phase can be calculated in addition to
the weight of the phases:
Phase A therefore contains a total of (0.11 7.5) = 0.825 g of phenol, whereas
phase B contains a total of (0.63 2.5) = 1.575 g of phenol.

Materials and equipment


Water and phenol
Test tubes, water bath, glass stirrer, and balance.

Procedure
1. Prepare the following concentrations (% w/w) of phenol/water systems (10 g
total): 2%, 7%, 9%, 11%, 24%, 40%, 55%, 63%, 70%, and 75%
2. Leave the test tubes at room temperature (25 C) for 10 min, then record which
one has two phases and which has one phase.
3. Repeat the work at a higher temperature of 40 C, 50 C, and 70 C

Calculations
1. Draw a curve temperature versus concentration (% w/w) and show the area
that contain two phases and the area that contain one phase in the curve (draw
the binodal curve).
2. Draw a tie line for each temperature.
3. Take for example the 40% w/w concentration and find the mass ratio and the
composition (% w/w) of each phases at different temperatures.
4. Find the upper consolute temperature.

University of Kerbala

College of Pharmacy

Lab. 1 Two Component Systems

Group:

Subgroup:

Physical Pharmacy I

Date:

Hamid Alghurabi

Lab instructor signature:

Names:

Results
Flask Phenol/H2O Phenol Water
No. of phases
No.
(%w/w)
Wt. (g) Wt. (g) 25 C 40 C 50 C 60C 70 C
1
2
2
7
3
9
4
11
5
24
6
40
7
55
8
63
9
70
10
75

Graph

University of Kerbala

College of Pharmacy

Lab. 1 Two Component Systems

Physical Pharmacy I

Hamid Alghurabi

Homework
1. What (% w/w) of phenol/water system will give equal weights of phase A
and phase B at 50 C?

University of Kerbala

College of Pharmacy