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# COMPARISON OF PROCESSING GAIN OF DIFFERENT CRYPTOGRAPHY

TECHNIQUE
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1
A BRIEF INTRODUCTION ON THE RESEARCH TOPIC.
This class of cryptography techniques uses a single key to implement encryption
as well as decryption. This is also known as symmetric-key encryption, Singlekey, sharedkey, one-key and private-key encryption. Symmetric-key algorithms
are further classified into stream ciphers and block ciphers whereby stream
ciphers encrypt the message bytes one at a time while block ciphers receive a
number of bytes and encrypt all as a single unit. The examples of accepted and
well-fame symmetric algorithms include Twofish, Serpent, AES (Rijndael),
Blowfish, CAST5, RC4, TDES, and IDEA. Symmetric ciphers have historically been
susceptible to known-plaintext attacks, chosen plaintext attacks, differential
cryptanalysis and linear cryptanalysis. Chary development of the functions for
each step greatly helps in reducing the chances of attack.
When using symmetric algorithms, both parties share the same key for en- and
decryption. To provide privacy, this key needs to be kept secret. Once somebody
else gets to know the key, it is not safe anymore. Symmetric algorithms have the
advantage of not consuming too much computing power. A few well-known
examples are: DES, Triple-DES (3DES), IDEA, CAST5, BLOWFISH, TWOFISH.
Asymmetric algorithms use pairs of keys. One is used for encryption and the
other one for decryption. The decryption key is typically kept secretly, therefore
called ``private key'' or ``secret key'', while the encryption key is spread to all
who might want to send encrypted messages, therefore called ``public key''.
Everybody having the public key is able to send encrypted messages to the
owner of the secret key. The secret key can't be reconstructed from the public
key. The idea of asymmetric algorithms was first published 1976 by Diffie and
Hellmann.
1.2

## SCOPE OF THE WORK.

In this research work, using two techniques for comparison first one DSA and RSA
technique
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 WORK ALREADY CARRIED OUT IN THE GENERAL / SPECIFIC DOMAIN OF
THE RESEARCH
PROBLEM.
Modern cryptography originates in the works of Feistel at IBM during the late 1960s
and early 1970s.

DES was adopted by the NIST, for encrypting unclassified information in 1977. DES
is now replaced by the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), which is a new
standard adopted. Another milestone happened during 1978, marked by the
publication of RSA.
In the 1980s, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) became popular due to its superior
strength per bit compared to existing public key algorithms such as RSA.
In 1993, chaotic cryptography is introduced, which takes advantage of the complex
behavior of chaotic dynamical systems to hide or mask information.
2.2 SHORTCOMINGS/PITFALLS/ DRAWBACKS IN THE WORKS ALREADY
DONE.
A) A shared secret key must be agreed upon by both parties
B) If a user has n trading partners, then n secret keys must be maintained, one for
C) Authenticity of origin or receipt cannot be proved because the secret key is
shared
D) Management of the symmetric keys becomes problematic
E) Trading partners must always use the exact same key to decrypt the encrypted
message
F) Key exchange is difficult because the exchange itself must be secure with no
intervening compromise of the key
G) Management of keys is difficult as numbers of trading partners increases,
especially when multiple keys exist for each trading partner
H) Need for secure channel for secret key exchange: Sharing the secret key in the
beginning is a problem in symmetric key encryption. It has to be exchanged in a
way that ensures it remains secret.
I) Too many keys: A new shared key has to be generated for communication with
every different party. This creates a problem with managing and ensuring the
security of all these keys.
J) Origin and authenticity of message cannot be guaranteed: Since both sender and
receiver use the same key, messages cannot be verified to have come from a
particular user. This may be a problem if there is a dispute.
3. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORK TO BE CARRIED OUT
3.1 DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL.

## A public-key cryptography algorithm which uses prime factorization as the trapdoor

one-way function. Define
(1
)
for

and

## and a public key

such that
(2
)
(3
)

where
is
the totient
function,
denotes
the greatest
common
divisor (so
means
that and are relatively
prime),
and
is
a congruence. Let the message be converted to a number . The sender then
makes and public and sends
(4
)
To decode, the receiver (who knows ) computes
(5
)
since is an integer. In order to crack the code,
factorization of since

(6
)

## Both and should be picked so that

and
are divisible by large primes,
since otherwise the Pollard p-1 factorization method or Williamsp+1 factorization
method potentially factor easily. It is also desirable to have
large and
divisible by large primes.
It is possible to break the cryptosystem by repeated encryption if a unit of
has small field order (Simmons and Norris 1977, Meijer 1996), where
is
the ring of integers between 0 and
under addition and multiplication (mod ).
Meijer (1996) shows that "almost" every encryption exponent is safe from
breaking using repeated encryption for factors of the form
(7
)
(8

)
where
(9)
(1
0)
and ,

, ,

, and

(1
1)
(1
2)

## Meijer (1996) also suggests that

and

should be of order

Using the RSA system, the identity of the sender can be identified as genuine
without revealing his private code.

4. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
4.1 PROTOTYPES/ EXISTING DATA/ LITERATURE TO BE STUDIED.
1) The primary advantage of RSA is increased security: as the private keys do not
ever need to be transmitted or revealed to anyone. Whereas in a secret-key system,
there is always a chance that an enemy could discover the secret key while it is
being transmitted.
2) Another major advantage of public-key systems is that they can provide a
method for digital signatures. Authentication via secret-key systems requires the
sharing of some secret and sometimes requires trust of a third party as well.
3) Digitally signed messages can be proved authentic to a third party, such as a
judge, thus allowing such messages to be legally binding.
4.2 TOOLS TO BE USED TO MEET THE OBJECTIVES.
To simulate the result, tool developed using C#.NET.
5. REFERENCES
[1.] Atul Kahate Cryptography and Network Security, Tata McGraw-Hill Companies,
2008.

## [2.] William Stallings Network Security Essentials (Applications and Standards),

Pearson Education, 2004.
[3.] Davis, R., The Data Encryption Standard in Perspective, Proceeding of
Communication Society magazine, IEEE, Volume 16 No 6, pp. 5-6, Nov. 1978.
[4.] Gurjeevan Singh, Ashwani Kumar Singla, K.S.Sandha Performance Evaluation
of Symmetric Cryptography Algorithms, International Journal of Electronics and
Communication Technology Volume 2 Issue 3, September 2011.
[5.] Pratap Chnadra Mandal Superiority of Blowfish Algorithm, International Journal
Of Advanced Research in Computers Science and Software Engineering Vol 2 Issue
9, September 2012.
[6.] Daemen, J., and Rijmen, V. "Rijndael: The Advanced Encryption Standard." Dr.
Dobb's Journal, March 2001.
[7.] R.L.Rivest, A.Shamir, and L.Adleman, A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures
and Public-Key Cryptosystems, Communication of the ACM, Volume 21 No. 2, Feb.
1978.
[8.] E. Thambiraja, G.Ramesh, Dr. R. Umarani, A survey on various most common
encryption techniques, International Journal of Advanced Research in
ComputerScience and Software Engineering, Vol 2, Issue 7, July 2012.
[9.] Monika Agrawal, Pradeep Mishra, A Comparative Survey on Symmetric Key
Encryption Techniques, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
(IJCSE), Vol. 4 No. 05 May 2012, PP877-882.