Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

Primary research consists of a collection of original primary data collected by the

researcher. It is often undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into the
issue by reviewing secondary research or by analyzing previously collected primary
data.
primary data: Data observed or collected directly from first-hand experience or by
reviewing secondary research or by analyzing previously collected primary data.
Secondary data refers to data that was collected by someone other than the user.

Identified number of problem factors. There is lack of IT awareness and its application. There is little
work on supply chain co-ordination, whereas inventory management for MSME is hardly addressed in
literature. Moreover, indentified common manufacturing practices adopted in MSME relating to
supply chain, inventory management, IT adoption, and responsiveness. Few studies identified the root
causes or key challenges with respect to existing orientation of MSMEs.
.MODEL FOR manufacturing productivity improvement
My initial focus refined during the course of my PhD studies on MSMEs around Agra and Mathura
districts, and second as I have progressed in elaborating the pertinent literature. My thesis focuses on
the manufacturing behavior of small- and medium-sized organizations with the aim of studying the
phenomenon of productivity enhancement practices in organizational settings. I am interested in
studying the strategic renewal capabilities of MSMEs exhibiting innovative manufacturing behaviors
from the point of view of management.
The underlying assumption of my dissertation is that strategy is a pattern in streams of actions,
whether intended or not. In spite of the great variance in these behaviors, a few consistent patterns can
be identified. With the appropriate use of taxonomy formation, however, these patterns in behavior can
be classified into a few easily separable types of business-level strategies. Taxonomies supported by
empirical studies not only expose the generic strategies, but at the same time, explain differences in
management and organizational processes (Ucbasaran et al., 2001).
An entrepreneurial manufacturing practice is assumed to be one of such behavioral patterns (a
latent strategy). The main goal of my research is to identify and analyze thoroughly the phenomenon
of the manufacturing practice process. In order to reach this goal, I have embedded my research in a
broader context for systematically mapping the roots of MSMEs. After summarizing the literature
review, I position my research in the cross-section of individual and manufacturing process
studies, namely, what empirical evidence is provided by the managers of MSMEs that could help us to
understand the phenomenon of manufacturing practices and what can we learn from the behavior of
MSMEs that may be utilized in professional management?
Minor Project 1- Factors Influencing the Information Technology Adoption of Micro, Small and
Medium Enterprises (MSME).
Minor Project 2- An Empirical Study and Inventory Management Performance In MSMEs : What
Factors Do Influence Them?
Discussions with experts: Feedbacks received from experts is then analyzed and modified
accordingly. During the process, several meetings with experts of MSME have been conducted.

Questionnaire Development: Questionnaires were prepared & discussed with experts from industries
in Agra-Mathura Region and supervisors. Feedbacks were noted and incorporated into the revised
version.
Case Study: The objectives intended for the improvement of existing flexible manufacturing systems
(FMSs) was studied and analyzed by introducing SAP-LAP model. A generic model for change and
flexibility in organization shows how effectively it can be adapted. Discussion with supervisors held
for developing frameworks. Now I am working on Supply Chain Responsiveness and completed a
literature review of about 63 peer reviewed research papers related to mentioned topic.
Papers published : International Conference: Three
Two at ICAM-2012, International Conference on Agile Manufacturing, December 16-19, 2012 at IITBHU
One case study, at ICOMBI-2013, International Conference On Management And Business
Innovation held on May 18-19, 2013 at Malviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur.
FMS Initiatives and MSME Competitiveness: A case Study;
Management . Reviewed now awaiting acceptance.

Int. J. Intercultural Information

Micro, Medium, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) play a vital role for the growth of Indian
economy. MSME act as major link in the supply chain to corporate and the PSUs. Moreover, MSME
Sector does not get the required support from academic researchers/professional practitioners, thus is
handicapped in becoming more competitive. SMEs face a number of problems - absence of adequate
knowledge, non-availability of suitable technology, low production capacity, ineffective manufacturing
process and strategy, constraints on modernization & expansions, and non-availability of learning and
training opportunities. Perhaps this research framework effort to provide right advice and smart tips to
go ahead and make gold of opportunities that come their way.
Problems of MSME
The following problems have been identified through literature review, interaction with experts and
discussions with Supervisor from time to time.
I have reviewed 232 peer- review papers, indentified common manufacturing practices adopted in
MSME relating to supply chain, inventory management, IT adoption, and responsiveness. Identified
number of problem factors. There is lack of IT awareness and its application. There is little work on
supply chain co-ordination, whereas inventory management for MSME is hardly addressed in
literature. Few studies exists that focus on IT implementation and issues of flexibility &
responsiveness has not properly addressed. I have identified the root cause of key challenges / skills
gap with respect to existing orientation of clustered MSMEs through interaction with experts and
exhaustive literature review.
MSME

Common Problem

Specific Problem

Adaptability & flexibility

Lack of coordination among various


levels inside and outside MSME.

Lack of Expertise

Improper inventory management and lead


time issues and inability to rapidly
configure or reconfigure assets and
operations of the manufacturing systems
to react to consumer trends.

Competitiveness

Lack of Info. Technology Awareness and


its Application.

Innovativeness/

Operations responsiveness

New Product Development


5

Autonomy & Control

Variables Identified

Identification of Bottlenecks.

Factors

IT adoption

Less Awareness and IT friendly. Use of ERP/email/e-data transfer, Drawings etc.


Intensity of competition, Information requirement, Firm Size, Firm Age,
Government Support and incentives.
Inventory Management Proper inventory management, delivery schedules, Fill rate, batch size,

Dynamic Adaptability
Supply
Responsiveness

Product variability, demand variability, competition, knowledge management.

Chain Competitive advantage, Modularity based manufacturing practices.

Flexibility

Communication, internal co-ordination / relationships at various levels, suppliers


flexibility and technology, workforce autonomy, manufacturing flexibility,
change and supply order flexibility.

Innovation

Lack of attitude, facility scarcity, Tapping benefits.

IT adoption

Inventory Management

Inventory
Management
Inventory
Management
Supply Chain
Responsiveness

Dynamic Adaptability

Innovation

Productivi
ty
Effectiven
ess

Flexibility Logistics
Responsiveness

Theoretical Framework
The study is driven by the following research questions:
1.

How do the SCM practices of a firm influence supply chain responsiveness?

2.

How do modularity based manufacturing practices of a firm impact supply chain

responsiveness?
3.
Journal

How does supply chain responsiveness affect competitive advantage of a firm?


, Variable/Gap

Methodology

Result/Conclusions Future Scope

Year,
Author
Fallon and IT adoption

Quantitative

Managers.
Analysis
and
Moran
Factors Influencing the Questionnaire procedural method
(2009)
Information Technology
been
Survey
& have
modified
Provision for managers to Descriptive
make
decisions
using
information systems or Analysis
decision support systems
Provision for Employees to Five-point
access
Likert scale,
Professional/Business
with
scores
Organization or Knowledge ranging from
Warehouses
one (strongly
Provision for supply chain disagree)
to
information sharing with Five (strongly
suppliers /vendors
agree)
Partial / Total Absence of
Information
Technology
infrastructure.
Rao
and Inventory
Management Questionnaire Critical
links
Performance In MSMEs :
Rao (2009)
Survey
& affecting Inventory
What Factors Do Influence
management and
Them?
Descriptive
and Why MSMEs
Analysis
suffer from longer
deliver
time,

logistics problem,
communication &
information
exchange.
Sushil,

Dynamic

Case study

2000

Adaptability

situation-actor-

(SAP-LAP)

process (SAP)-

Improving the performance


of flexible manufacturing
system.

learning-

Various
issues
improvements
manufacturing
environment relating
FMS.

in

setting

of

MSME

to

for manufacturing

inquiry

and

more effective if it

and

shows

is

becomes

focused

and

performance
parameters

an

emerging
were paradigm

evaluated

is

for knowledge based

different products scalable


for

implementing networked
architecture which
manufacturing

simulation
experiments to
determine the
effect

of

different

configuration,
manufacturing
line

of

multi-

variant type and


quality monitoring

flexibility

for

types

high-quality

products
study

methods
Questionnaire
Survey

&

Descriptive
Analysis
questionnaire
survey

management

integrate

flexibility

Government Policies

has been applied

improved FMS.

systemic

Innovation

of

Various design and directed.

manufacturing

case

Exploration

can be adapted. intelligently

performance

exhibit

Flexibility

model

how effectively it

action-

of (LAP)
in approach
to

SAP-LAP

Supply Chain

questionnaire

identified various

Responsiveness

and

critical

primary
challenge,
uncertainty and constraints
to conceptualize SCM
practice

feedback

analysis

factors

success
of

the

manufacturing
practices in SME
businesses

in

particular,
application

of

SCM.

Challenges for SME Sector


Despite its commendable contribution to the Nation's economy, SME Sector does not get the required
support from the concerned Government Departments, Banks, Financial Institutions and Corporate,
which is a handicap in becoming more competitive in the National and International Markets. SMEs
faces a number of problems such as absence of adequate and timely banking finance, limited capital
and knowledge, non-availability of suitable technology, low production capacity, ineffective marketing
strategy, identification of new markets, constraints on modernization & expansions, non availability of
highly skilled labour at affordable cost, followup with various government agencies to resolve
problems etc. Global business trends indicate that small businesses are the major contributors to any
countrys economy. In India, these businesses generate more than 65% employment across the country.
Small Businesses are poised for much bigger things, and investors in this sector must ensure that they
utilize all available resources to reap impressive benefits. The Government of India has taken
prominent steps to attract investments in the small business sector. At the same time, such businesses
need the right advice and smart tips to go ahead and make gold of opportunities that come their way.

MODEL FOR MANUFACTURING PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT


I was interested in studying the strategic renewal capabilities of MSMEs exhibiting
innovative manufacturing behaviors from the point of view of management. My initial
focus was refined first during the course of my PhD studies in MSMEs around Agra
and Mathura districts, and second as I have progressed in elaborating the pertinent
literature. My thesis thus focuses on the manufacturing behavior of small- and
medium-sized organizations with the aim of studying the phenomenon of
productivity enhancement practices in organizational settings.
The underlying assumption of my dissertation is that strategy is a pattern in
streams of actions, whether intended or not. In spite of the great variance in these
behaviors, a few consistent patterns can be identified. With the appropriate use of
taxonomy formation, however, these patterns in behavior can be classified into a few
easily separable types of business-level strategies. Taxonomies supported by
empirical studies not only expose the generic strategies but, at the same time,
explain differences in management and organizational processes (Ucbasaran et al.,
2001). An entrepreneurial manufacturing practice is assumed to be one of such
behavioural patterns (a latent strategy). The main goal of my research is to identify
and analyze thoroughly the phenomenon of the manufacturing practices process. In
order to reach this goal, I have embedded my research in a broader context for

systematically mapping the roots of MSMEs. After summarizing the literature review,
I position my research in the cross-section of individual and manufacturing
process studies, namely, what empirical evidence is provided by managers of
MSMEs that could help us to understand the phenomenon of manufacturing practices
and what can we learn from the behavior of MSMEs that may be utilized in
professional management?
Variables Identified

Factors

IT adoption

Less Awareness and IT friendly. Use of ERP/email/e-data transfer, Drawings etc.


Intensity of competition, Information requirement, Firm Size, Firm Age, Government
Support and incentives.

Inventory Management

Proper inventory management, delivery schedules, Fill rate, batch size,

Dynamic Adaptability

Product variability, demand variability, competition, knowledge management.

Supply
Responsiveness

Chain Competitive advantage, Modularity based manufacturing practices.

Flexibility

Communication, internal co-ordination / relationships at various levels, suppliers


flexibility and technology, workforce autonomy, manufacturing flexibility, change and
supply order flexibility.

Innovation

Lack of attitude, facility scarcity, Tapping benefits.

IT adoption

Inventory Management
Inventory Management
Inventory Management
Supply Chain
Responsiveness

Dynamic Adaptability

Innovation

Productivi
ty
Effectiven
ess

Flexibility Logistics
Responsiveness
Theoretical Framework
The study is driven by the following research questions:
1.

How do the SCM practices of a firm influence supply chain responsiveness?

2.

How do modularity based manufacturing practices of a firm impact supply chain

responsiveness?
3.

How does supply chain responsiveness affect competitive advantage of a firm?

CONSTRUCT

ITEMS TO MEASURE CONSTRUCT

IT adoption

Five-point Likert scale, with scores ranging from one


(strongly disagree) to Five (strongly agree)
We use IT ,
1.To promote products/services and sell services to
customers.
2. To communicate with business partners.
3. Provision to customers to order on line & also
allows customers to track their orders on line.
4. Provision for e-Marketing.
5. Provision for managers to make decisions using
information systems or decision support systems
6. Provision for Employees to access
Professional/Business Organization or Knowledge
Warehouses
7. Provision for supply chain information sharing with
suppliers /vendors
8. Partial / Total Absence of Information Technology
infrastructure.
1. Common inventory management practices,
No practice, Thumb rules, EOQ (Economic Order
Quantity), ABC (Always Better Control), Computerized
IM, Just-in Time (JIT) & Vendor Managed Inventory
(VMI)
2. Raw material ordering frequency,
D-Daily; W-Weekly; F-Fortnight; M-Monthly; QQuarterly
3. Stock verification frequency.
D-Daily; W-Weekly; F-Fortnight; M-Monthly; QQuarterly
4. Production types,
Job shop,Batch,Mass,Flow Shop, None
1. What is the

Inventory
Management

Dynamic

ADAPTED
FROM

Comment

Fallon and
Moran
(2009)

Independe
nt
Variabl
e

Rao and Rao


(2009)

Independe
nt
Variabl
e

Sushil, 2000

Independe

Adaptability
(SAP-LAP)

nt
Variabl
e

2. Facility for material handling and part


transport in the manufacturing unit is
manual
2. In case the material handling system is
entirely manual, then how many workers are
involved in the same?
3. How is loading/unloading done on the
machine, manually or there is automated
station provided?
4. What is the idle time on various machines
employed in the production of the each
product?
5. What is the lead time in production?
Would you be interested in automating the
new facility at additional cost? Yes / No
6. Is there any process that you will

prioritize for automation, if yes then


name the process(s)?
Independe
nt
Variabl
e
Independe
nt
Variabl
e

Supply Chain
Responsiveness
Flexibility

Our logistics system responds rapidly to unexpected


demand change
Our logistics system rapidly adjusts warehouse capacity
to address demand changes
Our logistics system rapidly varies
carriers to address demand changes

transportation

Our logistics system rapidly accommodates special or


non-routine customer requests
Our logistics system effectively delivers expedited
shipments

QUESTIONNAIRE SHEET
SECTION - 1
For the following questions, Kindly put a cross mark (x) in the appropriate box
to response.
Organization Profile

1.

Name of the organization


......................................................................................................................................
...............

2. Your organization is :
(A) Original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
OEM [ ]
(C) Others (Please

specify)

(B) Supplier to

.............................................................................

3.Supply chain activity in your organization is related to the following business:

(A) Automobile
[ ]
(B) Electrical & Electronics goods [ ] (C) Processing
(D) Any other
[ ]
4.Please indicate your organizations approximate annual turnover in rupees crores:

(A) 100- 500 [ ]


(B) 500- 1000 [ ] (C) 1000 2500 [ ] (D) 2500 5000 [ ]
(E) Over 5000 [ ]
5. Please indicate approximate trend of profits per year during the last three years:
(A) Increase up to 10%
Almost constant [ ]

(B)

(D) Decrease up to 10% [ ]

More than10 %

(E) Cant say

(C)

[ ]

6. Please indicate average number of suppliers employed for supplying raw material/ semifinished components in the final products :
(A) less than 3
[
(E) Cant say [ ]

(B) 3-5

(C) 6 10

(D) More than10

7. Number of employees in your company:


1 -50 ___

51-100 ___

101-25 ___

251-500 ___

501 -100 ___ Over 1000 ___

8. Your present job title:


CEO/president ___

Director___ Manager___ Supervisor ___ Other___

9. Your present job function (mark all that apply):


Corporate Executive
Purchasing

Manufacturing / Production
Distribution
Transportation
Sales

Other (please indicate)

SECTION - 2
1. What is the facility provided for material handling and part transport in the
units?
Manual or Automated
2. In case the material handling system is entirely manual, then how many workers
are involved in the same?

3. How is loading/unloading done on the machine.


Manually or Automated station

4. What is the idle time on various machines employed in the production of the
each product?.......................

5. What

is
the
lead
time
in
production?
..

6. Would you be interested in automating the new facility at additional cost?


Yes / No
7. Is there any process that you will prioritize for automation, if yes then name the
process(s)?

Five-point Likert scale, with scores ranging from one (strongly disagree) to Five
(strongly agree)
We use IT ,
8. To promote products/services and sell services to customers.
9. To communicate with business partners.
10. Provision to customers to order on line & also allows customers to track their orders on
line.
11. Provision for e-Marketing.
12. Provision for managers to make decisions using information systems or decision support
systems
13. Provision for Employees to access Professional/Business Organization or Knowledge
Warehouses
14. Provision for supply chain information sharing with suppliers /vendors
15. Partial / Total Absence of Information Technology infrastructure.
Common inventory management practices,
16.What is commonly applicable practices.
No practice,
Control),

Thumb rules,

EOQ (Economic Order Quantity), ABC (Always Better

Computerized IM, Just-in Time (JIT) Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)

17. What is Raw material ordering frequency,


D-Daily;

W-Weekly;

F-Fortnight;

M-Monthly;

Q-Quarterly

M-Monthly;

Q-Quarterly

18. What is Stock verification frequency.


D-Daily;

W-Weekly;

F-Fortnight;

19.What is the Production types


Job shop,

Batch,

Mass,

Flow Shop,

None

Please Mark the following Questions


Not at all

To a small extent

To a moderate extent
applicable

To a considerable extent

To a great extent

Not

20. Supply Chain Responsiveness


Operations System Responsiveness
Our operations system responds rapidly to changes in product volume demanded by customers
Our operations system responds rapidly to changes in product mix demanded by customers
Our operations system effectively expedites emergency customer orders
Our operations system rapidly reconfigures equipment to address demand changes
Our operations system rapidly reallocates people to address demand changes
Our operations system rapidly changes manufacturing processes to address demand changes
Our operations system rapidly adjusts capacity to address demand changes
21. Logistics Process Responsiveness
Our logistics system responds rapidly to unexpected demand change
Our logistics system rapidly adjusts warehouse capacity to address demand changes
Our logistics system rapidly varies transportation carriers to address demand changes
Our logistics system rapidly accommodates special or non-routine customer requests
Our logistics system effectively delivers expedited shipments
22. Supplier Network Responsiveness
Our major suppliers change product volume in a relatively short time
Our major suppliers change product mix in a relatively short time
Our major suppliers consistently accommodate our requests
Our major suppliers provide quick inbound logistics to us
Our major suppliers have outstanding on-time delivery record with us
Our major suppliers effectively expedite our emergency orders.
Unless otherwise specifically requested, please use the following scale to answer each item:

Section III: Supply Chain Management (SCM) Practices


SCM practices is defined as the set of activities undertaken by an organization to promote effective
management of its supply chain through outsourcing, strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship,
information sharing, postponement, and mass customization.

Please circle the number that accurately reflects the extent of your firms current level of SCM
practices.
EXTENT OF OUTSOURCING

Outsourcing is the practice of transferring internal business activities / operations of a firm to third parties.
1.

Our firm outsources information systems

2.

Our firm outsources manufacturing

3.

Our firm outsources logistics

4.

(this includes transportation, distribution and warehousing)

5.

Our firm outsources pre-sales customer care

6.

Our firm outsources after sales support

7.

Our firm outsources product design

STRATEGIC SUPPLIER PARTNERSHIP


1.

Strategic Supplier Partnership is the long-term relationship between the organization and its suppliers. It is
designed to leverage the strategic and operational capabilities of individual participating organizations to help
them achieve significant ongoing benefits.

2.

We consider quality as our number one criterion in selecting suppliers

3.

We regularly solve problems jointly with our suppliers

4.

We have helped our suppliers to improve their product quality

5.

We have continuous improvement programs that include our key suppliers

6.

We include our key suppliers in our planning and goal- setting activities

7.

We actively involve our key suppliers in new product development processes

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP
Customer Relationship is the entire array of practices that are employed for the purpose of managing
customer complaints, building long-term relationships with customers, and improving customer satisfaction.
1.

We frequently interact with customers to set reliability, responsiveness, and other standards for us

2.

We frequently measure and evaluate customer satisfaction

3.

We frequently determine future customer expectations

4.

We facilitate customers ability to seek assistance from us

5.

We periodically evaluate the importance of our relationship with our customers

INFORMATION SHARING
Information sharing is the extent to which critical and proprietary information is communicated to ones
trading partner.
1.

We inform trading partners in advance of changing needs

2.

Our trading partners share proprietary information with us

3.

Our trading partners keep us fully informed about issues that affect our business

4.

Our trading partners share business knowledge of core business processes with us

5.

We and our trading partners exchange information that helps establishment of business planning

6.

We and our trading partners keep each other informed about events or
partners

POSTPONEMENT

changes that may affect the other

Postponement is the practice of moving forward one or more operations or activities (making, sourcing, and
delivering) to a much later point in the supply chain.
1.

We delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received

2.

We delay final product assembly activities until the last possible position (or nearest to customers) in the supply
chain

3.

We delay ordering of raw materials from suppliers until customer orders have actually been received

4.

We delay some form of value-addition to the product until customer orders have actually been received

MASS CUSTOMIZATION
Mass Customization is the practice of producing customized products on a large scale at a cost comparable
to mass produced products.
1.

We customize products on a large scale

2.

We add product variety without increasing cost

3.

We customize products while maintaining a large volume

4.

Unless otherwise specifically requested, please use the following scale to answer each item:

LOGISTICS PROCESS RESPONSIVENESS


Logistics Process Responsiveness is the ability of a firms outbound transportation, distribution, and
warehousing system (including 3PL/4PL) to address changes in customer demand.
1.

Our logistics system responds rapidly to unexpected demand change

2.

Our logistics system rapidly adjusts warehouse capacity to address demand changes

3.

Our logistics system rapidly varies transportation carriers to address demand changes

4.

Unless otherwise specifically requested, please use the following scale to answer each item:

5.

Not at all
applicable

6.

Our logistics system rapidly accommodates special or non-routine customer requests

7.

Our logistics system effectively delivers expedited shipments

To a small extent

To a moderate extent

To a considerable extent

To a great extent

Not

SUPPLIER NETWORK RESPONSIVENESS


Supplier Network Responsiveness is the ability of a firms major suppliers to address changes in the firms
demand.
1.

Our major suppliers change product volume in a relatively short time

2.

Our major suppliers change product mix in a relatively short time

3.

Our major suppliers consistently accommodate our requests

4.

Our major suppliers provide quick inbound logistics to us

5.

Our major suppliers have outstanding on-time delivery record with us

6.

Our major suppliers effectively expedite our emergency orders

Please mark the position of your company in the supply chain (mark all that apply).
Raw material supplier
Sub-assembler

Component supplier
Manufacturer

Assembler
Distributor

Wholesaler

Retailer

Please indicate if you would like to get a copy of the executive summary of results of this survey by filling in
your address information below.
Your name: __________________________
Company:

___________________________

Address: ______________________________
City: _______________ State: ______
Tel: _______________ Fax: ______________
Email address:

Zip code: ________________