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Page No.

1.0 Basic Pile Design Data


*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Type of Pile : -

Bored Cast in-situ.

Pile Diameter

1000

mm

Working Load in Compression

10,000

kN

Minimum Factor of Safety

3.00

Reference Point for Level Measurements

Cut-off Level

-3.00

Bedrock Level

-12.77

Pile Toe Level

-32.50

Concrete

60

Cement Type

Sulphate Resisting Cement (S.R.C.)

Reinforcement

High Tensile [Black] Steel.

Yield Strength of Steel

460

A] Top 12.00 m

15 Nos. 32 mm

B] Rest of Pile

7 Nos. 32 mm

Existing Ground Level

N/mm2

N/mm2

* Longitudinal Bars

* Helical Links
A] Top 2.00 m

10 mm @ 90 mm c/c

B] Rest of Pile

10 mm @ 150 mm c/c

* Cover of Reinforcement
* Number of Piles

75

122

mm

Page No.

2.0 Pile Capacity Calculations


* The soil investigation report has been done by :

Al-Hai & Al-Mukaddam for Geotechnical Works


Report No. SR/0710609 dated Nov. 27, 2007
Borehole No. 5

*
*
*
*
*

Reference Point for Level Measurements

Existing Ground Level

Pile Diamter

1000

mm

Pile Toe Level

-32.50

Bedrock Level

-12.77

Socketd Length of Pile in Rock

19.73

Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Pile (Qu)

Qu Qb Qs
Where

Qb : Pile base bearing capacity.


Qs : Pile socket friction bearing capacity.

Qb 2 N qub Ab
Where

: Angle of Friction
N = tan 2 (45o )
2

qub : Unconfined compressive strength of the socket zone qu (lab)


5
Ab : Area of pile base.

Qs qus As
Where

: Reduction factor relating to qus.


: Correction factor related to the discontinuity spacing in the rock mass.
qus : Unconfined compressive strength along the shaft area.
As : Area of pile shaft.

Page No.

Friction Capacity of Pile


Depth Range
No.

From

To
m

Length RQD qucs


m

MPa

As

Qs

m2

kN

-12.77

-18.05

5.28

50

0.96

0.50

0.65

16.59

5164

-18.05

-21.75

3.70

50

1.51

0.40

0.65

11.62

4537

-21.75

-23.35

1.60

50

1.78

0.35

0.65

5.03

2050

-23.35

-26.15

2.80

50

3.45

0.22

0.65

8.80

4276

-26.15

-32.25

6.10

50

4.11

0.21

0.65

19.16

10811

-32.25

-32.50

0.25

50

3.85

0.21

0.65

0.79

418

Qs

Ultimate Skin Friction Capacity

27255

kN

Page No.

End Bearing Capacity of Pile

27

2.66

qub

0.77

MPa

Ab

0.79

m2

* Ultimate End Bearing Capacity

Qb

3217

kN

* Ultimate Total Capacity

Qu

30472

kN

3.05

* Actual Factor of Safety

Thus, the pile can safely carry the applied load

Page No.

3.0 Elastic Analysis


In granular soil-rock environment where the soil modulus is assumed to increase linearly with depth,
stiffness factor (T) is given by: -

EI
nh
Where

T 5

E : Modulus of elasticity of concrete E K o 0.2 f cu , where Ko = 20


4
I : Moment of inertia of pile D
64
D : diameter of pile.
nh : Modulus of subgrade reaction

* Stiffness Factor
* Net Pile Length

32.00

GPa

0.05

m4

nh

45

2.04

29.50

H1

500.00

kN

H2

133.33

kN

633.33

kN

MN/m3

Shear Forces

* Due to 5% of Axial Load


* Due to Out-of-Verticality
* Total Shear Force

N
75

* The following evaluation is based on the elastic analysis of laterally-loaded fixed pile head (pile cap)
and linearly increasing soil modulus (Reese & Matlock in Tomlinson 1994).

* Bending Moment M f Fm HT
Where

Fm : Moment coefficient

Page No.

Depth

Moment

(x)

Fm

x
T

0.00

0.00

-0.92

-1185.77

1.00

0.49

-0.46

-590.44

2.00

0.98

-0.08

-107.11

3.00

1.47

0.17

215.34

4.00

1.97

0.25

328.00

5.00

2.46

0.24

311.55

6.00

2.95

0.18

228.44

4.00

7.00

3.44

0.11

139.77

6.00

8.00

3.93

0.05

62.22

9.00

4.42

0.01

8.00

10.00

4.91

-0.01

-10.67

11.00

5.41

0.00

0.00

Mf
kNm

-1500.00

-1000.00

-500.00

0.00

500.00
0.00

Depth (m)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

2.00

8.00
10.00

Moment (kNm)

N.B. (x) is the depth from the cut-off level

12.00

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Page No.

4.0 Longitudinal Reinforcement

*
*
*
*

M1

1185.77 kNm

[From the elastic analysis]

Out-of-Position Moment

M2

750.00

= 0.075 N

Ultimate Moment

Mult

2903.66 kNm

Ultimate Axial Load

Nult

15000

kN

Pile Diameter

1000

mm

d'

101.00

mm

fcu

60

N/mm2

fy

460

N/mm2

1] From PROKON

1.45

------ (1)

2] 0.30% Ac

0.30

------ (2)

[BD 74/00, C9.2]

3] Minimum of 6 bars

0.61

------ (3)

[BD 74/00, C9.2]

4] 0.15N/fy

0.62

------ (4)

[BD 74/00, C9.2]

1.45

kNm

[Factored to 1.50]
[Factored to 1.50]

* Required Steel Percentage

Top 12.00 m

* Maximum of (1), (2), (3) & (4)

req.

*
*
*
*

Provided Steel Diameter

32

Required No. of Steel Bars

15

Provided No. of Steel Bars

15

Spacing Between Bars c/c

167

mm

mm

[Maximum 300 mm]

OK
Rest of Pile

*
*
*
*

req.

Maximum of (2), (3) & (4)

0.62

Provided Steel Diameter

32

Required No. of Steel Bars

Provided No. of Steel Bars

%
mm

OK

Page No.

5.0 Stress in Concrete

*
*
*
*

Pile Diameter

1000

mm

Compressive Strength of Concrete

fcu

60

Working Axial Load

10000

Area of Concrete

Ac

785398 mm2

N/mm2
kN

* Permissible service stress should not exceed 25 % of the specified cube strength as per BS8004: 7.4.4.3
* Actual Stress in Concrete, N

15.00

N/mm2

12.73

N/mm2

OK

6.0 Ultimate Vertical Load

* Proposed Vertical Reinforcement

15 Nos. 32 mm

As per BS8110, Part 1 - 1997, The ultimate axial load should not exceed the value of "N" given by:

N=0.35f cu A c +0.7 A sc f y
*
*
*
*

Yield strength of steel.

fy

460

Area of steel

Asc

12064

Compressive strength of concrete.

fcu

60

Area of concrete

Ac

773334 mm2

20125

kN

Nall

13416

kN

Napp

10000

kN

* Allowable Axial Load


* Applied Axial Load

N/mm2
mm2
N/mm2

[Divided by 1.50]

OK

Page No.

7.0 Settlement Calculations


The settlement of piles under a vertical working load is calculated as follows: -

s s1 s2 s3
s : Total settlement.
s1 : Settlement of pile shaft due to elastic shortening.
s2 : Settlement of pile caused by pile point load.
s3 : Settlement of pile caused by pile shaft-transmitted load.

s1

(Qwp Qws ) L

where

Ap E p
Qwp

: Load carried at the pile point under working load condition.

: Unit skin resistance distribution along pile shaft.

Qws

: Load carried by frictional (skin) resistance under working load condition.

: Length of pile.

Ap

: Area of pile cross-section.

Ep

*
*
*
*

: Modulus of elasticity of pile material.

Ultimate End Bearing Capacity

Qb

3217

kN

Ultimate Skin Friction Capacity

Qs

27255

kN

Factor of Safety of End Bearing

3.05

Factor of Safety of Skin Friction

3.05

Qwp

1056

kN

Qws

8944

kN

0.67

29.50

Ap

0.79

m2

Ep

32.00

GPa

s1

8.27

mm

Page No.

s2

qwp D
Es

Where

(1 s2 ) I wp

Qwp

qwp

: Point load per unit area at the pile point =

: Diameter of pile.

Es

: Modulus of elasticity of soil at or below pile point.

: Poisson's ratio of soil.

Iwp

: Influence factor = r for circular foundations.


qwp

1344

kN/m2

1000

mm

Es

1.00

GPa

0.30

Ap

10

Q D
s3 ( ws ) (1 2 ) I ws
pL Es
where

Iwp

0.85

s2

1.04

: Perimeter of pile.

Iws

: Influence factor =

Total Settlement

2 0.35

mm

L
D

3142

mm

Iws

3.90

s3

0.34

mm

9.66

mm

Page No.

8.0 Shear Calculations on Piles


Assumptions and Considerations

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Concrete Compressive Strength

fcu

60

N/mm2

Yield Strength of Stirrups

fyv

460

N/mm2

Applied Shear Force

633.33

kN

Applied Normal Force

10000

kN

Factored Shear Force

950

kN

[Factored to 1.50]

Factored Normal Force

15000

kN

[Factored to 1.50]

Pile Diameter

dp

1000

mm

11

Ac
* Cross-sectional Area of Pile
* Main Reinforcement : No. of Bars
Diameter of Bars

* Area of Tension Reinforcement


* Concrete Cover

As

785398 mm2

15

32

mm

6032

mm2

75

mm

[Half the Total Reinforcement].

Shear Stress Calculations

*
*
*
*
*

Width of Pile

1000

mm

Centroid of Tension Zone

239

mm

Effective Depth

739

mm

Shear Stress

1.29

N/mm2

Maximum Shear Stress

vmax

4.75

N/mm2

[BD 74/00, C5.1]

Shear Stress is OK

Page No.

* Calculating the factor s vc

* Shear Stress in Concrete

(1

0.91

(Table 9, BS 5400)

1.25

(Table 8, BS 5400)

vc

0.69

N/mm2

s vc

0.63

N/mm2

0.05 N
)
Ac

1.95

12

s vc *
Shear Reinforcement Criterion

1.22

N/mm2

(BD 74/00)

* The criterion of shear reinforcement is based on the following cases:


Case (1) v

s vc *
2

, No shear reinforcement is required.

Case (2)

s vc *
v s vc *
2

, Minimum shear reinforcement is required.

Case (3)

v s vc *

, Shear reinforcement is to be provided.


v

s vc *

1.29

N/mm2

1.22

N/mm2

Therefore, case (3) governs

Page No.

* Minimum Shear Reinforcement

1.00

mm2/mm

Provided Reinforcement
A] Top 2.00 m

* Number of Legs

legs

13

*
*
*
*

Diameter of Stirrups

10

mm

Spacing

90

mm

Provided Area of Stirrups

Asv

1.75

mm2/mm

Required Area of Stirrups

Asv

1.65

mm2/mm

OK
B] Rest of Pile

*
*
*
*
*

Number of Legs

legs

Diameter of Stirrups

10

mm

Spacing

150

mm

Provided Area of Stirrups

Asv

1.05

mm2/mm

Required Area of Stirrups

Asv

1.00

mm2/mm

OK
Formulas

500
d

s 4

vc=

or 0.70 whichever is greater.

0 .27 3 100 A s 3
f cu
m
bd

A sv
sv

( )

min

0.4 b
0 . 87 f yv

A sv b(v s v c )
=
sv
0. 87f yv

for case (3)