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Electromagnetic interaction

-what brings light and energy from the sun and hold s electron in orbit around
nuclei to form atoms
-The electromagnetic interaction is also responsible for holding molecules
together. Although molecules are neutral, there is a residual of the
electromagnetic interaction, called van der Waal's interaction, that holds them
weakly together. Take hydrogen molecules, for example. The electric charge
around the atoms in the molecules is polarised - the electrons are pushed apart
by electromagnetic repulsion towards the extremities leaving a positive field
near the middle. The molecules are held together by attraction between the
negative extremity of one molecule's field and the positive middle of the other's.
This is due to a polarization of the electric charge around the atoms in the
molecule. For example, in the hydrogen molecule, the electrons are pushed apart
by electromagnetic repulsion towards the extremities, leaving a positive field
near the middle.
- One of the four fundamental interactions of nature, which is mediated by
photons and acts on quarks and charged leptons. The electromagnetic
interaction is weaker than the strong interaction, but stronger than the weak and
gravitational interactions. It is associated with electric and magnetic fields and is
responsible for atomic structure, chemical reactions, the attractive and repulsive
electromagnetic forces associated with electrically charged or magnetically
polarized particles, and all other electromagnetic phenomena.
-interaction between charged particles arising from their electric and magnetic
fields; its strength is about 100 times weaker than the strong interaction
-Photon is the name given to a quantum of light or other electromagnetic
radiation. The photon energy is given in the Planck relationship. The photon is
the exchange particle responsible for the electromagnetic force. The force
between two electrons can be visualized in terms of a Feynman diagram as
shown below. The infinite range of the electromagnetic force is owed to the zero
rest mass of the photon. While the photon has zero rest mass, it has finite
momentum, exhibits deflection by a gravity field, and can exert a force. a
particle representing a quantum of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A
photon carries energy proportional to the radiation frequency but has zero rest

1) Gravitational interaction :

History recalls that in 1665, Isaac Newton ( 1642-1727 ) , a young student , had
the idea of universal gravitation contemplating the fall of an apple . In fact , he
leaned on the many hypotheses since antiquity and the work of his
) From Ptolemy to Kepler :

For years , astronomy has had no other subject than the description of the
movements of celestial bodies .

Since ancient times , astronomers try to predict the movements of the planets by
choosing a repository where the trajectories are as simple as possible . For
Ptolemy ( I
century AD), the Earth, around which revolve the sun and planets, occupies the
center of the world.
In 1543, Copernicus (1473-1543) published a treatise in which the Sun is the
center of the world. It is causing a "revolution" favoring the heliocentric

Not until the work of Kepler (1571-1630) for a description of the motion of
neighboring planets that permitted today.

Using the results of observations of his teacher Tycho Brahe, Kepler published in
1609 and 1619, the three laws that describe the motion of planets around the
1st law: In the heliocentric reference frame, the center of the trajectory of a
planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.
2nd Law: The line segment connecting the Sun and planet sweeps out equal
areas during equal intervals of time.
3rd Law: For all the planets, the ratio of the cube of the semi-major axis of the
trajectory and the square of the orbital period is the same:
b) From Kepler to Einstein
At the same time Kepler, Galileo (1564-1642) discovered the principle of inertia,
which opens new perspectives for understanding the cause of motion. He argues
in favor of the heliocentric movement.

The idea of gravitation is precisely parallel to the development of astronomy.

Copernicus believes that gravity is a natural attraction that makes every celestial
body center acting on the rest of the matter in the Universe.
Kepler believed, wrongly, that the attraction between two bodies decreases in
inverse proportion to the distance that separates them.

This is Newton's glory that returns to find that attraction decreases in fact
inversely as the square of the distance: this discovery enables to justify the laws
of Kepler discover the movements of the planets.

Building on the work of Kepler, Newton speculates that the forces that govern the
movement of the stars are of the same nature as those that attract a body to the
ground. In 1687 he published the law of universal gravitation in his Philosophia
Naturalis Principia Mathematica famous.

He explains many phenomena: the movement of the Moon, the existence of

tides, the precession of the equinoxes, the formation of stars ...
Year after year , more precise confirmations about celestial mechanics are
obtained by mathematicians and astronomers Clairaut , Euler , D'Alembert,
Lagrange ...

However, in the early twentieth century , Newton's theory is questioned by

Einstein in 1917 published the theory of general relativity.

c) the gravitational law:

The law of gravity was first enunciated by Newton two point body, that is to say,
whose dimensions are small compared to the distance between them (eg , in a
ratio of less than 10 .

Point two bodies A and B , mass and exert on the other attractive forces directly
opposite , directed along the straight line (AB ) of values proportional to the
weights inversely proportional to the square of their distance:
r = AB = and unit vector
The value of the force is expressed in Newtons (N ), the distance r in meters ( m)
and the masses in kilograms (kg).
The constant G is called universal gravitational constant . An approximate value
is :
G = 6,67.10

Note: gravitational forces are both engaged to astronomical distances between

celestial bodies at microscopic distances between atoms , nuclei ...

2) Gravitational Field :

a) Point Object :

Let us consider a point O in space, a point object of mass M and , at a point P , a

point object mass m .
The gravitational force exerted by the mass M on mass m is:
Or :
s the gravitational field created by the P punctual body mass M O :

In the International System of Units , the value is expressed . The gravitational

field created in P by mass of object M exists even in the absence of mass m in P.
It characterizes a property of space due to the presence of the mass point object
M located at O.

It is only by placing a P witness mass m we can detect ; We then measure a

strength and we deduce the value of a field.
b) spherical symmetry Subject:

An object created a gravitational field regardless of the shape thereof . However,

the expression is simpler than in the case of an object whose mass distribution is
spherically symmetric .
It is said that an object has a spherically symmetrical mass distribution
( spherical distribution or a mass ) when the density depends only on the
distance r e to the symmetry center .
A steel ball or a ping -pong presents such symmetry. It can be assumed in a first
approximation , as is the case of the Sun , planets and their satellites.

A distribution of spherical symmetry of mass with center of mass M and O ,

created at any point outside P a gravitational field identical to that of a point
mass body M placed O:
r = OP

Note: This expression field is valid only outside and on the same surface of the
spherically symmetric mass distribution . This field is said centripetal because it
is directed toward the center O.

c) force exerted on an object placed in a gravitational field :

A material object is subjected to a gravitational force when placed in any

gravitational field. The expression of this force is simpler than in the case of a
point object spherically symmetrical mass distribution .
A point object of mass m, P placed in the gravitational field is subject to the force

It is shown that the same is true for an object of mass m, mass distribution of
spherical symmetry , the center C coincides with P.

Thus, for the field it creates or strength he suffers any body of spherically
symmetric mass distribution can be replaced by a one-time body mass and even
at the center of this distribution.

The photon has an intrinsic angular momentum or "spin" of 1, so that the

electron transitions which emit a photon must result in a net change of 1 in the
angular momentum of the system. This is one of the "selection rules" for electron