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D

Study Club

D.S.C
GRAMMAR PROGRAM

HAND BOOK
(PEMAHAMAN TENSES)

Contact Person
(Ola)

PEMAHAMAN TENSES

Kalimat verbal terbagi 2 menurut objectnya :


A. VERB

Transitive (V + O)

Verb adalah kata yang menunjukkan aktivitas atau kondisi.

E.g : She reads a book

Fungsi verb :

Ordinary (harus ada 1 dalam kalimat)

Monotransitive (Objeknya hanya 1)

Verbal

E.g : She buys 2 books

Ordinary anggota Be
E.g : He is reading a book

Ditransitive (Objeknya ada 2)


E.g : She bought me a book

Nominal
Ordinary anggota Be : be, is, am, are, was, were,

Note : I.O : Indirect Object (Person)

been, being
E.g : He is clever

D.O : Direct Object


Intransitive (Verb tanpa objek)

E.g : Go, come, sit, stand, etc

Auxiliary (bisa ada bisa tidak ada dalam kalimat.Kalau

S and V agreement :

ada,maximal 3 dalam 1 kalimat)

Vsing

: V1s/es , does, is, has, was

Primary auxiliary

Vplu

: V1, do, are, have, were

Ssing + Vsing

Splu + Vplu

Countable + Vsing

be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being, do, does, did,
have, has, had
Modal auxiliary (M + Bi)
will, would, shall, should, can, must, may, might,
could, etc

Perubahan Verb :
1.

To infinitive (to inf)

2.

Bare infinitive (Bi)

3.

Additional infinitive (Ai)

4.

Past tense (Pt) = V2

5.

Past participle (PP) = V3

6.

Present participle (PresPt) = Ving

To inf
to go
to do
to be
to have
to invite
to finish

Bi
go
do
be
have
invite
finish

Ai
Pt
PP
PresPt
goes
went
gone
going
does
did
done
doing
am,is,are was,were
been
being
has
had
had
having
invites
invited
invited inviting
finishes finished finished finishing

Perf

: Have /Has + V3

Fut : Will + Ving

V1 : Will

V2 : Would

Kinds of tenses :
1. Simple Present
S + am,is,are + V1(s/es)
2. Present Continuous
S + am,is,are + Ving
3. Present Perfect

B. TENSES

S + have/has + V3

Tenses adalah perubahan waktu yang harus diikuti oleh


perubahan kata kerja (auxiliary + infected ordinary).
Waktu

Aktifitas

Present

Simple

Past

Continues

Future

Perfect

Past Future

Perfect Continues

4. Present Perfect Continuous


S + have/has + been + Ving
5. Simple Past
S + V2
6. Past Continuous
S + was/were + V2
7. Past Perfect
S + had + V3

Ciri-ciri tenses :

Pres

: V1 (s/es)

Past

: V2

Cont

: Be + Ving

8. Past Perfect Continuous


S + had + been + Ving
9. Simple Future
S + Will + Bi

10. Future Continuous


S + will + be + Ving
11. Future Perfect
S + will + have + V3
12. Future Perfect Continuous
S + will + have + been + Ving
13. Past Future
S + would + Bi
14. Past Future Continuous
S + would + be + Ving
15. Past Future Perfect
S + would + have + V3
16. Past Future Perfect Continuous
S + would + have + been + Ving

PV in Tenses :
1. Simple Present
S + am,is,are + V3
2. Present Continuous
S + am,is,are + being + V3
3. Present Perfect / Present Perfect Continuous
S + have/has + been + V3
4. Simple Past
S + was,were + V3
5. Past Continuous
S + was,were + being + V3
6. Past Perfect / Past Perfect Continuous
S + had + been + V3
7. Simple Future / Future Continuous
S + will + be + V3

C. PASSIVE VOICE
S + Be + V3

8. Future Perfect / Future Perfect Continuous


S + will + have + been + V3
9. Past Future / Past Future Continuous

Syarat :
1.

Verb transitive

2.

S di AV, O di PV

3.

O di AV, A di PV

4.

Verb di PV selalu memakai V3

S + would + be + V3
10. Past Future Perfect / Past Future Perfect Continuous
S + would + have + been + V3
Modal Passive
Modal + Be + V3

By + O tidak diikutkan dalam PV :

Simple Future

1. Ketika tidak penting menyebut sang pelaku

Next .......

2. Pelaku sudah jelas

Tomorrow

3. Sudah menjadi profesi sang pelaku

....... later

4. Pelaku tidak jelas


D.Time Signal
Simple Present

Every......

Always

Often

Seldom

(Adv of frequency)

Perfect

For ......

Since ......

Just

Just now

All night

Already

All day

Simple Past

Yesterday

Last .........

........ ago

Present Continuous

E. Nominal Form
S + Be (ord) + 3 Complement
3 Complement :

Adjective

Now

Noun

Right now

Adverb

At present

At the moment

CS (Complement of Subjec)

Nominal Form in Tenses :


1. Simple Present / Present Continuous

S + am,is,are + 3C
2. Present Perfect / Present Perfect Continuous
S + have/has + been + 3C

Note :

3. Simple Past / Past Continuous


S + was,were + 3C

Kalau dicontinuouskan berarti pura-pura

CA dicontinuouskan hanya kalau Subjec-nya person

4. Past Perfect / Past Perfect Continuous


S + had + been + 3C
5. Simple Future / Future Continuous

F. Conditional Sentence (Kalimat Pengandaian)

S + will + be + 3C

Tipe I.A

6. Future Perfect / Future Perfect Continuous

If + Simp Pres + Simp Fut

S + will + have + been + 3C


Tipe I.B
Jika 3C berupa anggota Certain Adjective :

If + Simp Pres + Simp Pres

S + be + being + CA
Tipe II
Certain Adjective :

If + Simp Past + Past Fut

Bad

Fair

Illogical

Nice

Cruel

Generous

Kind

Noicy

Careful

Good

Loud

Patient

Funny

Impolite

Lazy

Polite

Foolish

Irresposible

Logical

Pleasant

Quite

Rude

Responsible

Silly

Serious

Unfair

Unkind

Unpleasant

Tipe III
If + Past Per + Past Fut Perf
G. Question Tag
Question

tag adalah pertanyaan

singkat yang

diletakkan

dibelakang dibelakang kalimat untuk memberikan penegasan.

Question :
Yes / No
Pertanyaan yang diawali oleh kata kerja dan jawabannya

Those / They
Modal +
Indefinite subject pe rson:

They
Modal They

Someone,somebody,everyone
Indefinite subject thing:

It

Something,everything
H. Information Question

Ya / tidak
Words
Pertanyaan yang diawali dengan anggota 8W1H dan butuh
jawaban sebuah informasi

Adalah pertanyaan yang membutuhkan jawaban suatu informasi


yang diawali dengan Question Word.
QW + aux + S

Tag

Who

: siapa : subject : person

Jawaban berupa Yes/No dan dibelakang menggunakan

Whom

: siapa : object : person

Pronounnya

Whose

: milik siapa : subject / object : possession

Which

: yang mana : choice of alternative

What

: apa : subject / object : nonperson( idea, action,

Question tag ada 3 unsur didalamnya :


Statement Positive

object)

Invitation
Imperative
Sentence
+
Negative words :
never,hardly,nither,no
I am
I am not
Lets + Bi
Imperative +/That / This

Tag
+
+
Arent I
Am I
Shall we
Will you
It

When

: kapan : time

Where

: di/kemana : place

Why

: mengapa : reason

How

: bagaimana : manner

How much : uncountable : price : quantity


How many: countable
Question

Answer

You

Duration

You

Time

Rules :
1. Menanyakan Subject

Jika menanyaka unsur subject,maka tulis kembali

: When

- Spesifik

: What time

unsur setelahnya.

Person

: Who

Menanyakan subject dianggap menanyakan orang

Non-person

: What

ketiga tunggal

Job

: What

Age

: How old

Adjective

Selain

menanyakan

subject,

kalimat

dibuat

interrogative
3. Menanyakan verb / aktivitas

- General

5. Menanyakan complement

2. Menanyakan Object dan bagiannya

: How long

Ganti verb ordinary dengan do, done, doing

4. Menanyakan adverb

Tempat atau arah : where

Cara

: how

Frequency

: How often / How


many times

- Phisic

: What + aux + S + look like?

- Character

: What + aux + S + like ?

- State

: How

Place

: Where

Distance

: How far

1. Direct Speech
Adalah mengutip pembicaraan sendiri atau orang lain yang sama

Tingkatan

: How + adj / adv

persis apa yang diucapkan oleh si pembaca.

Kecepatan

: How soon

Ciri

: ada tanda kutip

Time duration

: How long

Note

: _____________ US

Distance

: How far

______________ UK
Introductory verb (IV) :

Say + to + O

Tell + O

Ask + O

Direct Speech

2. Indirect Speech
Adalah mengutip pembicaraan sendiri atau orang lain yang
tidak sama persis apa yang diucapkan oleh si pembicara
Ciri

: tidak ada tanda kutip tapi munculnya conjuction atau

to
infinitive

Statement

: that

Yes / No Q

: if / whether

QW

: QW

Imperative + : to + infinitive

Imperative -

: not + to infinitive

Note : Jika main clause berupa simple present, yang ada dalam
tanda kutip tidak mengalami perubahan tenses.Tapi jika
yang ada dalam tanda kutip berupa simple past, yang
ada
dalam tanda kutip mengalami perubahan sebagai berikut
:

Indirect Speech

Simple Present
Present Continuous
Present Future
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Simple Past
Past Continuous
Past Future
Future Continuous
Now
Yesterday
Last night
Last week
Last Sunday
Two days ago
Five years ago
Today
Tomorrow
Next month
The day after tomorrow
Here
This
These
Can
Will
Shall
May

Simple Past
Past Continuous
Past Future
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Future Perfect
Conditional Continuous
Then
The day before
The night before
The week before
The Sunday before
Two days before
Five years before
That day
The following/next day
The following month
In two days time
There
That
Those
Could
Would
Shoud
Might

1. Apabila ada dua kejadian yang terjadi secara berurutan,


kejadian pertama (continuous) belum selesai manakala
kejadian kedua (simple) muncul
Conjunction : when, while, as
----------1-------------------2---------1.Continuous
2.Simple
E.g : When he was eating, his friend called him.
2. Seven Summary nomor 2 merupakan alternative point dari
seven summary nomor 1 yang intinya memiliki makna yang
sama,hanya

perbedaannya

adalah

kejadian

pertama

menggunakan perfect dan makna proses.


----------1--------------------2---------1.Perfect Proses
2.Simple
E.g : When he had been eating for 5 minutes, his friend called
him
3. Apabila ada dua kejadian yang terjadi secara berurutan,

J. Seven Summaries ( Konsep dua kejadian)


Seven Summaries(tujuh rangkuman) merupakan sebuah konsep
pengaturan aplikasi tenses yang bersifat korelative.

kejadian pertama (simple) sudah selesai manakala kejadian


kedua (simple) muncul (ada hubungan sebab akibat).
Conjunction : when, after, before, then, as

E.g: When I arrived at the bus station, the first bus left.
6. Seven Summary no.6 secara rumus kalimat juga memiliki
----------1----------

----------2----------

kesamaan dengan seven summary no.4 tetapi secara makna


berbeda.Yaitu tidak adanya hubungan sebab akibat.di dalam

1.Simple

seven summary no.6

2.Simple
E.g : When he felt cold, he took a vest.
4. Seven Summary no.4 merupakan point alternatif secara

----------1----------

----------2----------

makna dari seven summary no.3.Perbedaannya terletak

1.Past Perfect (Result)

pada penggunaan past perfect untuk kejadian pertama dan

2.Simple Past

simple past untuk kejadian yang menyusul.

E.g : When I had arrived at the bus station, the first bus left.
7. Seven Summary no.7 merupaka satu-satunya konsep dan
kejadian yang tidak berurutan melainkan bersamaan.

----------1----------

----------2----------

Conjunction : When, while, as

1.Past Perfect (Result)

----------1----------

2.Simple Past

----------2----------

E.g : When he had done his work, he went home

1.Past Continuous

5. Seven Summary no.5 sacara rumus memiliki kesamaan


dengan seven summary no.3 walau secara makna berbeda.

2.Past Continuous
E.g : While I was eating, I was watching TV

Perbedaannya adalah tidak adanya sebab akibat di dalam


seven summasy no.5.
----------1---------1.Simple Past
2.Simple Past

----------2----------

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