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Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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Scientific Skills :Variables
Constant
(same/fixed)

MANIPULATED
( different)

RESPONDING
(result of experimen)

Can be identified from:


(a) Table
(b) Graph
(c) Statement
(d) Diagram

ManipulatedResponding
ManipulatedResponding

Example:
(i)

Manipulated
variable

Responding
variable

Substance
Distilled water
Distilled water + common salt

(ii)

From table

Boiling Point /0C


100
......................

Manipulated variable

Height of students (cm)


Number of students

146-150

151-155

156-160

161-165

166-170

Responding variable

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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From graph
(Responding )
Temperature

(Manipulated )
Time

(1)

From statement:

To study the effect of manipulated variable


To study the effect of thickness of convex lens

on
on

responding variable
focal length

Example :
(a)
Diagram (a) and (b) shows an experiment to compare the reactivity rate of
and metal M in dilute hydrochloric acid

metal L

Same
Dilute hydrochloric acid

Important points from statement


Different
Metal L and metal M

Result
Reactivity rate

Constant variable

Manipulated variable

Responding variable

Volume of hydrochloric
acid
Concentration of hydrochloric
acid

Type of metal

Reactivity rate of metal

From Diagram

Sterilize
Cotton
wool

Fresh milk
Distilled water
Constant variable
Volume of fresh milk
Incubating
Temperature
370C

Sterilize
Cotton
wool

Fresh
milik

Fresh milk

Manipulated variable
(incubating) temperature
Incubating
temperature
00C

Responding Variable
Condition of fresh milk
Growth of bacteria
Incubating
Incubating
temperature
temperature
1000C
600C

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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Constant variable

Manipulated variable

Volume of nutrient broth


Type of bacteria
Volume of bacteria culture

Incubating temperature

Responding variable
Cloudiness of mixture

Steps in writing variables:


Parameter

of

materials

of

nutrient broth

of

yeast

of

metal

Example:
Must write parameter for each variable
Apparatus is not considered as constant variables
SOLID
Mass of metal
Thickness of wire
Length of rod
Type of nail
Presence of salt
Weight of substance
Size of sponge
Depth of dent

LIQUID
Volume of culture solution
Volume of hydrochloric acid
Concentration of hydrochloric
acid

GAS
Volume of hydrogen

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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SCIENTIFIC SKILLS EXERCISE: VARIABLES
LATIHAN KEMAHIRAN SAINTIFIK : PEMBOLEHUBAH

Table 3 shows the result of the reaction between 3.0 g of zinc metal with 100cm 3
dilute hydrochloric acid.
Jadual 3 menunjukkan keputusan bagi tindakbalas antara 3.0 g logam zink dengan
100cm3 asid hidroklorik cair.
Time /minit
Masa/minit
Volume of gas/ cm3
Isipadu gas / cm3

27

46

57

64

67

67

TABLE 3
JADUAL 3
Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Responding

Answer
Jawapan

Table 5 shows the result of an experiment to study the effect of temperatureon bacterial
growth.
Jadual 5 menunjukkan keputusan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan suhu ke atas
pertumbuhan bakteria
Temperature/0C
Suhu/0C
0
15
25
35
60

Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Responding

Size of bacteria colony after 24 hours


Saiz koloni bakteria selepas 24 jam
2
5
10
15
3
TABLE 5
JADUAL 5
Answer
Jawapan

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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3

Diagram 7 shows the result of an experiment to study the effect of different


concentration of an antibiotic on bacterial growth.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan keputusan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan kepekatan
antibiotik yang berbeza ke atas pertumbuhan bakteria
Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Responding

Answer
Jawapan

Diagram 1 shows an experiment to study the relationship between the thickness


of convex lens with the focal length of the convex lens.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji hubungan antara ketebalan
kanta cembung dengan jarak fokus kanta cembung.
Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Manipulated
Responding

Answer
Jawapan

Kawasan jernih

Cakera antibiotik
berkepekatan tinggi

Kawasan jernih

Bakteria
Cakera antibiotik
berkepekatan rendah

Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Responding

Answer
Jawapan

Diagram shows an experiment to study the effect of pH on the growth of


bacteria.
Rajah menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan pH ke atas
pertumbuhan bakteria

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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After
two
days,
the

appearance of the mixture in each test tube is observed.


Table 3 shows the result of this experiment.
Selepas dua hari, keadaan campuran di dalam setiap tabung uji diperhatikan.
Jadual 3 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen tersebut.
Test tube
Tabung uji
P
Q
R

pH value
nilai pH
Acid (pH less than 7)
Asid (kurang daripada 7)
Alkali (pH more than 7)
Alkali (pH lebih daripada 7)
Neutral (pH 7)

Cloudiness of mixture
Kekeruhan campuran
Slightly cloudy
Keruh sedikit
Slightly cloudy
Keruh sedikit
Very cloudy
Sangat keruh

Table 3
Jadual 3
Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Manipulated
Responding

Answer
Jawapan

Diagram 1.1 shows an experiment to study the pressure produced by metal blocks,
P and Q of the same mass.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkanBongkah
satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji tekanan yang dihasilkan oleh
Bongkah
bongkah logam P dan Qlogam
yangP mempunyai jisim yang sama.
logam Q

Plastisin

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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Figure 1.2 shows the effect on the plasticine when metal blocks P and Q
were dropped.
Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan kesan ke atas plastisin apabila bongkah logam P dan
Q dijatuhkan.
Lekuk P

Lekuk Q

Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Manipulated
Responding

Answer
Jawapan

Buret X

Asid hidroklorik cair

5 g logam
L
Diagram

2(a) and 2(b) show an experiment to compare the reactivity of metal


L and metal M with dilute hydrochloric acid.
Rajah 2(a) dan 2(b) menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk membandingkan
kereaktifan logam L dan logam M dengan asid hidroklorik cair

Asid hidroklorik cair


5 g logam M

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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(a)

Write down one observation for the above experiment.


Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Manipulated
Responding

Answer
Jawapan

Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.1 shows an experiment to study the reactivity of
metals with dilute hydrochloric acid
Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.1menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kereaktifan
logam dengan asid hidroklorik cair
Dilute hydrochloric acid
Asid hidroklorik cair

Bubble
Gelembung gas

Zinc plate
Plat zink

Dilute hydrochloric acid


Asid hidroklorik cair

Bubble
Gelembung gas

Magnesium plate
Plat magnesium

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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Dia
Diagram 5.1
Rajah 5.1

Diagram 5.2
Rajah 5.2

Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Manipulated
Responding

Answer
Jawapan

Elektrod karbon

Elektrod karbon

Pepejal Plumbum (II) bromida

10

Diagram 6.1
6.1
Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2 show Rajah
an experiment
to study the electrical
conductivity of lead (II) bromide.
Rajah 6.1 dan Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji
Kekonduksian elektrik plumbum (II) bromida.

Elektrod karbon

Elektrod karbon

LeburanPlumbum (II) bromida

Panaskan
Diagram 6.2
Rajah 6.2

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Manipulated
Responding

11

Answer
Jawapan

Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2 showDiagram


an experiment
to study the collision
8.1
between trolleys of different masses Rajah
with a8.1
plasticine block.
Rajah 8..1 dan Rajah 8..2 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji
Perlanggaran antara troli yang berlainan jisim dengan bongkah plastisin

10
Diagram 8.2
Rajah 8.2

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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(b)(i)

What can you observe about the plasticine block after the collisin?
Apakah yang dapat anda perhatikan pada bongkah plastisin selepas
perlanggaran?

Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Manipulated
Responding

12

Answer
Jawapan

Diagrams 9.1(a) and 9.1(b) show an experiment to study the hardness of copper block and
bronze block when the weights are dropped onto a steel ball.
Rajah 9.1(a) dan 9.1(b) menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kekerasan blok
kuprum dan blok gangsa apabila pemberat dijatuhkan ke atas bola keluli.

Weight
Pemberat
( 5 kg )
Steel ball
Bola keluli

Bronze block
Blok gangsa
Copper block
Blok kuprum

11

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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DIAGRAM 9.1(a)
Diagram 9.1(a)

Diagram 9.1 (b)

The effects on the copper block and bronze block are shown in Diagram 9.2(a) and
9.2(b).
Kesan pada blok kuprum dan blok gangsa ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 9.2(a) dan 9.2(b).
Dent
Lekukan

0.6 cm

Copper block
Blok kuprum

Bronze block
Blok Gangsa

DIAGRAM 9.2 (a)

DIAGRAM 9.2 (b)

Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Manipulated
Responding

13

Answer
Jawapan

Diagram 2(i) and Diagram 2(ii) shows the image formed by a convex lens when the
object is placedobject
at different distance.

image

Diagram 2(i)
Rajah 2(i)

object

image

Diagram 2(ii)
Rajah 2(ii)

12

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Manipulated
Responding

14

Answer
Jawapan

Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show an experiment to study the characteristics of an
image formed by a pin hole camera.
Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji ciri imej yang
dibentuk oleh satu kamera lubang jarum.

Diagram 5.1
Rajah 5.1

13

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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Diagram 5.2
Rajah 5.2

Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Responding

Answer
Jawapan

Answers
Jawapan:
1
Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Time
Masa
Volume of gas
Isipadu gas

Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Temperature
suhu
Size of bacteria colony after 24 hours
Saiz koloni bakteria selepas 24 jam

Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Concentration of antibiotic
Kepekatan antibiotik
Growth of bacteria
Pertumbuhan bakteria

14

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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4
Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Dimalarkan
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Size of convex lens
Saiz kanta cembung
Thickness of convex lens
Ketebalan kanta cembung
Focal length of convex length
Jarak fokus kanta cembung

Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Concentration of antibiotic
Kepekatan antibiotik
Size of clear area
Saiz kawasan jernih

Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Dimalarkan
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Volume of nutrient broth// Volume of bacteria culture
Isipadu kultur bakteria// Isipadu kultur bakteria
pH of mixture
pH campuran
Cloudiness of mixture
Kekeruhan campuran

Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Dimalarkan
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Mass of metal block
Ketinggian bongkah logam
Type of metal block
Jenis bongkah logam
Depth of dent
Kedalaman lekuk

Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Dimalarkan
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan

Answer
Jawapan
Mass of metal// Concentration of hydrochloric acid
Jisim logam// Kepekatan asid hidroklorik
Type of metal
Jenis logam

15

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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Responding
Bergerakbalas

Volume of gas// reactivity of metal


Isipadu gas // kereaktifan logam

Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Dimalarkan
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Size of metal plate
Saiz plat logam
Type of metal
Jenis logam
Reactivity of metal// Number of bubble
Kereaktifan logam// Bilangan gelembung gas

10
Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Dimalarkan
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Mass of lead(II) bromide
Jisim plumbum(II) bromida
Physical state of lead (II) bromide
Keadaan fizikal plumbum (II) bromida
Ammeter reading // electrical conductivity of lead (II) bromide
Bacaan ammeter// kekonduksian elektrik plumbum (II)
bromida

11
Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Dimalarkan
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Size of plasticine
Saiz plastisin
Mass of trolley
Jisim troli
Depth of dent
Kedalaman lekuk

Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Dimalarkan
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Mass of weight// size of steel ball
Jisim pemberat// saiz bola keluli
Type of block
Jenis blok
Depth of dent
Kedalaman lekuk

12

16

Program Harapan Sains SPM SMK Tinggi Sarikei 2015

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13
Variable
Pembolehubah
Constant
Dimalarkan
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Size of convex lens
Saiz kanta cembung
Distance of object
Jarak objek
Size of image
Saiz imej

Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Dimanipulasikan
Responding
Bergerakbalas

Answer
Jawapan
Distance of object
Jarak objek
Size of image
Saiz imej

14

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