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BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS

Experiment 5

Audio Amplifier
Aim: To study an audio amplifier.
The audio amplifier circuit consists of condenser MIC circuit, op-amp circuit and push-pull
amplifier circuit shown in Figs. 5.1 5.3.

+5 V

100 K
22 F
+ MIC
OUTPUT

MIC

Fig. 5.1: Condenser MIC circuit

10 K
+5 V

10 K
100

MIC
OUTPUT

- 7
6
LM741
3+
4

10 K
-5 V

Vo

100

Fig. 5.2: Non-inverting op-amp with variable gain


1

+5 V
6.8

0.1 F

CL 100

Vo
+
-

E
SK 100

6.8

LOUD
SPEAKER

CH 1
CRO

0.1 F

-5 V
Fig. 5.3: Push-pull power amplifier

The Condenser MIC circuit converts audio signal into equivalent voltage signal which is given
as input to the non-inverting op-amp whose gain can be varied by 10 k potentiometer. The
output of the op-amp is given as the input to the push-pull amplifier connected to loud
speaker. Such amplifier configuration has high voltage gain. The complementary-symmetry
power amplifier consists of a pair of complementary transistors (one npn and one pnp
transistor with matched characteristics). A 10F electrolytic capacitor is connected across the

+12V and 12V DC power supply to reduce the "current ripple" created by the power supply
voltages. A 0.1F ceramic capacitor is connected across the collector to ground of each
transistor to suppress high-frequency oscillations. Such oscillations, which occur very often
in high-gain amplifiers, can lead to overheating of the circuit elements and even cause them
to burn. Enough care must be taken to avoid overheating, in case of overheating, switch off
the DC power supply immediately.

Precautions:
1. Set the DC Power Supply to 5V before Connecting the Circuit. Do not exceed the power supply
voltage to 5V after connecting to the circuit.
2. If resistors are overheated immediately switch off the DC power supply.
3. Keep the 10 K potentiometer at minimum level in the beginning of the experiment.

Procedure:
1. Connect the op-amp circuit as shown in Fig. 5.2. Ensure the gain of the op-amp is varied
as the potentiometer is varied from minimum to maximum value.
2. Connect the push-pull complementary amplifier circuit as shown in Fig. 5.3.
3. Connect the op-amp output to the base terminal of the push-pull amplifier configuration.
4. Set the FG for a sinusoidal signal with amplitude of 20 mV and a frequency of 200 Hz with
40 dB attenuation. Ensure that the measured value of the microphone output voltage is
actually in the set frequency range of 200 Hz. Measure the magnitude of output voltage
in CRO.
5. Now remove the 200 Hz signal from the FG, and connect the output of the condenser MIC
circuit at the input of op-amp circuit.
6. Speak in the MIC and observe in loud speaker.
Note:
The audio amplifier circuit can be implemented numerically using circuit simulators like
LTSpice and QucsStudio for better understanding.