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Chapter Twenty-four

Birth of Kapila
|| 3.24.1||
maitreya uvca
nirveda-vdinm eva
manor duhitara muni
daylu linm ha
uklbhivyhta smaran
Maitreya said: The merciful sage, remembering the words of
Viu, then spoke to the praiseworthy daughter of Manu
who had spoken of detachment from material life.
The Twenty-fourth Chapter describes the birth of Kapila, the words of
Brahm, the marriage of Kardamas daughters and Kardama leaving
for the forest, after praising the Lord. linm means praiseworthy.
Kardama remembers what Viu (ukla) had said.
sahha sva-kalay tvad-vryea mah-mune
tava ketre devahty praeye tattva-sahitm
O great sage! Then I will take birth in your wife Devahti as an
expanded form and will write the Tattva-sahit. . SB 3.21.32
|| 3.24.2||
m khido rja-putrttham
tmna praty anindite
bhagavs te 'karo garbham
adrt samprapatsyate
O princess! O faultless wife! Do not lament your misfortune.
The Supreme Lord will enter your womb soon.
O women who cannot be criticized (anindite)! Do not lament.
|| 3.24.3||
dhta-vratsi bhadra te
damena niyamena ca
tapo-dravia-dnai ca
raddhay cevara bhaja
You are strong in vows. Auspiciousness to you! Worship
with faith the Lord using sense control, regulations,
austerity, and giving wealth.

Unlike other women, you are not without pious actions. You have
strong vows. Because you performed vows in your previous life, in
this life you have strong determination also. This will be auspicious
for you.
|| 3.24.4||
sa tvayrdhita uklo
vitanvan mmaka yaa
chett te hdaya-granthim
audaryo brahma-bhvana
Being worshipped by you, Viu, spreading my glories and
becoming your son, will teach about Brahman and cut the
knot of attachment in your heart.
He will cut material bondage, the knot of ahakara in the heart.
Audarya means a son, born in the womb. Brahma-bhvanah
means teacher of Brahman.
|| 3.24.5||
maitreya uvca
devahty api sandea
gauravea prajpate
samyak raddhya purua
ka-stham abhajad gurum
Maitreya said: Having complete faith in the instructions of
Kardama, Devahuti worshipped the changeless Supreme
Lord, her future guru, with veneration.
Sandeam means instruction. The Lord is called guru because as
her son, he would become her guru.
|| 3.24.6||
tasy bahu-tithe kle
bhagavn madhusdana
krdama vryam panno
jaje 'gnir iva drui
After a long time, the Supreme Lord, Madhusdana, who is
like fire in wood, controlled by the strength of bhakti of
Kardama, made his appearance.
Bahu-tithe kale means after a long time. It formed by the rule
bahu yuga gaasajghasya tithug. (Pnini 5.2.52) The Lord
appeared, controlled by the strength of bhakti of Kardama. The
Lord was already situated as the antarym in Devahti, like fire in
wood. He then appeared externally as her son.

|| 3.24.7||
avdayas tad vyomni
vditri ghanghan
gyanti ta sma gandharv
ntyanty apsaraso mud
At that time, in the sky, devats in the clouds played
instruments, the Gandarvas sang in praise of the Lord and
the Apsaras danced in joy.
Ghanghan means rumbling clouds, indicating the devats.
Amara-koa says that ghanghana means rain cloud.
|| 3.24.8||
petu sumanaso divy
khe-carair apavarjit
prasedu ca dia sarv
ambhsi ca mansi ca
Flowers, dropped by flying devats, fell from the sky. All the
directions, waters and minds became satisfied.
Apavarjit means expelled.
|| 3.24.9||
tat kardamrama-pada
sarasvaty pariritam
svayambh skam ibhir
marcy-dibhir abhyayt
Brahm, along the sages headed by Marci, came to the
hermitage of Kardama, which was surrounded by the
Sarasvat River.
Pariritam means surrounded.
|| 3.24.10-11||
bhagavanta para brahma
sattvenena atru-han
jta vidvn aja svar
sabhjayan viuddhena
cetas tac-cikritam
prahyamair asubhi
kardama cedam abhyadht

Independent Brahm, knowing that the Lord had appeared

in a uddha-sattva portion to teach enumeration of the
elements, worshipped the Lords future activities with pure
heart and then spoke to Kardama and his wife with joyful
This form of Kapila was not a full form, but a portion which was
uddha-sattva (sattvena aena). Brahm understood that the Lord
had appeared to teach particularly (vijyaptai) the philosophy which
enumerates elements (tattva-sakhyna). He worshipped
(sabhjayan) him. He spoke with joyful senses (asubhi). Asubhi
actually means life airs, but that also includes the senses. The word
ca indicates Devahti.
|| 3.24.12||
tvay me 'pacitis tta
kalpit nirvyalkata
yan me sajaghe vkya
bhavn mnada mnayan
Brahm said: O son! O sage who gives respect! You have
accomplished my sincere worship since you have accepted
my instructions with respect for me.
Apaciti means performance of service.
|| 3.24.13||
etvaty eva ur
kry pitari putrakai
bham ity anumanyeta
gauravea guror vaca
Service to the father should be rendered exactly in this
manner by good sons. The son should accept the commands
of his elder with respect, saying I will do as you have
Good sons will perform such service. Bham means I will do as
you have instructed.
|| 3.24.14||
im duhitara satyas
tava vatsa sumadhyam
sargam eta prabhvai svair
bhayiyanty anekadh

O son! These chaste daughters with thin waists will increase

the creation with their powerful portions many times.
If sons were not born, then creation would not increase. The
creation will increase by these daughters aslo. Prabhvai means
by portions having great powers.
|| 3.24.15||
atas tvam i-mukhyebhyo
yath-la yath-ruci
tmaj paridehy adya
visthi yao bhuvi
Therefore please give away your daughters to the foremost
sages according to qualities and liking, and spread your
fame throughout the universe.
|| 3.24.16||
vedham dya puruam
avatra sva-myay
bhtn evadhi deha
bibhra kapila mune
O sage! I know that the original Lord, the treasure of the
living beings, has appeared by his own energy, assuming the
body of Kapila
By his energy alone, the Lord, treasure of the living entities-- who
can bestow all desires and give pure knowledge-- has appeared.
Accepting a body means that actually he has an eternal body, but
that body now makes an appearance.
|| 3.24.17||
karmam uddharan ja
hiraya-kea padmka
ea mnavi te garbha
pravia kaiabhrdana
chittv g vicariyati
O daughter of Manu! In order to uproot karma by the
methods of jna and vijna, with golden hair, lotus eyes,
lotus feet marked with the lotus, this Lord, killer of the
demon Kaitabha, entering your womb, will travel over the
world, cutting the knot of ignorance and false knowledge.

Brahm speaks to Devahti. Janam means knowledge of God

without form, and vijnam means knowledge of God with form. By
these methods he will travel the earth to uproot (uddharan) the
roots or vsan of karma. He will cut the knot in the heart made of
ignorance concerning ones svarpa (avidy) and false knowledge
|| 3.24.19||
aya siddha-gadha
skhycryai susammata
loke kapila ity khy
gant te krti-vardhana
The chief of perfected sages, approved by the cryas of
Skhya philosophy, he will take the name Kapila in this
world and will increase your fame.
This person is approved. There is another perfect sage called
Kapila, founder of the Skhya philosophy who is not well approved.
He will preach philosophy contrary to the theistic philosophy of the
Vedas. It is said in the Padma Pura:
kapilo vsudevokhyas tattva skhya jagda ha
brahmdibhya ca devebhyo bhgvdibhyas tathaiva ca
tathaivsuraye sarva-vedrthair upabhitam
sarva-vedaviruddha ca kapilo nyo jagda ha
skhyam suraye anyasmai kutarka-paribhitam
Kapila or Vasudeva spoke the real Skhya, which is filled with the
meaning of all the Vedas to Brahm and others, the devats, the
sages such as Bhgu, and to a person called suri. Another Kapila
spoke Skhya which is contrary to the Vedas, filled with bad logic,
to another person called suri.
|| 3.24.20||
maitreya uvca
tv vsya jagat-sra
kumrai saha-nrada
haso hasena ynena
tri-dhma-parama yayau
Maitreya said: Having reassured the couple, Brahma, along
with the Kumaras and Nrada, departed for Satyaloka on his
swan carrier.
He went with the Kumras. Saha is omitted. Brahma came with the
five persons who retained their semen, having ordered Marci and

others to get married. Brahm (hasah) went to Satyaloka, which is

far beyond the third abode (tridhma), Svargaloka.
|| 3.24.21||
gate ata-dhtau katta
kardamas tena codita
yathodita sva-duhit
prdd viva-sj tata
O Vidura! After Brahm departed, Kardama, as ordered by
him, according to scriptural rules, then gave his daughters
to the creators of population.
ata-dhtau means Brahm. Yathoditam means according to
scripture. He gave his daughters to the creators of the universal
population (viva-sjm).
|| 3.24.22-23||
marcaye kal prdd
anasym athtraye
raddhm agirase 'yacchat
pulastyya havirbhuvam
pulahya gati yukt
kratave ca kriy satm
khyti ca bhgave 'yacchad
vasihypy arundhatm
Kardama gave his daughter Kal to Marci, and Anasy, to
Atri. He gave raddh to Agir, and Havirbh to Pulastya.
He gave qualified Gati to Pulaha, the chaste Kriy to Kratu,
Khyti to Bhgu, and Arundhat to Vasiha.
Yuktm means qualified or suitable.
|| 3.24.24||
atharvae 'dadc chnti
yay yajo vitanyate
viprarabhn ktodvhn
sadrn samallayat
He gave anti, by whom sacrifice becomes successful, to
Atharv. He took care of those best of brhmaas who he
had got married, along with their wives.
Because of nti, sacrifices of austerities and knowledge became
|| 3.24.25||

tatas ta aya katta

kta-dr nimantrya tam
prtihan nandim pann
sva svam rama-maalam
O Vidura! Then those sages, married, taking leave of
Kardama, returned their hermitages in joy.
Nimantrya means asking if they could leave. Nandim means joy.
|| 3.24.26||
sa cvatra tri-yugam
jya vibudharabham
vivikta upasagamya
praamya samabhata
Understanding that the Lord, chief of the deities, had
appeared, Kardama approached him in a solitary place and,
offering respects, spoke to him.
Sa means Kardama.
|| 3.24.27||
aho ppacyamnn
niraye svair amagalai
klena bhyas nna
prasdantha devat
Oh! In this world, the devats become pleased with persons
burning in material existence from their sinful actions only
after a long time.
Your appearance in my house without motive is because of your
mercy only. I do not have any qualities that caused it. This is
expressed in three verses. There are three types of persons seen in
the world: worshippers of devats, worshippers of Brahman and
worshippers of the Supreme Lord, Bhagavn. Worship of devats
produces material results. They are pleased after a long time, within
the worshippers lifetime, but not immediately, to the living beings
burning in the hell of material existence. Then they give the desired
results after a long time.
|| 3.24.28||
drau yatante yataya
nygreu yat-padam

The yogs attempt to see your impersonal feature in solitary

places by complete samdhi through yoga, but this
realization is achieved only after many births.
Among the second type of persons, they achieve their goal only
after many births. by samdhi through yoga, they try to attain
direct contact with your impersonal form (padam).
|| 3.24.29||
sa eva bhagavn adya
helana na gaayya na
gheu jto grmy
ya svn paka-poaa
The Supreme Lord, who favors his devotees, not considering
our neglect of him, has today appeared in the house of a
We, very lazy, are among the third type of persons. However, his
mercy is unlimited. The Lord does not consider our negligence
(helanam), treating him lightly. That is your very nature. You
elevate even a shadow devotee to a high position. You support
(paks-poaa) those who are devotees, considering them your
|| 3.24.30||
svya vkyam ta kartum
avatro 'si me ghe
cikrur bhagavn jna
bhaktn mna-vardhana
You, the Supreme Lord, desiring to give a method of
knowledge, and increasing the honor of the devotees, have
descended in my house to make your words true.
Two verses expand on this point. You desire to teach Skhya, a
method of knowledge, but you increase the respect for your
devotees more than for the jns, since the Lord has already
established that knowledge is insignificant without bhakti.
|| 3.24.31||
tny eva te 'bhirpi
rpi bhagavas tava
yni yni ca rocante
sva-jannm arpia
O Lord! These are suitable forms of you who have no
material form, and which are pleasing to the devotees.

These are suitable forms--forms of eternity, knowledge and bliss-belonging to you who are eternity, knowledge and bliss, which are
pleasing to your devotees. Other forms, not pleasing to the
devotees, are actually are not your forms but are my forms, since
you are without material form. This is rdhara Svms meaning of
arpia. Though the universal form is pleasing as an object of
meditation in the preliminary stage for some devotees, it is not
pleasing later. That form being material is not the Lords personal
form. That is the intended meaning.
|| 3.24.32||
tv sribhis tattva-bubhutsayddh
aivarya-vairgya-yao-'vabodhavrya-riy prtam aha prapadye
I surrender to you, full of the six qualities of control,
detachment, good qualities, knowledge, influence and
beauty, whose feet are constantly worthy of worship by
devotees desiring direct knowledge of the truth.
Speaking of the qualities of the suitable forms of the Lord which
please the devotees, Kardama now describes Kapila. He lists the six
great qualities of the lord: aivarya, varirgya, yaa, jna, vrya
and r, which define Bhagavn. The Lord is a great reservoir
(prtam) of these spiritual qualities, which becomes the object of
address, worship and service by the devotees. This indicates that
this form is his real form, full of the six qualities, and fully spiritual.
|| 3.24.33||
para pradhna purua mahnta
kla kavi tri-vta loka-plam
svacchanda-akti kapila prapadye
I surrender unto Kapila, whose other form is prakti, who is
also the jva, the mahat-tattva, time, stra, ahakra, the
devats of the directions, the universe inhabited by your
internal energy, and the possessor of independent energies.
Having described the Lords powers, he speaks of unsuitable
material forms of the Lord. I surrender to you Kapila, who is the
form of the external energy pradhna, which is different (param)
from you. That is a material form. You are also the jva (puruam),
the mahat-tattva (mahntam), and time the agitator of prakti and
the jva. You are the mahat-tattva transformed into stra (rajo-gua
condition), and the ahakra (trivtam). You are the protectors of the
directions such as Indra. You are the material universe, since you

are the antarym of it: you have entered (anugata) matter though
you are situated outside of matter, by your spiritual energy
(tmnubhty). And because you are the cause of the material
world you are identified as the world. You are the possessor of
independent aktis such as my. Because the whole universe is
created by your mya-akti under your will, and because you are
not different from your akti, and because you, the cause, are not
different from the effect, this world of my is your form, though it is
not the pleasing form.
|| 3.24.34||
smbhipcche 'dya pati prajn
tvayvatrara utpta-kma
parivrajat-padavm sthito 'ha
cariye tv hdi yujan vioka
Now I ask something from you, the master of the progeny. I
have become free of debt because of you, and fulfilled all my
desires. Taking the renounced order, I will wander about
without lamentation, remembering you in my heart.
Now I ask for the order to renounce. Sma is without sandhi for
metrical reasons. The debt, the order of my father to produce
offspring, has been liquidated by your appearance. My desire is
fulfilled. Accepting the path of renunciation, remembering you in
my heart, I will wander about here and there. Kardama
contemplated in his mind: I have been fixed in my Lord Nryaa
since birth as a servant. Now, with the birth of a son, it will be hard
to avoid having fatherly affection for the Lord. But the simultaneous
mixture of dsya and vsalya is not suitable. However, the
independent Lord, sinking me in the ocean of lamentation, will
quickly have me renounce. Why should I not immediately
renounce? I will not commit an offence to the Lord in giving him up
when he appeared in my house, because the worshipable lord is
dependent on worship, according to the Vaiavas. Thus one should
have more eagerness for worshipping the Lord than for the Lord
himself. I wish to worship him without interruption in a solitary
forest, twenty-four hours a day.
|| 3.24.35||
r-bhagavn uvca
may prokta hi lokasya
prama satya-laukike
athjani may tubhya
yad avocam ta mune
The Lord said: What is spoken by me is authoritative for the
people, for ultimate and worldly affairs. Similarly, I have
taken birth because of what I said to you-- that I would be
your son. Thus my words are true.

O great sage! You want to act according to my wish since I have

said that it is necessary to worship me, giving up everything.
Certainly (hi), I have said Give up everything in the Gta (18.66).
That is proof for the people. This applies to worldly and ultimate
affairs. The worldly principle of taking a wife stated by Manu and
others is the authoritative statement concerning worldly affairs
(laukika). The uncommon (satya) principle however is to attain me.
This is also an authoritative statement for the people, uttered by
me, concerning the highest principle, bhgavad-dharma. It is said:
ye vai bhagavat prokt upy hy tma-labdhaye
aja pusm avidu viddhi bhgavatn hi tn
Even ignorant living entities can very easily come to know the
Supreme Lord if they adopt those means prescribed by the Supreme
Lord. The process recommended by the Lord is to be known as
bhgavata-dharma. SB 11.2.34
Therefore you have considered things properly in giving up
everything and departing. He gives an example of his own words
being authoritative. I took birth because I said to you that I would be
your son. That is the truth.
|| 3.24.36||
etan me janma loke 'smin
mumuk durayt
prasakhynya tattvn
Please understand that I have appeared in this world to
explain the principles suitable for realizing the self for those
desiring liberation from the subtle body.
The Lord explains the reason for his appearance. Please understand
my appearance is to explain principles suitable for realizing the self
to those desiring liberation from the sinful subtle body (durayt).
The verb is in the next verse.
|| 3.24.37||
ea tma-patho 'vyakto
naa klena bhyas
ta pravartayitu deham
ima viddhi may bhtam
Understand that this path, difficult to know, was lost in time.
I have taken this form to introduce this knowledge again.

Avyakta means subtle. Though the Lord and his body are nondifferent, spiritual intelligence introduces difference even where
there is non-difference. Thus the Lord says I have taken this body.
This is a customary expression. It is like the following statement
(which also cannot be taken literally.)
sattva rajas tama iti nirguasya gus traya
sthiti-sarga-nirodheu ght myay vibho
The three guas of sattva, rajas and tamas, belonging to the Lord
without guas, are accepted by the my of the Lord for creation,
maintenance and destruction. SB 2.5.18
|| 3.24.38||
gaccha kma maypo
mayi sannyasta-karma
jitv sudurjaya mtyum
amtatvya m bhaja
You have requested me, so then depart when you please.
Having conquered unconquerable death by offering your
activities to me, you should worship me for immortality.
Just as you are asking to go, I am asking you to stay. It would be
harsh for me to tell you to go, and even if you stay here your desire
will be fulfilled. If you are determined to go, then go as you wish.
Worship me for immortality. This recalls the ruti text avidyay
mtum trtv vidyaymtam amute: by karma cross over
obstacles, and by knowledge attain eternal life. (Iopaniad) Or,
you will not have birth again because of my association, since you
will have attained a position as my associate, having birth only in
the sense that Rma and Ka take birth, though they are without
|| 3.24.39||
mm tmna svaya-jyoti
tmany evtman vkya
vioko 'bhayam cchasi
Seeing me, self-effulgent, dwelling in the hearts of all
beings, as antaryam in your heart by your intelligence, free
from lamentation, you will achieve fearlessness.
This form has been mentioned:
kecit sva-dehntar-hdayvake

prdea-mtra purua vasantam

catur-bhuja kaja-rathga-akhagad-dhara dhraay smaranti
Others conceive of the Lord, residing within the body in the region of
the heart and measuring only eight inches, with four hands carrying
a lotus, a wheel of a chariot, a conchshell and a club respectively.
SB 2.2.8
You will see the antarym, ukla, within yourself (tmani), by your
intelligence (tman).
|| 3.24.40||
mtra dhytmik vidy
aman sarva-karmam
vitariye yay csau
bhaya ctitariyati
I will give to my mother spiritual knowledge which ends all
karmas, by which she will also attain fearlessness.
Because I am the Lord acting as her son, you do not have to worry
about what will happen to Devahti, your wife.
|| 3.24.41||
maitreya uvca
eva samuditas tena
kapilena prajpati
daki-ktya ta prto
vanam eva jagma ha
After Kapila had spoken to him in this way, Kardama,
pleased, circumambulated him and left for the forest.
Samudita means being spoken to fully. After circumambulating
(daki-ktya) the Lord, he left.
|| 3.24.42||
vrata sa sthito maunam
tmaika-arao muni
nisago vyacarat kom
anagnir aniketana
Accepting the vow of silence, taking exclusive shelter of the
Lord, he wandered the earth alone, without fire and without
|| 3.24.43||
mano brahmai yujno

yat tat sad-asata param

guvabhse vigua
He fixed his mind on the Brahman which is beyond
auspicious and inauspicious, which has spiritual qualities
and is devoid of material qualities, and which is realized by
pure bhakti.
He fixed his mind, which was beyond auspicious and inauspicious
objects (sad-asata param). What was the Brahman like? It had a
manifestation (avabhse) of spiritual qualities such as beauty,
sweetness and power, and was devoid of material guas (vigue). It
was realized by his senses through pure bhakti.
|| 3.24.44||
nirahaktir nirmama ca
nirdvandva sama-dk sva-dk
pratyak-pranta-dhr dhra
prantormir ivodadhi
He was devoid of false ego and possessiveness, and did not
see with duality. He regarded everything equally, and
perceived the state of bhakti within himself. His intelligence
was peaceful, not functioning externally. He was sober, like
an ocean without waves.
He was detached from material objects: he was devoid of ahakra
and possessiveness. He could see within himself how much bhakti
had arisen and how much it would arise in the future (sva-dk). He
was devoid of external functioning (pratyak). His intelligence was
|| 3.24.45||
vsudeve bhagavati
sarva-je pratyag-tmani
parea bhakti-bhvena
labdhtm mukta-bandhana
Attaining spiritual mind and intelligence, he absorbed those
elements in the Supreme Lord, omniscient Vsudeva, the
soul of the jva, by prema-bhakti, and achieved liberation
from all bondage.
How did this remarkable state suddenly appear in him? After
destroying material mind, intelligence and consciousness, with
destruction of the subtle body, he regained them in spiritual form
(labdhtm). With those he absorbed himself in Vsudeva by the
supreme (param) bhva produced through worship (bhakti)--prema.

Pratyag-tm means the soul or the jva. The mind and intelligence
were previously causes of bondage. Now they were causes of
liberation (mukta-bandhana). It is said anvtti abdt: according
to the scriptures, ones does not return to bondage. (Brahma-stra
|| 3.24.46||
tmna sarva-bhteu
bhagavantam avasthitam
apayat sarva-bhtni
bhagavaty api ctmani
Kardama saw the antarym situated within all living
beings, and saw all living beings situated within Mahviu.
He saw the Lord directly. This state is described. He saw the
antarym of all, Krodakay, the third puruvatra (tmnam)
situated in all beings. This was Bhagavn, the four armed lord,
ukla, the deity of his worship. He saw all beings, situated in
universes emerging from Mahvius hair pores, within the
antarym of prakti, Kraodakay, the first purua, by eyes
produced through yoga. Kardama is described to be more advanced
than the yogs who get gradual liberation described in the Second
Canto. The yog, giving up his gross body, desiring to see
everything within the universe, goes and sees everything within the
universe. Kardama, however, without desire to see anything, while
situated in this world, saw all beings in the hair holes of the Lord
outside of the universe, in the Kraa Ocean. The form he saw was
the four armed Viu, ukla, the object of his worship. Yaod saw
all beings within Ka. It should be understood however that
seeing the powerful form of Viu was suitable to Kardama who
worshipped that powerful form.
|| 3.24.47||
sarvatra sama-cetas
prpt bhgavat gati
Free from desire and hatred towards everything in the
material world, with mind seeing everything as equal, by
pure bhakti for the Lord, Kardama attained the position of
an associate of the Lord in the spiritual world.
He was free of desire and hatred because everything in the material
world is inferior. Because of that, he saw everything equally. He
then attained the goal of becoming an associate of the Lord
(bhagavat gati). Another version has bhgavatm gati prpta:
Kardama, with an equal mind, attained that spiritual goal.

Thus ends the commentary on Twenty-fourth Chapter of the Third

Canto of the Bhgavatam for the pleasure of the devotees, in
accordance with the previous cryas.