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1.

The energy released by an atomic bomb (such as the one that fell on Hiroshima and

Nagasaki in Japan during WWII) is suspected to be adequately described by 5 variables:

Time since detonation (t)

The energy which is released at a single point in space at detonation (E)

The radius of the shock wave (R)

The atmospheric pressure (P)

The ambient density (ρ) Hint: Einstein world famous equation, Energy = mass x (speed of light) 2

[15]

There is no trick to this question but the nature of the question may scare the students. However if they work through it, they will find it’s easy.

 1 Variables Dimensions Time (t) [T] Energy (E) [M L 2 T -2 ] Radius (R) [L] Pressure (P) [M L -1 T -2 ] Density (ρ) [M L -3 ] As we can see, there are only 3 fundamental dimensions and they are M, L and T

respectively.

3.2

Let t, E and ρ as the repeating variables

π 1 = [T] a [M L 2 T -2 ] b [M L -3 ] c [L]

By inspection,

 T: a - 2b = 0 M: b + c = 0 L: 2b – 3c + 1 =0

a = -2/5, b = -1/5 and c = 1/5

π 1 = [T] a [M L 2 T -2 ] b [M L -3 ] c [M L -1 T -2 ]

By inspection,

 T: a - 2b -2 = 0 M: b + c + 1 =0

a = 6/5, b = -2/5 and c = -3/5

2.

A copepod is a water crustacean approximate 1 mm in diameter. We want to know

the drag force on the copepod when it moves slowly in fresh water. A scale model 100 times larger is made and tested in glycerin at V = 30 cm/s. Assume that the test was conducted at

dynamic similitude conditions,

 2.1 What is the velocity of the actual copepod in water? (10) 2.2 Explain why it was necessary to test the model in glycerin (a fluid with much higher density) then in water. Take the density of water and glycerin at the required conditions to be 1000 kg/m 3 and 1261 (5) kg/m 3 and their respective viscosity as 1.519 × 10 -3 Pa·s and 1500 × 10 -3 Pa·s. [15]

2.1

Assume that similarity is achieved when Re is the same.

2.2

If we use water, the velocity for the test will be much higher.

3.

Engine oil at 40° flows over a 5m long flat plate with a free stream velocity of 2 m/s

as shown in the figure below.

You can assume that the flow is steady and incompressible and the critical Reynolds number is 5 x 10 5 .

3.1

3.2

Determine if turbulent flow occurs.

Determine the drag force acting on the plate if the width of the plate is 2 m.

You can use the following equations to determine the average friction coefficient:

3.1

We have to check the Reynolds number at the end of the plate,

Since this value is less than the critical Reynolds number, only laminar flow is present.

3.2

(5)

(10)

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4.

Air flows from a converging nozzle attached to a reservoir with T 0 = 10°C. The nozzle

has an exit diameter of 6 cm and exits to the atmosphere (101 kPa). Assume the flow to be isentropic with γ = 1.4 and R = 287.

 4.1 Determine the require pressure at the reservoir if an exit mach number of 1 is desired. (5) 4.2 Calculate the mass flow for this condition. (10) [15]

Using isentropic tables,

4.1

4.2

Since the flow is isentropic, T 0,exit = T 0,reservoir

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