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LOGIC

CHAPTER 1
LOGIC
Scientific proven phenomenon.
Something that is supported by fact.
Logic has something that has neutral support or favor.
Definition: Logic is the study of principles and methods that distinguish correct
reasoning from incorrect reasoning.
Logic is the body of knowledge that evaluates arguments.
Argument:
Argument is the group of statements (sentences) in which one of them is claimed to
be follow from or supported by other(s).
An argument consists of conclusion and premises.
Conclusion: One of the sentence is claimed to be followed from or supported by
other(s) is called Conclusion.
Premise: Other sentence/sentences that support the conclusion is/are called Premise.
Example:
1. Ali started business because he was jobless for several years. (1st statement is
conclusion while 2nd statement is premise)
2. Ali daily study in library because he has to get first position.(same as above)
3. South Africa is the largest gold producer therefore you will get gold free in South
Africa. (1st statement is premise while 2nd statement is conclusion)
4. Viral disease are going to increase in Sindh ,Since Met forecast a heavy rainfall in
coming weeks. (1st statement is conclusion while 2nd statement is premise)
Premise Indicators
Because
Since
For
Given that
Owing to
Seeing that
May be inferred from
May be deduced from
May be concluded from
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Conclusion Indicators
Therefore
Wherefore
Thus
Hence
So
Consequently
Entails that
We may inter/deduce/conclude
As a result
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LOGIC
Examples:
1) No one was present when life first appeared on Earth therefore, any statement
regarding lifes origin is just a theory not fact.
2) Every Law in an evil because every Law is an infraction of liberty.
3) Love of power is the most imperious and unsociable desire, Since provide of one
man requires submission of multitude.
4) Wisdom is the principal thing so get wisdom.

All group of statements are not arguments

Hypothesis (it is conditional sentences, it is clause or result clause)


Illustrations
Warnings
Statement of belief
Piece of advice
Explanation

Truth Value: Truth value may be defined as quality of being true or false.
Qaim Ali Shah is Chief minister of Sindh .(Truth value)
Nawaz Shareef is Prime minister of India.(false value)
Tomorrow is holiday. (false value)
What is your name? (x)
Attempt all question! (x)
Badin is not located in Sindh. (false value)
What a pleasant surprise? (x)
Bhawan is the student of BCS.(False value)

Truth & Validity: Truth is the attribute of statement whereas validity is the
attribute of argument.
Example:
1. All animals have two eyes, Tom is an animal Therefore, Tom has two eyes.(Valid)
2. All animals have two eyes, Tom has two eyes Therefore, Tom is an
animal.(Invalid)

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LOGIC
Formula for Valid Argument:
All As belong to B, C belongs to A therefore C belongs to B. or
All As belong to B, All Bs belong to C therefore all As belong to C.

Formula for Invalid Argument:


All As belong to B,C belongs to B, Therefore C belongs to A. or
All As belong to B, All As belong to C therefore, all Bs are C/all Cs are B.
Example:
1) All Saudi Arabian are Muslims, All Muslims are prayer punctual therefore, all
Saudi Arabian are prayer punctual.(Valid)
2) All Australian are white, All Australian is Rude, therefore, all white people are
Rude.(Invalid)

Valid Argument having all the true statements:


Example: All animals have teeth, Monkeys are animal therefore Monkeys have
teeth.

Valid Argument having all the false statements:


Example: All four-legged creatures have wings, All spiders four legs therefore all
spiders have wings.

Valid Arguments having false premise ,true conclusion:


Example: All African countries have atomic power ,Pakistan is an African country
therefore ,Pakistan has atomic power.

Valid Argument having true premise and false conclusion


It is not possible.

Invalid Argument having all true statement


Example: All animals have one nose, Tiger have on nose therefore, Tiger is an
animal.

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LOGIC
Invalid Argument having all false statement
Example: All plants resolve around Earth, Sun revolves around Earth therefore, Sun
is a plant.

Invalid argument having false premise and true conclusion


Example: All continents consist of many countries, Australia consists of many
countries therefore, Australia is a continent.

Invalid argument having true premise and false conclusion


Example: All islands surround by water, Australia is surrounded by water therefore
Australia is an island.

PUZZLES/RIDDLES
1. Alozono and Rudolf were in the audience the night the singer made his debut on
the concert stage.
2. Both Kurt and the writer have had their Portraits Painted from life by the
painter.
3. The writer whose biography of Willard was a best seller is planning to write a
biography of Alozono.
4. Alozono has never heard of Rudolf.
Name &
Profession
Alozono
Rudolf
Kurt
Willard

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Dancer

x
X
X

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Painter
X
X
X

Writer
X

X
X

Singer
X
X

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LOGIC
1. Actor is the favorite of Sara & Nauman
2. The lawyer has taken the case of doctor as defense lawyer against the
accrued murder of Riaz during operation.
3. Sara is getting married with professor next month.
4. Nauman has once attended the seminar of the professor.
5. Nauman has never personally met with Riaz.
Name &
Profession
Sara
Nauman
Riaz
Ali

1.
2.
3.
4.

Actor

lawyer

X
X

X
X

Professor
X
X
X

Doctor

X
X
X

The Teacher teaches the children of Mustaque and Adnan.


Kashan and the policeman both are the regular customer of the shopkeeper.
Aquib came to the policeman and lodged an FIR against Adnan.
Adnan has never met with Mushtaque.
Name &
Profession
Adnan
Aquib
Kashan
Mushtaque

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Teacher
X
X

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Policeman
X
X
X

Shopkeeper
X

X
X

Taxi driver

X
X
X

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LOGIC
CHAPTER 2
USES OF LANGUAGE
Language: Medium of communication.
Language is used for;
1. Asking question
2. Answering
3. Telling jokes
4. Praying & Cursing
5. Making fool
6. Telling stories
7. Greeting someone
8. Issuing command
9. Translation
10. Singing songs
11. Advising someone
THREE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE
1-Informative function: Informative function is type of function when it is used for
the purpose of increasing knowledge of listener.
Example: Tomorrow is holiday.
2-Expressive function: Expressive function is type of function when feelings and
emotions are shown (feelings, attitude, anger etc).
Example: 1) What a beautiful child.
2) Hurrah! We won the match.
3) Alas! We lost a great leader.
3-Directive function: Directive function is type of function when it is use with the
purpose for generating response (question, commands, request etc).
Example: 1) Time is over.
2) Uncle he is beating me.
3) What is your name?
4) Do not miss the classes.
5)Attempt all the question.

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LOGIC
TYPES OF SENTENCES
1-Assertive /Declarative
1.1 Affirmative
1.2 Negative
1.3 Emphatic
2 Interrogative (start with What or helping verb)
3 Exclamatory (usually this is started with exclamatory word)
4 Imperative ( in this type order is given)
5 Optative (start with model verb;may,could,might,would,should etc)
Declarative serving Expressive function
Example: I have never seen a beautiful baby like her.
Declarative serving Directive Function
Example: 1) I will not submit your assignment after Monday
2) You are not allowed to bring calculator in exam
3) I would like to take coffee
4) I do not take sugar in tea.
Interrogative serving Informative and Expressive Function
Example: 1) what police is doing to stop target killing?
2) Are all Muslims are terrist?
3) Do you know 75 people died in church blast?
4) Can we stop 9% increase in dollar price?
Declarative or exclamatory serving directive function
Example: 1) Aaaa! A big snake is there.
2) Odaar maang kar sharminda na Karen (Urdu).
3) Odhaar mohabbat ki kunjee hy.

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LOGIC
Imperative serving Expressive function
Example: 1) Excuse me.
2) Mind your own language/Mind your own business.
TWO MORE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE
1-Ceremonial function: Ceremonial function is mixture of Expressive and Directive
function.
Example: 1)Wedding/Invitation Card
2)Job announcements
3)Azaan
2-Performative function:
Example: 1) I object your honor.
2) I announce the convocation says V.C in convocation.
3) I pronounce you both husband & Wife said the father of church.
4) Expressing intention in Nawaz.

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LOGIC
CHAPTER 3
DEFINITION

Definition is a group of words that assigns report meaning to a word of group of


words (terms) ,symbols.

Definition is composed of two composnents:


Definiendum: Definiendum is a word or group of word that is be defined.
For Example: Chair is a piece of furniture having legs and support at back use for one
person sitting.(Highlighted is Definiendum)

Definien: Definien is the group of words that do the defining.


Example: Book is collection of printed pages contained useful material ,bound on one
edge.(Highlighted is Definien)
TYPES OF DEFINITION
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Lexical definition
Stipulative definition
Theoretical definition
Precising definition
Persuasive definition

1. Lexical definition:
Example: 1) Pen is an instrument filled with ink, make by plastic or tin, having a nib
used for writing.
2) Chair is the piece of furniture having legs and support at back use for one person
sitting.
3) Book is collection of printed pages, contained useful material, bounded on one
edge.
2. Stipulative definition:
Example: 1) Musket is mixture of mustard and ketchup.
2) Television is a type of television worn on wrist.
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LOGIC
3) Modem is a communication device that modulates and demodulates.
3. Theoretical definition:
Example: 1) Heat is a form of energy which transfers cold body to hot body.
2) Gold is an element having atomic number and atomic weight.
3) Gravity is a force of attract in the centre of Earth.
4. Precising definition:
Example: 1) Child means in relation to travel through Pakistan Railway a person must
be under the age of 3.
2) Poor means relation to BISP a person having monthly income less than Rs.6000.
3) Fresh means in regard to selling food in ABC restaurant, a food would have been
cooked not more than 3 hours back.
5. Persuasive definition:
Example: 1) Welfare is the process of taking money from hardworking tax payers and
giving it to lazy oats who refuse to work.
2) Communist is a person who values every human as an individual and believes in
universal equality and harmony.
3) Book is an angel that teaches you without threatening and is friend of you that does
not demand anything in return.
RULES FOR CONSTRUCTING A (LEXICAL) DEFINITION
Rule#1 It should be grammatically correct & it must have standard.
Vacation is when you dont have to go to school or work
Insanity means if you have unsound or deranged mind
Diet means like when you cut back your calories
Furious means if you are angry at someone
The example is given above are grammatically incorrect because the use of
words when, if like immediately after definiedum is wrong after using verb or
helping verb(is or means)it is more proper to tell the class of definiendum
whether it is a person,place,period,state,condition etc.
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LOGIC
The use of you in definition is also not a standard because it should not be
addressed to first or second person.
The definition is given above can corrected as follow:
Vacation is a period during which activity is suspended from work or school
Intensity means condition of having unsound or deranged mind
Diet means the eating schedule by which calories are cut back
Furious means the state of being angry
Rule#2 It should state the essential attributes of a specie.
Snow means white stuff
Chair means piece of furniture, used for sitting
Camera means a device for taking photograph
The definition given above are telling no attributes of the definiendum ,like snow falls
and it is frozen water ,chair has four legs and support at the back ,camera has a lens
button and some medium of storage etc.
Rule#3 It should be neither too narrow nor too broad.
A definition is narrow if it excludes some of the objects which are denoted by
definiendum.
A definition is broad if it includes some of the objects which are not denoted by
definiendum .Lets take the definitions discussed above.
Snow means white stuff. its a broad definition because it includes salt ,sugar, talcum
powder, powder of chalk, condensed milk etc in snow.
Chair means piece of furniture , used for sittingit also too broad because it says
when you sit on bed, stool, charpai all are chairs.
Clarinet means a kind of musical instrument the definition is too broad because it
includes flute, piano, guitar etc into clarinet.
Shoe is a leather covering foot,its too narrow because it excludes all shoes which
are made of plastic ,cloth, wood, etc.

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LOGIC
Drill means a tool used for making holes in wood it is too narrow because it excludes
any drill which is used for making holes in bricks ,plastic etc.
Money means dollar it is also too narrow as it excludes rupee, pound, euro etc.
Ruler means a king it is narrow as it excludes presidents, prime ministers, etc. from
rulers category.
Concentrate on following definitions:
Apple means a red fruit this definition is too narrow as well as too broad,
Its narrow as it excludes all yellowish or greenish apples.
Its broad as it includes tomatoes,pomegranates, strawberries, cherries etc. into apples.
Rule#4 It should not be circular ,definiendum should not be used in definien.
All the definition given below are circular;
Example: 1) Teacher is a person who teaches.
2) Normal means a way in which normal people behave.
3) Silence means the state of being silent.
4) Scientist means person who is engaged in science.
5) Base means a thing which serves as a base.
Rule#5 It should not be negative if it can be affirmative.
Example: 1) Business means a process of not giving goods and services freely.
2) School is an academy that is neither a collage nor a university.
3) Happy means not being sad.
4) Bangles mean a round piece of jewelry that is neither a ring nor an anklet.
All the definiendum defined above , can be affirmatively defined instead of
using negation.
But there is exception in some cases; there are certain terms which cannot be
defined without negation, therefore the following definitions are right.
Orphan means a person who does not have parents.
Bald means quality of having no hair on head.
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LOGIC
Darkness means absence of light.
Rule#6 It should avoid figurative, vague, ambiguous, and obscure language.
Definition is figurative when it involves metaphors or tends to paint a picture
instead of exposing the essential meaning of term.
Camel means the ship of desert.
Music means language of soul
Communication is life blood of organization
Definition is vague if it lacks precision or if its meaning is blurred.
Democracy it a kind of government where people are in control (Who are in control?
Who control them? And what type of control?)
Accounting means collection of data of an organization (what type of data? How is
collected? Why?)
Definition is ambiguous if it lends itself to more than one distinct interpretation.
Invention means the remaking of things by people that already exist.(who already
exist ?people or things?)
Shipment means sending material to a recipient in a box.(who is in the box?
Recipient or material)
Definition is obscure if its meaning is hidden in unfamiliar and technical language,
when definien is needlessly complicated.
Astrology is a pseudo-science that studies the position of celestial bodies and
constellations and their impact on terrestrial biotic species.
Sentence means a concatenation of semantemes with a punctiform or curvilineal
terminator.

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LOGIC
CHAPTER 4
FALLACY
Definition: A fallacy is a defect in argument.
Fallacy argument is constructed in away as it seems to be correct but on examination
not proves to be so.
Fallacy argument is a bad argument, it is not a mistake it is a deliberate error.
THREE MAIN GROUP OF FALLACY
1. Fallacy of Relevance
2. Fallacy of Presumption
3. Fallacy of Ambiguity
1. FALLACY OF RELEVANCE
1.1-Appeal to force:
Example: I am going to fire you from job therefore; you should accept that you
forget the document.
1.2-Appeal to Pity:
Example: Aijaz is a poor person his mother is mad therefore, he should be promoted
to M.D.
1.3-Appeal to people/emotion:
Direct: All are saying that there should not be exam tomorrow therefore you should
not conduct exam from tomorrow.
Indirect: 90% Pakistanis use zing toothpaste therefore you should use it.
All people are corrupt in these days therefore your honesty is a folly.
1.4-Appeal to Ignorant:
Example: 1) Nobody has proven that there is no life on Moon therefore it is confirm
that there is an old lady spinning on Moon.
2) No one has proven that ghosts dont exist it entails that ghost exist.

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LOGIC
1.5-Appeal to unqualified / Inappropriate Authority:
Example: 1) Salman Khan said Pakistans GDP rate has increased 10% it follows that
our GDP rate has improved.
2) Our English Teacher said Bank job is allowed in Islam therefore we should apply in
banks freely.
1.6-Argument against the person:
1.6.1-Abusive:
Example: Shahid Afride argument about GDP is just trash, how can a cricketer
comments on economics, so GDP has not improved.
1.6.2-Circumstantial:
Example: Teacher should pay tax as other pay you are say this because if teachers
will not pay tax you be benefited.
1.6.3-You too:
Example: Smoking is not as bad as you are describing because if it is so injurious
why are you not quilting.
1.7-Irrelevant Conclusion/ Missing the Point:
Example: 1) Teena is beautiful , glamorous and charming lady therefore she should
be given the post of Managing Director in ABC corporation.
2) Laar Campus is not providing facilities for students and employees and all are so
annoyed.
2.FALLACY OF PRESUMPTION
2.1 Accident:
Example: 1) Everyone who thrust knife into another person must be arrested. Doctors
thrust knife into other person during operation therefore they must be arrested.
2) Everything that goes up must come down. Gold prices are going up continuously,
they will surely come down.
3) In a liberal state everybody is allowed to do whatever he or she wants. Zain is
committing suicide so he must be allowed to do so.
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LOGIC
4) Listening to music in not crime in Pakistan therefore I am listening music in
Mosque/Hospital.

2.2-Converse Accident/Hasty generalization:


Example: 1) Cambodia , Somalia and Ethiopia has low GDP than Pakistan, It follows
that Pakistan has highest GDP in the world.
2) Dr.Qadeer Khan & Arfa Kareem are from the brilliant people of the world, It means
all Pakistanis are brilliant people.
2.3-Complex Question:
Example: 1) Have you stopped cheating on exam?
2) Yes. It follows that you have ever cheating since childhood.
3) No .It means you still cheat.
2.4-False cause:
Example: 1)Whenever you take the name of test, teacher conducts surprise test now
be prepare for test as you took its name now.
2) This time it was five when I throw the dice, next time it will be six.
3) I am going to buy accounting book today, seeing that everyone who has accounting
book has command on accounting, I also want to have grip on it.
3. FALLACY OF AMBIGUITY
3.1-Equivalence:
Example: 1) Interest is prohibited by Islam,Safia is taking interest in studies it means
Safia is going against Islam.
2) Everyone who has many fans in famous,I bought 100 fans yesterday consequently I
am very famous.
3) Everybody has a brain, this dais has a body it means, it must has a brain.
4) It is our duty to do what is right, it is our right to celebrate parties therefore, it is our
duty to celebrate parties.

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LOGIC
5) Crust of bread is better than nothing, Nothing is better than true friendship
therefore, Crust of bread is better than true friendship.
3.2-Amphiboly:
Example: 1) Ahmer said standing on Minar-e-Pakistan the tombs of Quaid-e-Azam
can easily be seen.it follows that tomb of Quaid-e-Azam is very near to Minar-ePakistan.
2) Madam told me she saw Majid walking here and there in exam hall, it follows that
Majid was creating disturbance in exam hall.
3) Ameer said he saw a dead dog walking on the road,it means dead dog can walk on
roads.
3.3-Accent:
Example: 1) Stop not go.
2) Beat not leave.
3) Corrupt officer is going to meet you.
4) We should not speak ills of our friends.
3.4-Composition:
Example:
1) She likes mango,chocolate and tomato ketchup so she must like the sauce made by
mixing them.
2) Each page in this book can easily be torn into half therefore, the book can easily be
torn into half.
3.5-Division:
Example:
1) Asma like coffee cake therefore, she like egg,sode,backing poweder,flour ,ghee etc.
2) Bhawan is 21 year old therefore, each cell in his body is 21 year old.

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BBA(Hons)-2k13

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LOGIC

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