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Civil Engineering Materials

Lecture No. 1

Metals

Introduction to Metals, Classification of Metals, Properties


of Metals, Ferrous Metals Advantages and Disadvantages
of Ferrous Metals.

Introduction to Metals
Metals are aiming the most useful building
materials.
They exist in nature as compounds like oxides,
carbonates, sulphides and phosphates and are
known as ores.
Metals are derived from ores by removing the
impurities.
Those used for engineering purposes are classified
as ferrous metals, with iron as the main constituent,
e.g. cast iron, wrought iron and steel and others like
aluminum, copper, zinc, lead and tin in which the
main constituent is not iron as non ferrous metals.

Physical Properties of Metals


Metals are

Solid at room temperature, except


mercury, which is liquid !

Metals have very high melting point.


Metals are

shiny when they cut.

Metals are

good conductors of heat and


electricity.

Metals are

usually strong & malleable so they


can be hammered into shape.

Mechanical Properties of Metals


1.

Strength - The ability of a material to stand up to forces


being applied without it bending, breaking, shattering or
deforming in any way.

2.

Elasticity - The ability of a material to absorb force and flex


in different directions, returning to its original position.

3.

Plasticity - The ability of a material to be change in shape


permanently.

4.

Ductility - The ability of a material to change shape (deform)


usually by stretching along its length.

Mechanical Properties of Metals


5.

Tensile Strength The ability of a material to stretch


without breaking or snapping.

6.

Malleability - The ability of a material to be reshaped

in all directions without cracking.


7.

Toughness - A characteristic of a material that does


not break or shatter when receiving a blow or under a

sudden shock.
8.

Conductivity - The ability of a material to conduct


electricity.

Mechanical Properties of Metals


9. Hardness The ability of a material to resist
scratching, wear and tear & indentation.

Table showing all the


elements discovered yet.

METALS Form the large


portion of these elements.

Classification of Metals.
Metals

Ferrous
Metals

Non-Ferrous
Metals

Alloys

Iron

Aluminum

Ferrous
Alloys

Pig Iron

Brass

Non-Ferrous
Alloys

Cast Iron

Copper

Wrought
Iron

Lead

Description:
Ferrous Metals:Containing iron and almost all
are magnetic. e.g. mild-steel, cast-iron, etc.
Non-Ferrous Metals: Do not contain iron e.g.
aluminium, copper, silver, gold ,lid, tin etc.
Alloys: A mixture of metals, or a non-metal &
small amount of other substance.
Ferrous Alloys: e.g. stainless steel, Steel+
chromium
Non-Ferrous Alloys: e.g. brass (copper +
zinc), bronze (copper + tin ).

Advantages of Ferrous Metals.


1. High strength to weight ratio:
1.

2.

it minimise the substructures cost, which is


beneficial in poor ground condition. E.g. The
Newark Dyke Rail Bridge comprises 77
meter long, 11.25 meter wide bowstring with
820 tonnes of S355 steel.
This bridge was the first UK steel bridge to be
designed for the next generation of 225
km/hr trains.

The Newark Dyke Rail Bridge

Advantages of Ferrous Metals.


2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

High quality material:

readily available worldwide in various certificate grades.

Speed of construction

Since it is available in various forms. The speed of


construction is considerably increased.

Versatility

steel suits range of construction methods &


sequences.

Modification & repair


Recycling
Durability
Aesthetics

steel has a broad architectural possibilities.

Disadvantages of Ferrous Metals.


1. Costly waste
2. High cost of final finishing & polishing
3. Environmental issue

Thank you !!