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Established in 1945 under the Charter of the United Nations, the General Assembly occupies a central position as the chief deliberative,
policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations. Comprising all 192 Members of the United Nations, it provides a unique forum
for multilateral discussion of the full spectrum of international issues covered by the Charter. It also plays a significant role in the process of
standard-setting and the codification of international law. The Assembly meets in regular session intensively from September to December
each year, and thereafter as required.
Because of the great number of questions it is called upon to consider, the Assembly allocates items relevant to its work among its six Main
Committees, which discuss them, seeking where possible to harmonize the various approaches of States, and then present to a plenary
meeting of the Assembly draft resolutions and decisions for consideration.
In 2012, UNEP senior staff participated in several informal thematic debates of the General Assembly dealing with:
Disaster Risk Reduction, 12 April
Road to Rio+20 and Beyond, 22 May
Second Committee
The United Nations Environment Programme is a subsidiary body of the United Nations General Assembly. The UNEP Governing Council/Global
Ministerial Environment Forum (GC/GMEF) every year submits its report in which it highlights diverse environmental issues for the
consideration of the General Assembly.
Since the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment the reach of sustainable development governance has expanded considerably at
local, national, regional and international levels.
The need for the integration of economic development, natural resources management and protection, social equity and inclusion was
introduced for the first time by the 1987 Brundtland Report (Our Common Future), and it has become central in framing the discussions at the
1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) also known as the Earth Summit. In 1993 the General Assembly
established the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), as the UN high level political body entrusted with the monitoring and
promotion of the implementation of the Rio outcomes, including Agenda 21.
The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development advance the mainstreaming of the three dimensions of sustainable development in
development policies at all levels through the adoption of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI).
A process was created to discuss issues pertaining to the sustainable development of small island developing States resulting in two important
action plans - Barbados Plan of Action and Mauritius Strategy. A planned Conference in 2014 will take these processes forward.
In 2012 at the Rio+20 Conference, the international community decided to establish a high-level political forum for sustainable development
to subsequently replace the Commission on Sustainable Development. Decisions on mandate, form and methods of work were adopted during
the 67th session of the General Assembly (A/67/L.72) with the aim of having the first session of the forum at the beginning of the 68th session
of the Assembly (September 2013).
The Rio+20 Conference generated new momentum for achieving sustainable development. Its outcome documentThe Future We Want
proposes strategies for Member States and the UN system to implement and advance sustainable development goals for the post-2015

development agenda. In the lead-up to this process, the Secretary-General organized a High-level Panel on Global Sustainability, which
published its findings and ideas in the report,Resilient People, Resilient Planet: A Future Worth Choosing.
An Open Working Group of the General Assembly is preparing a proposal on a new generation of sustainable development goals for
consideration by the Assembly at the 68th Session (Sep. 2013 Sep. 2014), as mandated by the Rio+20 outcome document. The Open
Working Groupbased on an innovative, constituency-based system of representationallots one seat to 1-4 Member States. It must also
ensure the full involvement of relevant experts from civil society, the scientific community and the wider UN system.
World leaders also recognized the key role of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in achieving a balanced integration of the three
pillars of sustainable development. They also committed to strengthening the Council to ensure that it could effectively follow-up on progress
on the agreements made at the UN on economic, social and environmentalsuch as the pledges made in the Rio+20 outcome document.
As a result, ECOSOC plays a key role in mobilizing, facilitating and partnering within the UN system to ensure its expertise, programmes and
resources support global, regional and national strategies to address the building blocks of sustainable development:
Food security and nutrition
Natural resource management
Poverty eradication
Sustainable urbanization


The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) was established under the United Nations Charter as the principal organ to coordinate economic,
social, and related work of the 14 UN specialized agencies, functional commissions and five regional commissions. The Council also receives
reports from 11 UN funds and programmes. ECOSOC serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues, and
for formulating policy recommendations addressed to Member States and the United Nations system. It is responsible for:
promoting higher standards of living, full employment, and economic and social progress;
identifying solutions to international economic, social and health problems; facilitating international cultural and educational cooperation; and
encouraging universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
It has the power to make or initiate studies and reports on these issues. It also has the power to assist the preparations and organization of
major international conferences in the economic and social and related fields and to facilitate a coordinated follow-up to these conferences.
With its broad mandate, the Council's purview extends to over 70 per cent of the human and financial resources of the entire UN system. The
Council meets in alternating years at UN Headquarters or at the UN Office in Geneva.
The UNEP New York Office liaises closely with the Office for ECOSOC Support and Coordination, in the UN Department for Economic and Social
Affairs (DESA), to ensure that environmental issues are considered by the Council under its sustainable development agenda item. Every year,
the report of the UNEP Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum is initially considered by the Council before it is taken up by
the General Assembly.
Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was established by the UN General Assembly in December 1992 to ensure
effective follow-up of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit.

The work of the Commission covers a broad spectrum of economic, social and environmental issues. UNEP contributes to the work of the
Commission, participating in its annual sessions on diverse thematic issues. The New York Office liaises with the Division for Sustainable (DSD)
of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Some of the diverse thematic issues considered by the Commission over the past
few years, and on which UNEP has mad significant contribution include: Africa; agriculture; drought and desertification; land; rural
development; transport; chemicals; waste management (hazardous & solid waste); mining and 10 Year Framework of Programmes on
Sustainable Consumption & Production.

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations and sits in The Hague since 1946. The ICJ is located
in the Peace Palace and acts as a world court, replacing the Permanent Court of International Justice. It has a dual role: settling the legal
disputes submitted to it by states in accordance with international law and providing advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by duly
authorized international organs and agencies. It was set up in 1945 under the Charter of the United Nations in order to be the principal judicial
organ of the Organization, and its basic instrument, the Statute of the Court, forms an integral part of the Charter.
Only states parties of the United Nations may apply to and appear before the ICJ. The Court is competent to entertain a dispute only if the
states concerned have accepted its jurisdiction in one or more of the following ways:
(1) by the conclusion between states of a mutual agreement to submit the dispute to the Court;
(2) by virtue of a jurisdictional clause, i.e., typically, when they are parties to a treaty containing a provision whereby, in the event of a
disagreement over its interpretation or application, one of the parties may refer the dispute to the Court (such a clause is contained into
several international treaties or conventions);
(3) through the reciprocal effect of declarations whereby each Party has accepted the jurisdiction of the Court as compulsory in the event of a
dispute with another state having made a similar declaration. The declarations of 66 States are at present in force, a number of them having
been made subject to the exclusion of certain categories of dispute.
In cases of doubt as to whether the Court has jurisdiction on a specific case, the decision will be taken by the Court itself.
The Court discharges its duties as a full court but, at the request of the parties, it may also establish a special chamber. In application of
article 26, paragraph 1, of its Statute the Court is authorized ?to form one or more chambers, composed of three or more judges as the Court
may determine, for dealing with particular categories of cases; for example, labour cases and cases relating to transit and communications?.
Since 1993, the ICJ has established a seven-member Chamber for Environmental Matters (the ?Chamber?). The Chamber reflects the Court?s
desire to demonstrate the particular interest that it attaches to environmental issues. Even if the Chamber has not yet being seized for a case
with an environmental component, it should be noted that the Court itself has dealt with cases on environmental protection, including various
nuclear test cases (New Zealand vs. France, and Australia vs. France), as well as the Case concerning the Gabc?kovo-Nagymaros Project
A few cases containing an environment component are summarized below.
* Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France)
ICJ Judgment 20 December 1974, 92-1-070405-3
The International Court of Justice has brought to an end the proceedings instituted against France by Australia on account of French nuclear
tests carried out at Mururoa, a French possession in the Pacific. In this judgement, the Court finds that the Australian claim `no longer has any
object` and ?is therefore not called upon to give a decision thereon`.

* Nuclear Tests (New Zealand v. France)

ICJ Judgment 20 December 1974, 92-1-070406-1
Although the case was not joint to the previous one, it was decided on the same day with the identical outcome.
* Case concerning the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary v. Slovakia)
ICJ Judgement 25 September 1997, nyr
In 1977 Hungary and Czechoslovakia concluded in Budapest a Treaty "concerning the construction and operation of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros
System of Locks". The treaty provided for the construction of a major hydroelectric dam project on the Danube as a "joint investment", aimed
at the production of hydroelectricity, the improvement of navigation on the relevant section of the Danube and the protection of the areas
along the banks against flooding. The contracting parties were on equal footing in respect of the financing, construction and operation of the
works. The Court was asked to determine whether Hungary was entitled to suspend and subsequently abandon its part of the Project; whether
the then Czech and Slovak Federal Republic was entitled to proceed with a "provisional solution" involving damming the river at another
location; and which were the legal effects of the notification by Hungary in 1992 of the termination of the Treaty. The Court found that both
Hungary and Slovakia had breached their legal obligations. Hungary was not entitled to suspend and subsequently abandon, in 1989, the
works on the Nagymaros - Gabcikovo Project. Czechoslovakia was entitled to proceed, in November 1991, to the "provisional solution" as
described in the terms of the Special Agreement but was not entitled to put it into operation, from October 1992. The Court called on both
states to negotiate in good faith and take all necessary measures in order to ensure the achievement of the objectives of the 1977 Budapest
Treaty. The Court found that unless Parties would have agreed otherwise, Hungary had to compensate Slovakia for the damage sustained by
Czechoslovakia on account of the suspension and abandonment of works for which it was responsible by Hungary. Furthermore, Slovakia had
to compensate Hungary for the damage it had sustained on account of putting into operation of the "provisional solution" by Czechoslovakia
and its maintenance in service by Slovakia.
* Fisheries Jurisdiction case (Spain v. Canada)
ICJ Judgement 4 December 1998, nyr
On 28 March 1995, the Kingdom of Spain filed in the Registry of the Court an Application instituting proceedings against Canada in respect of
a dispute relating to the amendment, on 12 May 1994, of the Canadian Coastal Fisheries Protection Act, and the subsequent amendments to
the regulations implementing that Act, as well as to specific actions taken on the basis of the amended Act and its regulations, including the
pursuit, boarding and seizure on the high seas, on 9 March 1995, of a fishing vessel - the Estai - flying the Spanish flag. The Court found that
"the essence of the dispute" is "whether" [the acts of Canada on the high seas in relation to the pursuit, the arrest and the detention of the
ship on the basis of certain enactments and regulations adopted by Canada] violated Spain's rights under international law and require
reparation". The Court must further establish whether the reservation contained in Canada's declaration applies or not to the dispute as thus
characterized. The Court also found that the issue of the lawfulness of the Canadian acts, on which Spain insists, is an issue concerning the
merits which has no relevance for the interpretation of Canada's declaration and the consequent decision on the Court's jurisdiction. The Court
found that it has no jurisdiction to adjudicate upon the dispute brought before it by the Application filed by Spain.
Other fisheries cases:
*Fisheries (United Kingdom v. Norway)
Judgment 18 December 1951
*Fisheries Jurisdiction (Federal Republic of Germany v. Iceland)
Judgment 2 February 1973

Greening the ILO

The ILO is fully committed to improving its environmental performance by measuring and reporting its greenhouse gas emissions and reducing
the environmental impacts of its operations. This commitment is a response to the 2007 UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon call on all UN
agencies, funds and programmes to go green and become climate neutral.
The ILO is actively involved in several UN system-wide initiatives. The organisation is a member of the Environmental Management Group
(EMG), a UN interagency coordination body on environment and human settlements, and participates in its technical meetings, Issue
Management Groups (IMG) and task forces. For instance, the ILO participates in the IMG on environmental sustainability management, and
was part of a task force on waste management practices in UN entities located in developing countries in 2014.
Greenhouse Gas emissions
The ILO has been reporting its greenhouse gas emissions since 2008. In 2014, ILO buildings and operations of headquarters and forty eight
field offices produced a total amount of 14,826 tCO2eq. The 2013 detailed carbon footprint of the ILO and other UN system-wide entities are
available at the Moving Towards a Climate Neutral UN report, and at the Greening the Blue Initiative, a worldwide commitment towards a
climate neutral and sustainable United Nations.
The cooling system at the headquarters was replaced in 2010 as part of the Geneva-Lake-Nations (GLN) Project and now operates with Geneva
Lake water. By using 100% renewable energy for cooling purposes, the ILO reduces electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
The central heating system was adapted in 2009 for an alternative use of natural gas, considerably reducing diesel oil consumption.
Waste management has considerably improved with the establishment of an integrated recycling system and centralized collection and
transport of regular waste in 2010. These measures have contributed to increasing recycling rates at the headquarters. The ILO will develop
and implement a waste management pilot project in five field offices to improve current waste management practices in the field, as stated in
the ILO Programme and Budget for 2016-2017.
Information Technology
The virtualization and consolidation of servers in the ILOs primary Data Centre has increased computing capacity, improved the availability of
systems, reduced maintenance and support costs and lowered the data centre's environmental footprint by an estimated 40%.
This reduction in the carbon footprint was achieved by replacing older servers, which generated a lot of heat, with more modern, energyefficient servers. Energy consumption in the Data Centre was also reduced by utilizing cold water from Lac Leman to supplement traditional air
The replacement of approximately 1200 stand-alone printers with 200 shared network printers also contributed to a lower carbon footprint for
the Office.
Renovation of ILO headquarters
The on-going renovation of the ILO Headquarters located in Geneva is a major undertaking that will result in significantly improving energy
performance and reducing carbon emissions from the ILO premises. To reduce the buildings carbon footprint, the building will be insulated to
current local standards (including triple glazing, instead of the current double glazing) and the Genve-Lac-Nations project will be used for
heating the building.
Official Meetings

The ILO has adopted a Papersmart Policy for the production and distribution of paper documents in support of its official meetings. The
Governing Body approved the first target of a 20% decrease in pre-session and in-session official meetings documentation distributed for the
2012-13 budgetary exercise. Working towards this objective had already started in the preceding biennium targeting more specifically the presession documentation for Governing Body sessions. Along with ILOs print on demand policy, closer distribution monitoring as well as the
creation of a new Document Coordination Unit and the implementation of a new internal Document Service Policy, documentation for the
Governing Body decreased by 29.3 % , and that of the International Labour Conference by 23.4%, relative to 2010-11.
The ILO will soon report substantive evolution at the beginning of 2016 when presenting its programme implementation report 2014-15. In a
nutshell, distribution of paper documentation was significantly reduced during the last International Labour Conference (104th session, June
2015) (cf paragraph on Distribution of documents, page 26 of theILC Conference Guide available in both PDF and ePub versions). This
objective was achieved by reviewing the Conference website and actively promoting its usage amongst our constituents.
In the meantime, the Governing body has approved the new target of 2016-17 which is to publish 60% of documentation for official meetings
exclusively in electronic format.
Starting with a first pilot experience at the 9th European Regional Meeting that took place in Oslo in April 2013, distribution of in-session
documentation has been restricted and constituents were encouraged to make use of their laptops and tablets to access the on-line
documentation provided. The Office made sure that WIFI was available throughout the Conference venue and that Internet Cafes were
available for delegations that did not have access to their own equipment. The equivalent measures have been implemented since then in
every subsequent Regional Meeting (18th American Regional Meeting, Lima, Peru, October 2014, 13th African Regional Meeting to be held in
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in December this year)
The 2012 changes in travel arrangements contribute towards the reduction in associated greenhouse gas emissions. Amongst the measures
taken are the modification of rules related to business class air travel and the review of the travel process to encourage the use of videoconferencing and other means of communication as an alternative to travel activities.
Fifty field offices have been equipped with video-conferencing systems since 2007. The number of videoconferences per year has been
regularly growing with a net increase in 2012. (2010: 377; 2011: 313; 2012: 456; 2013:596 and 2014: 612).
ILO PROCUREMENT Bureau is committed to integrating social, economic and environmental considerations into its buying process. We strive to
procure the supplies and/or services our requisitioners need in a way that promotes social progress, economic development and environmental
Regarding Procurement practices, the ILO has contributed to produce the guide called Buying for a Better World - A Guide on Sustainable
Procurement for the UN System. The guide has been developed through extensive collaboration with the High Level Committee on
Managements Procurement Network and several agencies have contributed to share best practices within their respective fields of
specialization. This has led to hands-on guidance on ways to facilitate the preparation of socially and environmentally responsible tender
documents which can achieve value for money while promoting our common objectives towards sustainable development.
ILO PROCUREMENT Bureau contributes to the development of the UN Sustainable Procurement Policies, and to the body of knowledge in
sustainable procurement and supply chain management hosted by the United Nations Global MarketPlace (UNGM) of which ILO is not only an
active member and user but also the current Chair.
Staff awareness
The exhibit Greening the ILO held at Headquarters in 2012 sought to raise staff awareness regarding environmental issues in the workplace.

ILO- ITC Turin

The International Training Centre of the ILO in Turin acknowledges its responsibility to protect the environment and affirm the principle of
sustainability in the pursuit of its mandate and strategic objectives. This vision is reflected in its Strategic Plan for 2012-15, which includes
provisions to make the Centre better adapted to environmental concerns.
To integrate sustainable practices into its overall operations, the Centre adopted a Policy Statement on the Environment that provides a
roadmap for the adoption of environmentally-friendly measures, ranging from reducing the environmental impact of its facilities and
operations, to building a more sustainable approach to learning and curricula development.
In February 2014, the Centre was awarded the International Eco-Schools Award Certificate for its achievements in sustainable development
education and management. The International Eco-Schools Award Certificate is the largest international programme for sustainable schools
and is organized by the Foundation for Environmental Education(FEE). Based on ISO 14001:2004, it promotes environmental and sustainable
developmental education for schools, universities and other educational and learning institutions.

Livestock a major threat to environment

Remedies urgently needed
29 November 2006, Rome
Which causes more greenhouse gas emissions, rearing cattle or driving cars?
According to a new report published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the livestock sector generates more greenhouse
gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalent 18 percent than transport. It is also a major source of land and water degradation.
Says Henning Steinfeld, Chief of FAOs Livestock Information and Policy Branch and senior author of the report: Livestock are one of the most
significant contributors to todays most serious environmental problems. Urgent action is required to remedy the situation.
With increased prosperity, people are consuming more meat and dairy products every year. Global meat production is projected to more than
double from 229 million tonnes in 1999/2001 to 465 million tonnes in 2050, while milk output is set to climb from 580 to 1043 million tonnes.
Long shadow
The global livestock sector is growing faster than any other agricultural sub-sector. It provides livelihoods to about 1.3 billion people and
contributes about 40 percent to global agricultural output. For many poor farmers in developing countries livestock are also a source of
renewable energy for draft and an essential source of organic fertilizer for their crops.
But such rapid growth exacts a steep environmental price, according to the FAO report, Livestocks Long Shadow Environmental Issues and
Options. The environmental costs per unit of livestock production must be cut by one half, just to avoid the level of damage worsening
beyond its present level, it warns.
When emissions from land use and land use change are included, the livestock sector accounts for 9 percent of CO2 deriving from human-

related activities, but produces a much larger share of even more harmful greenhouse gases. It generates 65 percent of human-related nitrous
oxide, which has 296 times the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of CO2. Most of this comes from manure.
And it accounts for respectively 37 percent of all human-induced methane (23 times as warming as CO2), which is largely produced by the
digestive system of ruminants, and 64 percent of ammonia, which contributes significantly to acid rain.
Livestock now use 30 percent of the earths entire land surface, mostly permanent pasture but also including 33 percent of the global arable
land used to producing feed for livestock, the report notes. As forests are cleared to create new pastures, it is a major driver of deforestation,
especially in Latin America where, for example, some 70 percent of former forests in the Amazon have been turned over to grazing.
Land and water
At the same time herds cause wide-scale land degradation, with about 20 percent of pastures considered as degraded through overgrazing,
compaction and erosion. This figure is even higher in the drylands where inappropriate policies and inadequate livestock management
contribute to advancing desertification.
The livestock business is among the most damaging sectors to the earths increasingly scarce water resources, contributing among other
things to water pollution, euthropication and the degeneration of coral reefs. The major polluting agents are animal wastes, antibiotics and
hormones, chemicals from tanneries, fertilizers and the pesticides used to spray feed crops. Widespread overgrazing disturbs water cycles,
reducing replenishment of above and below ground water resources. Significant amounts of water are withdrawn for the production of feed.
Livestock are estimated to be the main inland source of phosphorous and nitrogen contamination of the South China Sea, contributing to
biodiversity loss in marine ecosystems.
Meat and dairy animals now account for about 20 percent of all terrestrial animal biomass. Livestocks presence in vast tracts of land and its
demand for feed crops also contribute to biodiversity loss; 15 out of 24 important ecosystem services are assessed as in decline, with livestock
identified as a culprit.
The report, which was produced with the support of the multi-institutional Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) Initiative, proposes
explicitly to consider these environmental costs and suggests a number of ways of remedying the situation, including:
Land degradation controlling access and removing obstacles to mobility on common pastures. Use of soil conservation methods and
silvopastoralism, together with controlled livestock exclusion from sensitive areas; payment schemes for environmental services in livestockbased land use to help reduce and reverse land degradation.
Atmosphere and climate increasing the efficiency of livestock production and feed crop agriculture. Improving animals diets to reduce
enteric fermentation and consequent methane emissions, and setting up biogas plant initiatives to recycle manure.
Water improving the efficiency of irrigation systems. Introducing full-cost pricing for water together with taxes to discourage large-scale
livestock concentration close to cities.
These and related questions are the focus of discussions between FAO and its partners meeting to chart the way forward for livestock
production at global consultations in Bangkok this week. These discussions also include the substantial public health risks related to the rapid

livestock sector growth as, increasingly, animal diseases also affect humans; rapid livestock sector growth can also lead to the exclusion of
smallholders from growing markets.
All life depends on a healthy planet, but the interwoven systems of atmosphere, oceans, watercourses, land, ice
cover and biosphere, which form the natural environment
are threatened by human activities. Moreover, while a fragile environment becomes more vulnerable to natural disasters,
the natural disasters also degrade the environment in a pernicious circle of causes and effects.
The observational data of weather, climate and the
atmosphere that are collected through WMOs networks of observing, data-transmitting and forecasting systems keep policy-makers informed
of the state of the environment so that they are in a better position to prevent its further degradation.
The natural environment suffers, for example, from lack of precipitation for extended periods and uncontrolled land use, leading to
desertification. It is estimated that one-third of the Earths surface and one-fifth of the worlds population are threatened by desertification.
WMO therefore directs its attention to the aspects of climate variability and change which impact the environment.
Biodiversity (the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns it forms) helps keep the global environment working. Polluted air, depleted or
contaminated water, degraded soil and urban growth are all threats to biodiversity. Rising ocean temperatures are responsible for the
widespread bleaching of coral reefs, which support vast populations of marine life and are also an important tourist attraction. El Nio events
are particularly critical.
Ecosystems such as wetlands, forests and lakes are an important part of the natural regime of a river. They are a buffer between river and
terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in storing or attenuating floodwaters. It is necessary therefore to ensure they remain healthy.
Structural flood-management interventions cannot fully control extreme flood events beyond the design standard and may have adverse
impacts on the natural environment.
Sratospheric ozone protects plants, marine life, animals and people from solar ultraviolet radiation, which harmful for life on Earth.
Chlorofluorocarbons and other anthropogenic chemicals are responsible for the destruction of ozone
An essential activity of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services is to monitor long-term changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases,
ultraviolet radiation, aerosols and ozone, and to assess their consequent effects on people, climate, air and water quality and marine and
terrestrial ecosystems. Another important activity is monitoring the atmospheric and water transport of dangerous particles in the wake of a
volcanic explosion or an industrial accident. WMOs observational data are used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in its
assessments of climate climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.
WMO's provides support to Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)
Data and derived value-added information are the foundation on which our knowledge of the environment is built. WMO Members operate the
WMO Integrated Global Observing System, which includes complex networks in space, the atmosphere, on land and at sea. WMO is the
recognized, comprehensive source of unique global systematic observations on the state of a wide variety of geophysical phenomena,
datasets and long-term archives, and scientific and technical expertise in support of policy advice on various critical environmental issues. In
particular, WMO reports on the state of the global climate system and the state of the atmospheric environment and produces various
scientific assessments, statements, bulletins and other advisories on the state of climate and environment. The weather and hydrological
forecasts and warnings and climate advisories, as well as other environment-related information are issued by the National Meteorological and
Hydrological services all over the world on a routine basis.
WMO provides direct support to a number of MEAs:
WMO hosts and co-sponsors the Secretariats of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Global Climate Observing System and
provides direct support to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
WMO organizes the work of the Ozone Research Managers to the Vienna Convention on Protection of the Ozone Layer, supported by the Ozone
Secretariat (hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme);

WMO participates in the work of subsidiary bodies on scientific and technical advice with the following organizations:
International Convention to Combat Desertification,
the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution,
the Convention on Biological Diversity, and
the Convention for the Protection of Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean.

International Conference on Advancing the Global Implementation of Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation Programmes
E. Target Audience
The conference is targeted at policy and decision makers and technical experts in particular from national and local governments, funding
organizations, regulatory authorities, public health authorities, facility operators, waste management bodies and international organizations
concerned with planning and implementing decommissioning and remediation programmes and projects.
United Nations Institute for Training & Research - UNITAR
The Mission of UNITAR is to develop capacities to enhance global decision-making and to support country level action for shaping a better
future in the thematic areas of Strengthen Multilateralism; Promote Economic Development and Social Inclusion; Advance Environmental
Sustainability and Green Development; Promote Sustainable Peace; and Research and Technology Applications.
UN industrial development organization
Safeguarding the environment
Pollution, climate change, habitat destruction and over-exploitation of natural resources such as fresh water and fisheries are doing great harm
to human health, wellbeing and livelihoods, especially among poorer regions, and is undermining the prospects for a long-term resilient and
robust economy. One of the prerequisites for industry to flourish in a sustainable manner is the availability of an assured supply of affordable
and clean energy, together with improved resource efficiency.
The risks of climate change are well documented and its impacts are already affecting people and ecosystems. Meeting the climate challenge
requires industries and institutions both public and private to be able to assess and understand climate change, design and implement
adequate policies and to work towards resource efficient societies and low emission growth. Decoupling natural resource use and
environmental impacts from economic growth is a key requirement for overcoming the pressing challenge of growing resource consumption
Against this background, UNIDO supports countries in their environmental management efforts, including the implementation of multilateral
environmental agreements and the provision of sustainable energy. It helps create new green industries, establishing national road maps for
greening the supply chain, determining benchmarks and indicators, disseminating and sharing best practices, running clean technology
programmes, undertaking various capacity-building exercises and contributing to international forums with the necessary research and

UNIDO's services include capacity building, direct technical support to enterprises and assistance to government institutions on Cleaner
Production (CP) policy matters, as well as the promotion, adaptation and transfer of environmentally sound technologies and the
implementation of advanced CP business models, such as chemical leasing.
In the field of water management UNIDO focuses on the sustainable use of water resources. This includes capacity-building for the industrial
sector to improve water productivity, reuse and recycling, as well as the introduction at all levels of government policies and training in the
adoption of the ecosystem approach and the sustainable use of its living resources.
UNIDO stresses the need to improve industrial energy efficiency by contributing to the transformation of markets for energy-efficient products
and services. It promotes sustainable energy solutions for making industries more productive and climate resilient, which in turn promotes
green jobs and green growth, including the deployment of industrial energy efficiency standards, smart grids based on renewable energy and
renewable energy for industrial applications as well as the promotion of climate resilient industries.
An urgent need also remains to phase out the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances (ODSs), which lead to the continuing
degradation of human health and the natural environment. The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol provide a response to that need.
UNIDO assists governments of developing countries that are signatories to the Montreal Protocol to comply with its requirements through
transferring non-ODS-based technologies to Article 5 countries and supports them to meet the set targets in terms of tonnages of ODS to be
There is a commitment on the part of governments that are parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) to
implement legal, organizational and environmental management measures, including substantive technological changes, in order to comply
with the requirements of the Convention. The production and use of POPs as well as their presence in the biosphere are causing serious
damage to human health and the environment. UNIDO also assist countries in reaching compliance with the Stockholm Convention and
develops capacity s in developing countries to protect their populations and their environmental resources from POPs-related pollution. UNIDO
also supports countries in addressing the commitments under the Minamata Convention on Mercury.
What is IUCN?
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, helps the world find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and
development challenges.
Our work focuses on valuing and conserving nature, ensuring effective and equitable governance of its use, and deploying nature-based
solutions to global challenges in climate, food and development. IUCN supports scientific research, manages field projects all over the world,
and brings governments, NGOs, the UN and companies together to develop policy, laws and best practice.
IUCN is the worlds oldest and largest global environmental organisation, with almost 1,300 government and NGO Members and more than
15,000 volunteer experts in 185 countries. Our work is supported by almost 1,000 staff in 45 offices and hundreds of partners in public, NGO
and private sectors around the world.
What does IUCN do?
Conserving biodiversity is central to the mission of IUCN. We demonstrate how biodiversity is fundamental to addressing some of the worlds
greatest challenges such as climate change, sustainable development and food security.
To deliver conservation and sustainability at both the global and local level, IUCN builds on its strengths in the following areas:
Science 11,000 experts setting global standards in their fields, for example, the definitive international standard for species extinction risk
the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Action hundreds of conservation projects all over the world from the local level to those involving several countries, all aimed at the
sustainable management of biodiversity and natural resources.
Influence through the collective strength of more than 1,200 government and non-governmental Member organizations, IUCN influences
international environmental conventions, policies and laws.