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INSTITUTE OF

TECHNOLOGY OF CAMBODIA

DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRICAL AND ENERGY ENGINEERING

POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


Report on

Distribution Automation
Lecturer: Mr. Sean Piseth
Students: KY Chumno

e20120338

LAK Sivcheng

e20120341

LEOM Lefong

e20120360

LY Senghuo

e20120391

Group 5: I4-GEE-EE

Academic Year: 2015-2016

PREFACE
This is a team work report on the distribution automation. It was researched and written by
I4-ITC students. We are very happy when we finish this report because we try our best to work as
a team for this task. This report is assigned by our lecturer at ITC to make students gain more
knowledge, develop themselves in a way that is electrical students should do. In addition, we hope
this report will be useful for all students as they can take this as their references. In this report, we
just introduce to you some basic concept and main component of DA, we are not trying to write
about detail concerning its process and how to construct as professional job. However it is just a
starting point got electrical student to understand more when they go to higher level. Moreover,
there will be some technical error as we write it by ourselves and lecture error since our knowledge
is still limited and the time is a bit little short for us.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Firstly, we would like to thank Mr. Sean Piseth, our Power Distribution System teacher
at Institute of Technology of Cambodia (ITC), for teaching us a long time ago. He always spend
his most busiest and valuable time come to class for explaining the lecture even he is actually
exhausted, giving useful advices, as well as learning motivation and strategy.
We do sincerely acknowledge him for giving us a project for researching. Its extremely
useful and meaningful report since we try our best to work as a team, trying to finish it on time
with relatively good result. Thank his reports guideline such as report construction, technical
explanation, research document, etc.
Secondly, we would like to thank our friends who give their support and motivation for
this report. Their advices, suggestion and question will continue to enhance our knowledge and
understanding. Once again we thank our friends who have directly or indirectly contributed by
giving their valuable suggestion.
Finally, we would like to thank Dr. OM Romny, the director of ITC, who always make a
perfect organization on the study program. Thanks for letting us study and grow at ITC.

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CONTENT
PREFACE ................................................................................................................................................ i
ACKNOWLEDGMENT......................................................................................................................... ii
CONTENT ........................................................................................................................................ iii-iv
LIST OF ILLUSTRATION .................................................................................................................... v
I.

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1
Overview .1

Objective.2

3.

Scope of Work.3

II.

MAIN CONTENT .......................................................................................................................... 4


1. Constructional Features4
1.1 General Concept.4
1.2 Distribution System Topology and Structure....5
1.3 What is Distribution Automation?............................................................................................8

2. How it work?....................................................................................................................................10
2.1 Distribution Automation Functions.10
2.1.1 Fault detection, isolation, and restoration (FDIR)10
2.1.2 Voltage/VAr Control11
2.1.3 Trouble Calls12
2.1.4 Feeder reconfiguration.13
2.1.5 Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)...14
2.1.6 Demand-Side Management..14
2.2 Communication options.15
3. Operation.....16
3.1 Remotely-controllable switches..16
3.2 Reclosing systems...17
4. Application..20
4.1 SCADA Applied to Distribution Automation....20
4.2 Integration of a distributed generation...21
5. Maintenance Procedure..22
5.1 Preventive Maintenance.....22

iii

5.2 Corrective Maintenance...22


5.3 Components for maintenance..23
6. Case Study...27
6.1 Long Rural Feeder...27
III. Advantages and Disadvantages ....................................................................................................... 31
1 Advantages..31
2 Disadvantages. 32
IV. CONCLUSION&Recommendation.............................................................................................. 33
V. REFERENCE ................................................................................................................................... 33
VI. Meeting Report34

iv

LIST OF ILLUSTRATION
Figure 1: Basic Structure of the Electric System 4
Figure 2: Thomas Edison.5
Figure 3: typical Distribution System6
Figure 4: Distribution Automation7
Figure 5: Distribution concept as an umbrella term .8
Figure 6: Fault Location, isolation, and Service Restoration (FLISR)11
Figure 7: Voltage/VAr Control 11
Figure 8: Trouble-call-handling sequence 13
Figure 9: Basic communication schemes in a trouble-call reception system..13
Figure 10: Automatic Meter Reading (AMR).14
Figure 11: Typical communication methods.15
Figure 12: Typical sectionalizer network.16
Figure 13: Typical timing diagram of a reclose sequence.17
Figure 14: Typical recloser network.18
Figure 15: network of Intelligent Loop Automation..19
Figure 16: Integration of a distributed generation...21
Figure 17: Overhead line..23
Figure 18: Circuit Breaker...24
Figure 19: Transformer25
Figure 20: Geographical network diagram of the example long rural feeder..28

I.

Introduction

1. Overview
The word Automation means doing the particular task automatically in a sequence with
faster operation rate. This requires the use of microprocessor together with communication
network and some relevant software programming. Application of automation in distribution
power system level can be defined as automatically monitoring, protecting and controlling
switching operations through intelligent electronic devices to restore power service during fault by
sequential events and maintain better operating conditions back to normal operations.
Now days due to advancement in the communication technology, distribution automation
system (DA) is not just a remote control and operation of substation and feeder equipment but it
results into a highly reliable, self-healing power system that responds rapidly to real-time events
with appropriate actions. Hence, automation does not just replace manual procedures; it permits
the power system to operate in best optimal way, based on accurate information provided in a
timely manner to the decision-making applications and devices.

2. Objective
In this report, we consider some of the following objectives:
To study the major concept involved in the distribution systems term modeling of various
component in typical distribution system.
To understand the first concept of distribution configuration, different aspects of
distribution. Also learn to analyse and advance for automation and control of distribution
systems.
To define the process of distribution automation in distribution systems and how to control
when the fault have occurs in the operation.
To study the advantages and disadvantages of distribution automation and its applications
in distribution systems and also to study new trend of integrating intelligent systems (IS)
and telecommunication applications to power system distribution automation and control.
To define the protection devices for taking care systems in the distribution automation.
To gain the awareness of the problems and challenges of the existing distribution system
To gain the knowledge of various aspects of distribution automation and appreciate its role
in overcoming existing problems of distribution system

3. Scope of Work
Distribution automation is used to define the application of communication, optimization,
and intelligent systems to improve the performance and functions of distribution systems
during normal and abnormal operation. DA facilitates system efficiency, quality of service,
and the security of the power system. In this report, we will consider:
Efficiency: DA function option that controls (minimizes) losses through network
reconfiguration and restoration by appropriate relocation of fuses, circuit breakers, and
loads for optimum performance during an overload.
Reliability and quality: To guarantee that the system is reliable at an acceptable
value of risk.
Security: The aim here is to reduce voltage sag and eliminate harmonics that could
cause low power quality and to dampen instability caused by penetration of DGs.

II.

MAIN CONTENT

1. Constructional Features
1.1. General Concept
In the power system, it normally consist of generation, transmission, and distribution.
Generation: Generator is one the essential components of power systems. It is the threephase ac generator known as synchronous generator or alternator. AC generator can generate high
power at high, typically 35 kV. In a power plant, the size of the generators can vary from 50MW
to 150MW.
Transmission: the purpose of an overhead transmission network is to transfer electric
energy from generating units at various locations to the distribution system which ultimately
supplies the load. Transmission also interconnect neighboring utilities which permits not only
economic dispatch of power within regions during normal conditions, but also the transfer of
power between regions during emergencies. Standard transmission are established in the United
States by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Transmission voltage lines operating
at more than 60kV are standardized at 69kV, 115kV, 138kV, 161kV, 230kV, 345kV, 500kV, and
765kV line-to-line.
Distribution: the distribution system is that part which connects the distribution substation
to the consumers service entrance equipment. The primary distribution lines are usually in the
range of 4 to 34.5kV. Some small industrial consumer are directly served by the primary feeder.
The secondary distribution network reduces the voltage in the range of 120V and 240V for the
utilization by commercial and residential consumers.

Figure 1: Basic Structure of the Electric System

As the time move constantly, several advances as well as research and development have
been made to improve the performance, efficiency, reliability, and security of power systems.
The initial design of the electricity industry is made by Thomas
Edison in 1881, with AC generation, has changed with several
modifications. This design, with its modifications, has led to the
development of todays power system utilities. The design of largescale electric production has produced AC power at high voltage and
current levels. The growth of the industry has led to many innovations,
including economy of scale from large hydro, fossil fuel and, recently,
small independent power producers (IPP), in what is called distributed
generation. The designs of distributed generation have been based on

Figure 2: Thomas Edison

criteria to improve its reliability, load management, and system performance in response to various
disturbances.
1.2. Distribution System Topology and Structure
The distribution systems main features are shown in Figure 3. This sample diagram
consists of fuses, reclosers, relays, a circuit breaker, transformers, regulators (voltage), and
dispersed generator/storage. We describe each of them here briefly:
Relay: a device designed to protect against overvoltage, frequency, or current. It relays
abnormal voltage or current to the circuit breaker to open (close) a circuit from further deterioration
due to fault signals.
Reclosers: devices serving as special purpose, light-duty circuit breakers for interrupting
overloads but not faults. It allows temporary faults to clear and then restores service quickly, but
disconnects a permanent fault.
Circuit breaker: a high-current device that automatically disconnects faulted equipment.
It facilitates protection of equipment from further damage or people from injury, and it is typically
rated in terms of voltage and fault current. Circuit breakers come in different forms due to the
arcing phenomena caused during contact (opening/closing) at high voltage. Typical models are
air-blast circuit breakers, vacuum circuit breakers, oil circuit breakers, and sulfur hexafluoride
circuit breakers, which use SFL gas media for extra-high voltage, which are applications above
345 kV.
5

Fuses: These are devices that melt when overload current passes through it. They come in
different forms of low- or high-voltage fuses made from zinc, copper, silver, cadmium, or tin
materials. They are rated in terms of BIL, voltage, continuous current, and interrupt-capacity fuse
coordination (time it takes for the fuse to blow).
Sectionalizer: a device that is used to automatically isolate a fault on a line segment from
a disturbance. It senses any current above its activating current followed by a line and then deenergizes using a recloser.
Renewable energy/storage: referred to as IPP, an independent power producer at the
customer side. It is called distributed power resulting from a renewable energy source such as
photovoltaic, biomass, micro turbine, or wind power.

AVR

CB
AVR

Sectionalizer

Substation
Figure 3: typical Distribution System

A complete distribution subsystem includes other pieces of equipment, such as batteries,


sensors, and computer application software. Overall, the additional equipment or apparatus
provide functionality to ensure real-time monitoring and control of the power system distribution.
It is a creative art of ingenious engineering and has served the industry for years. However, as

communication and intelligent-system technology advances, distribution systems can be


enhanced.
1.3 What is Distribution Automation (DA)?
IEEE defines a distribution automation system as one that enables an electric utility to
remotely monitor, coordinate, and operate distribution components in a real-time mode from
remote locations. Distribution automation started in the 1970s. Electric power distribution is
important in the delivery of energy to consumers from an electrical power system. The idea of
distribution automation was motivated by the evolution of communication and information
technology. Automated distribution uses these technologies to improve the operating performance
of distributed systems, enhancing efficiency, reliability, and quality of service, as well as better
management and control of the power distribution system. The principal objective can be
summarized as energy conservation through reduction of losses, peak load, and energy
consumption.

Figure 4: Distribution Automation

1.4 DA Concept
The DA concept simply applies the generic word of automation to the entire distribution
system operation and covers the complete range of functions from protection to SCADA and
associated information technology applications. This concept melds together the ability to mix
local automation, remote control of switching devices, and central decision making into a cohesive,
flexible, and cost effective operating architecture for power distribution systems.
Distribution management (DMS)

Network Control (NSC)

Substation Automation (SA)

Meter reading
Feeder automation (FA)
Figure 5: Distribution concept as an umbrella term

In practice, within the DA concept there are two specific terms that are commonly used in
the industry.
1.4.1 Distribution Management System (DMS)
The DMS has a control room focus, where it provides the operator with the best as
operated view of the network. It coordinates all the downstream real-time functions within the
distribution network with the nonreal-time (manually operated devices) information needed to
properly control and manage the network on a regular basis. The key to a DMS is the organization
of the distribution network model database, access to all supporting IT infrastructure, and

applications necessary to populate the model and support the other daily operating tasks. A
common HMI (Human Machine Interface) and process optimized command structure is vital in
providing operators with a facility that allows intuitive and efficient performance of their tasks.
1.4.2 Distribution Automation System (DAS)
The DA system fits below the DMS and includes all the remote-controlled devices at the
substation and feeder levels (e.g., circuit breakers, reclosers, autosectionalizers), the local
automation distributed at these devices, and the communications infrastructure. It is a subsystem
of the DMS essentially covering all real-time aspects of the downstream network control process.
This report will concentrates on this aspect of distribution control and automation.

2. How it works?
2.1 Distribution Automation Functions
Distribution automation functions cover the following areas:
Fault detection, isolation, and restoration (FDIR)
Volt/VAR control
Trouble Calls
Feeder Reconfiguration
Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)

2.1.1 Fault Location, isolation, and Service Restoration (FLISR)


One of the important characteristics of the DA is its ability to self-heal. This does not
mean that the DA will be able to repair damaged equipment and automatically return the damaged
equipment to service. Rather, the self-healing function will automatically restore service to as
many customers as possible as quickly as possible while field crews make the necessary repairs.
The key DA application for implementing a self-healing network is the FLISR application.
The use of automated feeder switching aids in detecting feeder faults, determining the fault
location (between two or more switches), isolating the faulted section of the feeder, and providing
the possibility of restoring service to healthy portions of the feeder.
Service restoration allows to find alternate options to quickly restore power to healthy parts
of the system making sure that voltage levels are within accepted ranges and that any overload is
avoided. Cold load pickup has to be considered for long outages in order to avoid tripping when
re-energizing the feeders. Customer prioritization is carefully considered.

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Figure 6: Fault Location, isolation, and Service Restoration (FLISR)

2.1.2 Voltage/VAr Control


Voltage control within a specified range of limits and capacitor switching are an effective
means of minimizing loss and improving voltage profiles and deferred construction and
maintenance costs in the end within the reliability and power-quality constraints of the system.

Figure 7: Voltage/VAr Control

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Voltage/VAr control considers multiphase unbalanced distribution system operation,


dispersed generation, and control equipment in the large system. In distribution automation,
functions using voltage/VAr control options must maintain proper communication between
planning problems like the decision to install capacitors, and recognizing the cost benefit analysis.

2.1.3 Trouble Calls


The trouble-call distribution-automation option is a distribution management system in
support of increased customer-focused service. It is built within the utility system to receive trouble
calls from customers by phone, fax, or external communication services. This is a more cost
effective method to reporting a fault event, as compared to physically going to the site location of
the fault. Answering and logging of trouble calls are handled using advanced communicationsupport services.
Figure8 shows the sequence of activities leading from reception of a trouble call to the
dispatch of a crew. The trouble-call-handling scheme progresses through the following sequence.
Local calls made to customer service and crews are immediately dispatched, or trouble-call
information is processed via a customer call center to verify the problem type, confirm account
activities, and proceed to authorization of a dispatch crew. A toll-free call can also be made directly
to customer service to confirm account status and request service per trouble-call placement.

Figure 8: Trouble-call-handling sequence

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Trouble-call handling and alarm processing: New methods of remotely processing


trouble (feeder problems, etc.) are done by using alarm processing indicating caller ID, telephone
interface, loss-of-voltage indicator, and several other options.
Trouble-call placement: Overall system connectivity is checked locally if the network is
available via geographic information systems (GIS) technology for network analysis, location of

Figure 9: Basic communication schemes in a trouble-call reception system

faulted distribution systems, and diagnostics. A repair crew may also be sent to the site for
immediate repair or maintenance, depending on the nature of the problem. For instance, a switch
gear may require maintenance, a capacitor bank may need to be switched, pole may need
replacement, etc. Feeder balancing and load balancing are other problems to be addressed during
reconfiguration and restoration of the system. This aspect of distribution automation is referred to
as trouble call management, and performance of other management applications may be necessary,
such as receiving calls, diagnosing and locating the fault, identifying all affected customers, and
restoring the network in the shortest possible time.
2.1.4 Feeder reconfiguration
Feeder reconfiguration refers to the operation of switches, breakers, or reclosers to
reconfigure the topology of feeders and improve the operating condition of the system. It is done
under normal conditions in order to reduce losses and increase reliability. It also helps to minimize
voltage drop on the feeders. Feeder reconfiguration represents great benefits. However, it is not
always possible to achieve all the objectives simultaneously.
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2.1.5 Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)


For utilities, AMR is one of the cost effective way to read the residential kilowatt-hour
meters. It identifies the major customers (aggregated load) and offers load information to
customers as a special service. The AMR device can be initially programmed to report back to the
utility based on a schedule or some pre-set usage level. Modern AMR devices incorporate the
capability of remote reconfiguration of operating parameters and schedules.

Figure 10: Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)

2.1.6 Demand-Side Management


Demand-side management is classified into three main categories:

Direct control of load: This uses a communication system such as power line
carrier/radio to transmit control from the utility side to the customers. The aim is to
directly control load, small generators and storage.

Local load control option: This enables customers to self-adjust load to limit peak
demand, e.g., demand-activated breakers, load interlocks, timers, thermostats,
occupancy sensors, cogeneration heating, cooling storage, etc.

Distribution load control: The utility controls the customer loads by sending realtime prices.

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2.2 Communication Options


Communication is very important to DA because it relies on the coordinated effort of
various elements in the system. It may employ a variety of communication mediums such as cooper
wires, fiber optics, VHF and UHF radio, satellites, microwaves, cellular communications, Wi-Fi,
and WiMAX.
Rapid advances in wireless, cellular, and satellite systems will soon provide cost-effective
solutions for enterprise connectivity. Figure 11 illustrates different types of communication.

Figure 11: Typical communication methods

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3. Operation
3.1 Remotely-controllable switches
When a permanent fault occurs, the following steps are taken:
The substation circuit breaker or recloser trips automatically to interrupt supply to the
affected feeder.
An operator in the control room:

identifies the faulty segment of the feeder by using the FCI indication displayed in the
control room

opens the nearest upstream and downstream switches to isolate the faulty segment
using the communications network

reconfigures the protection in substation breakers

closes the substation circuit breaker to restore power upstream of the faulty segment

Closes the normally-open tie point to provide power downstream of the faulty segment.

Through this operation, power is restored to the healthy parts of the network. The operator
would then dispatch the maintenance crews to the faulty segment of the feeder to remove the fault.
Once theentire feeder is healthy, the operator would open the normally-open point and close the
remotely controllable switches to restore the network to the normal pre-faulted configuration.

Figure 12: Typical sectionalizer network

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3.2 Reclosing systems


It is possible to operate this type of network in either a manual mode where the operator
has to perform the reconfiguration of the network, or in a Loop Automation mode where the
reclosers perform all the task automatically.

Figure 13: Typical timing diagram of a reclose sequence

Manual mode of Recloser

The recloser immediately upstream of the fault automatically trips, recloses to lockout
and remains open.
An operator:
o determines the location of the fault from the recloser status and/or additional
FCIs;
o opens the next downstream recloser to isolate the faulty segment;
o reconfigures the protection settings in anticipation of reverse power flow, and

o close the normally-open point to restore power downstream of the faulty segment.

17

With power restored to the healthy parts of the network and the operator can dispatch the
line crews to the faulted segment of the feeder. Once the entire feeder is healthy, the operator
can open the normally-open point, reconfigure, and close the reclosers to restore the network
to the normal pre-faulted configuration.

Figure 14: Typical recloser network

Intelligent Loop Automation


It is important to note that protection is the first and foremost function of the reclosers,
even in a loop automation scheme. A more sophisticated recloser is required to perform both
protection and automation functions. In addition to these, the reclosers have to measure power
flow and voltage on both sides of the recloser.
To explain the basic operation of a loop automation scheme, lets first define the reclosers
as follows:
-

Feeder recloser (F) Recloser closest to the substation.

Tie (TIE) The open point recloser where the two feeders meet. This is a normally-open
point (NO).

Mid-point reclosers (MP) All the reclosers positioned between the feeder and tie reclosers.
Each of these reclosers is programmed with a different set of rules when controlled by loop
automation, which can be simplified as follows:

The feeder recloser trips when it loses supply.

The mid-point recloser changes to the reverse power flow protection settings when it loses
supply.

The tie recloser closes when it detects that supply to one side of the network has been lost.

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Loop automation uses time, voltage, power flow and these simple rules to isolate the fault and
reconfigure the network without the need for any communications or operator assistance.
In a loop automation network the following actions will take place when a fault occurs:

The recloser immediately upstream of the fault automatically trips, recloses to lockout
and remains open.

Reclosers downstream of the fault automatically change the protection settings in


anticipation of power flowing in the opposite direction.

The normally-open tie recloser closes automatically.

Since the fault still being present, the recloser immediately downstream of the fault
trips and locks out without reclosing.

This will automatically restore power to the healthy parts of the network. An operator can now
dispatch line crews to the faulted segment. It is also possible for the loop automation system to
restore the original configuration when the fault is cleared.

11

Figure 15: network of Intelligent Loop Automation

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4. Application
4.1 SCADA Applied to Distribution Automation
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a computer system for gathering and
analyzing real time data, which is used to control and monitor processes remotely. SCADA
applications are globally accepted as a real-time power system monitoring and control tool,
especially in generation, transmission and distribution systems.

Why Integrate DA with SCADA?

The DA applications were to involve both monitoring and SCADA control functions. A
major thrust of the DA project was focused on the methodology of data acquisition from the field
devices and seamlessly transporting the information into the existing SCADA/EMS. The
substation automation application being a third-party application, an integrated approach was
intended to help the SCADA operator by providing an interface to carry our remote monitoring
and control of some non-EMS application. The request was also to give multiple users, including
planning and Engineering department who currently have SCADA/EMS display monitoring
capabilities, the ability to view the system to monitor power quality parameters apart from the
operations personnel.

Advantages of DA through SCADA

There are many advantages of implementing DA through SCADA. Some of the main
advantages can be given as:

Centralized Control: In a SCADA system the whole controlling action takes place in the
Central Control room and the host computer is responsible for all the control actions in the
system. As all the data of the whole system gets processed at a single place of the erratic
processing of the data is minimized. Thus it ensure the issue of correct controlling signals,
which become the major advantage of SCADA when used in DA.

Economically Advisable: It is true that the initial of employing a SCADA system is high,
but it offers the advantages of good revenue in terms of minimizing the running cost of the
control system for the whole system. Furthermore, SCADA can also help in deferring the
capital cost for the new control equipment which is required by the conventional system.

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Scope for further expansion: it can initially be implemented for a small part of the system
and can then be expanded for the rest of the system in steps.

Highly Reliable information Storage: it offers highly reliable information storage of the
previous data of the system. This feature can be efficiently used for the purpose of
forecasting required for system.
4.2 Integration of a distributed generation
Alternate sources generation has converted as an attractive window for new development

projects. However, for implementations like photovoltaic to be widely accepted, their connection
to the transmission system must be reliable. When a source is disconnected from the main
transmission system, the source must be isolated from the portion of the system where it was
separated; a fault in the source trip generates a high risk in personnel safety, in power quality, and
in an out-of phase reclosing.

Figure 16: Integration of a distributed generation

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5. Maintenance Procedure
Distributions systems are designed with the goal of providing quality, reliable, and efficient
service at all times. To achieve this, maintenance plan actions must be taken to ensure that these
criteria are met. The performance of the system must be maintained from life to death.
Maintenance engineering analysis (MEA) is a systematic maintainability program developed to
determine the effective useable condition of the equipment. There are two modes of maintenance:
preventive and corrective.
5.1 Preventive Maintenance
Preventive maintenance is done on a scheduled basis for the purpose of retaining an item
in a satisfactory condition. The process includes periodic test monitoring, servicing, and routine or
scheduled inspection.
5.2 Corrective Maintenance
Corrective maintenance is based on restoring equipment to an operable condition after
failure or some other malfunction has occurred. Here, we briefly define a few of the terms used in
maintenance work:
Maintenance engineering analysis (MEA) supports the design of equipment from both the
planning and operation stages. It provides concepts for each subsystem and component, facilitates
determination of resource requirements, and results in system design requirements for reliability
and maintainability using MEA, which must attend to the following:

Personnel requirements for the project

Skill level and training requirements

Maintenance function and technical data requirements, including maintenance manuals,


records, and other technical support tools

Maintenance facility requirements, such as waste power, clean room, repair shops, spare
parts, and others.

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5.2 Components for maintenance


1. Overhead Lines
Maintenance of overhead lines typically consists of inspection and testing, followed by
implementation of recommended actions. Patrol inspections at ground level by foot or vehicle and
a thorough monitoring scheme are recommended. Maintenance guidelines should be periodic and
should be followed according to established procedures for quarterly, yearly, and seasonal periods.

Figure 17: Overhead line

2. Circuit Breakers
A recommended diagnostic test in all types of circuit breakers includes a timing test using
a reliable apparatus. For a closed operation, an open operation, a closed/open operation, and the
time from initiation to operation of the contacts recorded, all interruption should be timed at once
to enable comparison tests and to detect deterioration in contacts or connections using voltagedrop resistance measurements.

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Figure 18: Circuit Breaker

Checks should be carried out on the circuit breaker operating mechanism to determine
running hours of operating the motor, automatic start-up pressure, low pressure alarm, and lockout
pressure. Additional diagnostic test are recommended, such as checks on gas leakage, rate of SF6
gas-based circuit breaker, air insulation, temperature, dielectric strength of the insulating oil, etc.
All should be checked according to company policy and practices.
3. Transformers
The principal objective of transformer maintenance is to maintain the insulation in good
condition. Diagnostic testing is needed to obtain an indication of the equipments condition as well
as all of the items associated with the main function. The various parts of the transformer requiring
maintenance include the main transformer, cooling equipment, tap-changer bushings, protective
devices, control gear, reactors, earthing transformer, neutral earthing resistors, lightning arrestors,
oil retaining compound, etc.:

24

Figure 19: Transformer

Maintenance scheduled on a monthly or yearly basis should be carried out at the specified
time intervals.

Diagnostic testing of transformer oil and a follow-up analysis should be performed to


identify potential problems over time.

Analysis of gases collected from a typical Buchholz relay will help in determining whether
there is an internal fault and in diagnosing the location of the fault.

Resistance values of the transformer windings, together with measurements of insulation


resistance, will give an indication of their electrical condition. Ratio checks through the
complete range of tap positions will prove consistency and the sequential stepping of the
tap changer.

Measurement of oil and winding temperatures provides information about transformer


condition. Check the calibration of the oil-temperature instrumentation to verify correct
operation of pumps, false alarms, and tripping of the tap changer. Check the effectiveness
of limit switches and mechanical override defenses. Regular monitoring of the tap-changer
operation for all automatic tap-changer installations should be carried out.

4. Substation Equipment
Regular and periodic diagnostic checks or power maintenance actions are recommended
for current transformers (CT) and voltage transformers (PT). Here we carry out procedures to
check oil levels, oil seals, dielectric loss angle value of insulators, bus bars, fittings, and
connections. Here checks should be carried out to determine resistance values across the contacting

25

surfaces and the temperature of joints under loading conditions. Other pieces of auxiliary
equipment are also diagnosed, and the maintenance procedure is applied accordingly.
The costs associated with this maintenance are computed using cost-benefit analysis to
justify the investment and value of reliability-centered maintenance.

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6. Case Study
In order to use the concept that we have learned from previous section, and to be adapted
to the real world, we take one case study to apply. In this case study, we will illustrate justification
for distribution automation based on the methods. In developing these business cases, an attempt
will be made to prioritize the benefits according to their contribution and hardness.
Long Rural Feeder
1. Evaluation of Performance
The system in this case study is a real network in northern Europe. It comprises a single
source substation with a single 16 MVA transformer supplying busbars at 20 kV. The network is
loaded to 8159 kVA maximum demand, supplying 2,272 customers. The source substation is in
the center of Figure below, and we will select one circuit of the three (highlighted) that heads north
from the substation. This feeder comprises the following:

km cable at the source end

39.2 km overhead line

725 customers

1508 kVA maximum demand

17 switches and switch fuses

SCADA-controlled feeder source circuit breaker at the substation


There is also a 20/10 kV transformer approximately halfway along the circuit, resulting

from a previous voltage upgrading from the original 10 kV system to 20 kV for the sections nearest
the source. This circuit has no extended control feeder automation (FA).
Although the performance of the network was considered acceptable except in times of
severe weather, the utility, in preparation for deregulation, was considering introducing feeder
automation on its networks and wanted to see whether the benefits were sufficient to justify the
implementation

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Figure 20: Geographical network diagram of the example long rural feeder

The first step in any study is to formally tabulate the network performance and predict the
improvement in performance with extended control. Present performance levels are usually
determined from outage records, which are used to calibrate reliability-based planning models
used for predicting performance under different Automation Intensity Level (AIL). The results of
this preparatory analysis gave the following results shown below for increasing levels of
automation, where

AIL Level 0 No extended control

AIL Level 1 Addition of extended control and auto close to the source circuit breaker

AIL Level 2 Supplement Level 1 with addition of extended control to normally open
switch

AIL Level 3 Supplement Level 2 with addition of extended control to midpoint switch

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AIL Level 4 Supplement Level 3 with addition of extended control to 10 in line switches
And the data used in this calculation were as follows:

Temporary fault rate is 72 faults per 100 km pa

Permanent fault rate is 24 faults per 100 km pa

Switching time for manual switches is 1, 1.5 or 2 hours depending on the distance from
the source

Switching time for all remote-controlled switches is 10 minutes

Repair time for all line faults is 5 hours

2. Crew Time Saving


Crew time savings (CTS) was considered to be one of the primary benefits to be obtained
and was selected as the first benefit to estimate. The savings were calculated over a 10-year
period at an interest rate of 6%.
Inspection of the circuit diagram shows that the selected feeder has three ends and two
normally open points (NOPs). According to the formula, its NCF (Network complexity factor) is
3.
The length of this circuit is 43.6 km, and the permanent fault rate is 24 faults per 100 km
per year, and the temporary fault rate is 72 faults per 100 km per year. The utility crew costs 84
USD per hour and, taking into account the local terrain, an average speed of 20 km per hour is
appropriate. We can now calculate Crew Distance travel D(m) for each automation intensity as
shown in Table 9.2 and apply this to the formula from Section 8.9.3.

AIL 0 No extended control (initial condition or base case):


D(m) is 1.27; therefore, annual cost is
72

2 1.27 43.6 43.6 84 100 20 = 14,601$

AIL 1 Auto close and extended control of source breaker only:


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D(m) is 0.96; therefore, annual cost is


2 0.96 43.6 43.6 84

24
1

= 3679$
100 20

AIL 2 Extended control of source breaker and NOPs:


D(m) is 0.62; therefore, annual cost is
2 0.62 43.6 43.6 84

24
1

= 2379$
100 100

AIL 3 Extended control of source breaker, one switch and NOPs:


D(m) is 0.47; therefore, annual cost is
2 0.47 43.6 43.6 84

24
1

= 1801$
100 20

AIL 4 Extended control of all switches and NOPs:


D(m) is 0.31; therefore, annual cost is
2 0.31 43.6 43.6 84

20
1

= 1188$
100 20

It is interesting to see that, at least for this long rural overhead feeder, the benefits over
10 years exceed the capital costs up to AIL 3, from which we can conclude that, in this example
at least, the investment in extended control is clearly justifiable.

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III.

Advantages and Disadvantages

1. Advantages
The benefits of DA accumulate in areas that are related to investments, interruptions and
customer service, as well as in areas related to operational cost savings, as given below:
Reduced line loss: The distribution substation is the electrical hub for the distribution
network. A close coordination between the substation equipment, distribution feeders and
associated equipment is necessary to increase system reliability. Volt/VAR control is
addressed through expert algorithms which monitors and controls substation voltage
devices in coordination with down-line voltage devices to reduce line loss and increase line
throughout.
Power Quality: The substation RTU in conjunction with power monitoring equipment on
the feeders monitors, detects, and corrects power-related problems before they occur,
providing a greater level of customer satisfaction.
Reduce Capital Expenses: A preventive maintenance algorithm may be integrated into
the system. The resulting ability to schedule maintenance, reduces labor costs, optimizes
equipment use and extends equipment life.
Energy cost reduction: Real-time monitoring of power usage throughout the distribution
feeder provides data allowing the end user to track his energy consumption patterns,
allocate usage and assign accountability to first line supervisors and daily operating
personnel to reduce overall costs.
Optimal energy use: Real-time control, as part of a fully-integrated, automated power
management system, provides the ability to perform calculations to reduce demand
charges. It also offers a load-shedding / preservation algorithm to optimize utility and
multiple power sources, integrating cost of power into the algorithm.
Economic benefits: Investment related benefits of distribution automation came from a
more effective use of the system. Utilities are able to operate closer to the edge to the
physical limits of their systems. Distribution automation makes this possible by providing
increased availability of better data for planning, engineering and maintenance.

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Improved reliability: On the qualitative side, improved reliability adds perceived value
for customer and reduce the number of complaints. Distribution automation features that
provide interruption and customer service related benefits include load shedding and other
automatic control functions. Operating cost reduction are achieved through improved
voltage profiles, controlled VAR flow, repairs and maintenance savings, generation fuel
savings from reduced substation transformer load losses, reduced feeder primary and
distribution transformer losses, load management and reduced spinning reserve
requirements.
2. Disadvantages
Need a huge variety of technologies produced by multiple vendors
Most DA applications require significant technical and financial investment
DA require two-way communication
DA require microprocessor together with communication network and some relevant
software programming
Expensive installation and component

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IV.

Conclusion and recommendation

In this report, a broad overview of the development of Distribution Automation concepts


based on the Distribution Systems. Thus, implementation requires careful planning and evaluation.
Changes and improvements have to be made step-wise and evaluated continuously. At the same
time , the concept demands that DA systems is viewed as a whole and that the strategic goals are
pursued efficiently, as well as to ensure that the system concept have a high degree of flexibility
in order to meet future needs.
There are several reasons why we need distribution automation systems. Until now, the
electric power industry has made remarkable progress in both quantity and quality. But, it is
expected that social demand for better services would be requested. The main function of DA is
the remote control of switches to locate, isolate the fault and restore the service, when a fault occurs
in the power distribution line. Now, distribution automation has to address enhancements in
efficiency as well as reliability and quality of power distribution. Today utilities are more
concerned about improving reliability due to the implementation of performance based rates and
improving power quality due to its impact on sensitive loads. Further, Specific tools that need
attention for implementation of advanced distribution automation (ADA) include tools for cost
and benefit evaluation, system analysis, and reliability evaluation.

V.

References
1. Juan M Gers, Distribution System Analysis and Automation, Power and Energy Series 68
2. A text book of electric power distribution automation
3. James Northcote-Green and Reber Wilson,Control and Automation of Electrical Power
Distribution Systems
4. http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/8-major-advantages-of-distribution-automation
5. http://www.schneider-electric.us/documents/customers/utility/br-distribution-feederautomation.pdf

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VI.

Meeting report

1. Location and Time


-

On 09 November 2015 at 7:30 am to 11am , Institute of Technology of Cambodia

On 21 November 2015 at 7:30 am to 11am, Royal University of Phnom Penh

On 22 November 2015 at 2:00 pm to 5 pm, Institute of Technology of Cambodia

On 27 November 2015 at 2:00 pm to 5 pm, Royal University of Phnom Penh

On 03 December 2015 at 7:30 am to 11 am, Institute of Technology of Cambodia

2. Participation
There are four members in this group, we divided each point for each member for
researching, and then we discuss for our points.
-

LIM Lefong: Research on Introductions such as overview, objective and scope of work.

KY Chmno: Research on Constructional feature, How does it work?, Operation

Ly Senghuo: Research on Application, maintenance procedures.

LAK Sivcheng: Research on Case study, advantage, disadvantage, Conclusion,


Recommendation, Reference and Meeting Report.

3. Discussion
We discuss about the main point of the Distribution Automation. First, we discuss about
how many point that we will chose to present? Then we decide to take some main point to
discussion such as process, application, maintain, equipment and other points.
4. Outcome/Future work
Outcome: After finish this report, we can get more knowledge from them:
-

We get knowledge from team member

Know how to work in group

We know clearly about the objective of the report

We know main point such as process, application, equipment and how it use for public.

Future work
-

We will research more over we can

We will make a brighter than before

We try all our best to make a better work in the future

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