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A brief study of the Von Karman Flow, which is a flow around a circular cylinder.

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Ahmed Lamine TOUMI and Kouider BENMOUSSA

University of Sciences and Technology Houari BOUMEDIENNE.

Abstract: Flow past a circular cylinder between two parallel walls becomes

unstable around low Reynold numbers (Re=40). With a numerical simulation,

COMSOL Multiphysics, it was possible to calculate steady (but unstable) solutions

for different Reynold numbers. It was found that the region which contains the

vortices grows in length approximately with the Re number.

Keywords : von Karman flow, COMSOL, Vortex street.

I.

Introduction

II.

an obstacle like a circular cylinder

is the subject of this paper. The

flow is Poiseuille in the absence of

the obstacle and the phenomena

associated to the presence of the

cylinder are studied.

The most relevant feature of this

flow, at different Re numbers

starting from 40, is the instability

known as Vortex shedding, or von

Karman Vortex Street.

Several

experimental

results

about this subject have been

reported at moderately high

Reynolds numbers, in a turbulent

regime (Bearman and Zdravkovich

1978; Grass et al. 1984; Taniguchi

and Miyakoshi 1990; Lei, Cheng

and Kavanagh 1999). Other few

studies are in progress by Mr.

Gad-El-Hak, Mr. Bouabdallah,

and Mr. Oualli.

Flow

around

a

circular immersed in

a uniform flow

motion of incompressible viscous

fluid indicates that the inertia

force, pressure, and viscous force

are in equilibrium.

= +

velocity vector, t is the time, p is

the pressure, and is the

coefficient of viscosity.

A fluid flow analysis aims to

determine a relationship between

pressure, and velocity by solving

the precedent equation.

The ratio of inertial forces and the

viscous one can be defined as a

new non-dimensional variable

named Reynolds number, written

as

and Brighton since 1999 are

shown in the next figure

the upper region rotates clockwise,

this

phenomena

is

called

generation

of

vortices.

By

increasing the Re number more,

the length of the vortex increases.

By exceeding Re=150, the vortex

becomes unstable as shown in the

figure. By reaching 3000, the

vortices are mixed together, and

the flow behaves very irregularly,

this phenomenon is called the

turbulent regime. However its

opposite is called Laminar flow.

Next figure is a schematic

description of what happens right

on the obstacle

circular cylinder

generated for Reynolds numbers

respectively 5, Re<40, 40<Re<150,

300<Re<3e5, Re<3.5e6, Re>3.5e6.

shown in the next page, named

figure 3. These results were

obtained by increasing Reynolds

number in a steam of oil behind a

circular cylinder. The figure

describes Homanns experience,

1936.

numbers the shape of every

streamline is symmetrical not only

around the cylinders upper to

lower side, but also around its

front. As Re number increases, the

front symmetry disappears, and

the streamlines widen. As it Re

III.

Vortex shedding

flow as described previously is

vortex shedding phenomenon,

which is common to all flow

regimes with Re bigger than 40. In

which the boundary layer over the

cylinder surface separates sue to

the pressure gradient imposed by

the divergent geometry As a result

a shear layer appears, figure 4

explains this.

Figure 5. Process of Vortex Shedding

V.

normalized with the flow velocity

U, the cylinder diameter D, and

Reynolds number, is given by the

next relation, called Strouhal

number

= ()

In which

=

The vortex shedding first appears

at Re=40, Strouhal number is

approximately

0.1,

than

it

increases as Re increases, to attain

a value of 0.2 for Re=300, than it

remains

practically

constant

(about 0.2).

separation.

IV.

Mechanism

shedding

Vortex

shedding

frequency

of

are unstable for great Reynolds

numbers.

Consequently,

one

vortex grows larger than the other.

Mr. Gerrard have explained this

since 1966 as follows

The larger vortex A becomes

strong enough to draw the

opposing vortex B across the wake,

as shown in figure 4.this is when

the larger vortex is shed, and it

gets convected downstream by the

flow. Next, a new vortex C is

created at the same side of A, and

the vortex B plays the role of

vortex C. and the process

continues in an alternation.

VI.

Analysis model

shown in figure 5. The fluid was

assumed to be water at 293 K

temperature, and the density was

1000 (kg/m^3) and the coefficient

of viscosity was 1.002e-3 (Pa.s),

the diameter of the cylinder was

Conclusion

Re=100.

The next figure shows the solution

of this problem for a series of

times

circular cylinder immersed in a

uniform flow is an object of study,

many numerical analysis were

performed with large Reynolds

numbers. The results found have

confirmed

those

earlier

experimental

ones.

As

a

consequence, we have obtained a

comprehensive knowledge that can

be applied to modern problems.

Simulation)

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