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Mass Communication Models
in the Information War
Vugar Aliev
(Azerbaijan)
Abstract: In this scientific article, the author gives enlarged view media as the
biggest means of influence to society, which to have manipulation with minds and
to direct information flow. Information war process quite actively continues in
the world. Attitude to this process is unequivocal. Therefore process of information war itself combines quite negative features. Analysis of these features is
important from view of to determine government policy of ensuring information
security. In connection with it, author at the same time gives information about
Conference International Federation of Journalists in Seoul, 2001 y., which had
been dedicated to problem of the media monopolization in global information
environment.
Keywords: information, mass communication, media, war, models, politics.
Introduction
The standard model of communication received by everyone consists of the
following elements: an encoding source –
opening of information code – news receiver. What do we need this complete
technical term “encoding” for? The thing is
that a frequent transition to the information is followed by certain delays. And
due to this, the initial text undergoes different changes. Let’s give some examples:
The President makes speech according to
the text written by the subsidiary group.
So, in this case, the information we get and
main initial thoughts read by the president,
have already been encoded. That is, the
president’s speech is not extempore, but
already known beforehand.

The same text can be differently encoded, depending on the communication
channels or audience. A simple example:
the speech about a bill or law made in the
parliament, or the speech on the same
theme made in the youth talk-show.
A certain idea cannot be realized only in
the form of the text. It happens by an elucidation of the text or events in different
ways. For example, in order to draw attention to his plant, the manager can publish
an article, organize an exhibition, collect
certain amateurs (of beer, fat and etc.) to
the plant side and thus, he can draw attention to himself.
1. Method of approaching
During the propaganda they sometimes

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use false news resources as well as refer to
them like a real document and even republish them. As an example, we can show
the article from an Indian newspaper of the
former Soviet period, which was about the
creation of AIDS virus in the Pentagon
laboratories. Later on, our mass-media
began to publish the very information referring to the Indian resource. No matter
which approach we make to this scheme,
we can’t, but see certain difficulties the
communicator has. And this process conveys a dynamic character, however, sometimes it becomes clear what impedes its
finishing. This happens when it has already
finished and one can neither repeat nor
change it. Freizer Zeutel mentions some of
the mistakes often made in the communication sphere (Roggers, 1997, pp. 182183):
- Bad audition – listening should be active, by the way, there are special courses
of teaching active listening in the West;
- The concentration upon the theme is
not an organization which people are interested in, but it is what they’ll gain.
That’s why the approach should take into
account the interest of the audience and it
should be the “you” approach;
- According to the false information collection and diverse communication researches, scattered information arranges
65% of straightly spoken one. When people
receive information, the speaker’s motions,
gestures, eye contacts, as well as, his ability
to use the silence and etc. assume importance.
- Inability to write distinctly and a wellwritten text – require special ability. It may
often seem to a writing man that he can do
everything well. Nevertheless the reader
doesn’t feel this;
- Lack of understanding the audience –
the information must meet the requirements, character and needs of the concrete
audience;
- Not taking into consideration the fact
of a two-sided communication process – as
a matter of fact, informing process doesn’t

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mean communication yet, a feedback plays
more important role here;
- Forgetting common courtesy rules –
behaving politely and within interests of
the audience will give more positive results
than the rough and aggressive treatment of
the connector (communicator).
Willcocks and Nolte consider the following requirements to be important in
their effective speech (Seitel, 1992, pp.
409-410):
- The speech is listened to, but isn’t
read, so purely communicative requirements occur. For instance, if the listener
doesn’t understand anything, he “can’t go
back” and understand it again;
- The speech shouldn’t be suitable for
the audience. Here the factors of age, profession, education, religion, interest, attitude, as well as the level of profit, belonging to any organization should be taken
into consideration;
- The speech should be specific – it is
because of the listeners’ absent-mindedness keeping few details in their mind,
that’s why the chance of “remaining of
concrete sentences stuck in their brains”
plays the main role;
- The speech should not be acted upon
by the audience reaction – if the speech
doesn’t have an influence on anybody, if no
one needs this speech, then the speaker
can’t reach his/her goal. It means a new
kind of information is needed so that listeners could get necessary emotions from
it;
- The speech made must have a goal
and it means there is necessity to persuade,
to warn and to celebrate success;
- The speech made should fit the time –
it means it must provide new information.
According to Carl Fon Clauzevitsin– a
well-known German general’s (1780-1831)
saying, “A war is the continuation of politics by other means”. This saying has already turned into the common truth received by all for a long time. Dynamic relations and making obey for the ruling and
struggle for the power, surely belong to the

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sphere of general psychological relations.
All these factors are followed by different
psychological influence of people to oneanother. And what is the difference between the usual war (armed struggle) and
psychological one?
There are two main conceptions of the
“psychological war”: firstly, according to
professionals, in the psychological war an
existence of appropriate specialists with
their scientific knowledge and special
training and secondly, psychological conceptions, an expedient and influential force
for people are meant. The information that
is spoken about is the psychological influence of one country to another one, its
special organs, civil population and intends
to reach its military aims. The official psychological war against any foreign country
is led not only by the president’s sanction
and the advice of the government and national security. Actually, in the countries
with the weak legislative power, the psychological war is led with the help of the
mass-media, certain groups (as well as
transnational forces) or financed industrial
groups. Professionally organized psychological war was perfectly reflected in its
precise meaning and description in Sun
Tsin (XI century BC) – an ancient Chinese
philosopher and military man’s admonitions. They are followings:
1. To show all the good features of your
enemy like bad ones;
2. To involve the distinguished or impressive figures of your enemy in crime;
3. Despite the achievements of the authorities, to pull their leg and defame them
in public- where required;
4. To collaborate with the most outrageous and mean creatures for these purposes;
5. Create fights and conflicts with the
citizens of the country which carries out an
enmity with you.
6. Oppose the youth against the old.
7. Try to make obstacles for the government by all means.

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8. Make as many obstacles as possible
for the normal supplies of military spheres
and try to create disorder among them;
9. To tie up the servicemen by means of
music and songs, i.e., to influence them.
10. Do your best for your enemy to rise
up against their traditions, beliefs and
gods;
11. Use the morally depraved women to
weaken and knock the enemy down;
12. Don’t regret for the money given for
the gifts in order to get information from
the colleagues, be generous. Briefly saying,
don’t economize either money or promises,
as these show their real results.
In common, the term “psychological
war” is the means of intercourse for certain
type of people to seize the power over the
others and make them obey to their desire.
As long as the humanity exists, the psychological war will continue and be used. In
the long past people had influence on oneanother not only by means of words, but
intonation, gestures and mimics as well. At
present, there are plenty of opportunities,
based on both thousand-year experience
and nowadays technology, to affect human
brain.
The term “psychological war” should be
simply characterized like the following:
 The political activities of separate
people, groups, parties and movements.
 The candidates elected for various
elector posts, advertising activities, and
commercial firms.
 The struggle of groups or solitary
people, vying with one-another for the
leadership in industry, scientific establishments and other enterprises.
 The political, economic and cultural
confrontation of nations struggling with
one-another.
 The negotiations processes among
companies and organizations vying with
one-another.
Nowadays, different, economically developed countries unite with one-another
on the military and ideological sphere with
the purpose of psychological influence.

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According to its historical traditions, this
process gets into different forms in various
countries. In some countries, the psychological war is led by the experts who have
been trained well and provided, and have
the ability for psychological influence anywhere and at any time. Usually, these people have an access to the military forces
and special service agencies of the state
and can be used in a peace period, as well
as against their citizens in case of need.
Such kind of approach was used in the
USA, the Soviet Union, the Federative Republic of Germany and the China. In other
countries, shortened citizen staffs take part
in psychological wars (in a peace period).
When there’s no war, those men undertake
ideological problems the solution of which
is necessary within the interests of the
government and ministries of national
security. Great Britain, France, Switzerland
and other countries make such kind of
political teases.
Finally, in some countries, the political
diversion organs, mass media, and political
experts lead the psychological war; they
always conduct information propaganda to
follow the policy of their country. Such like
policy is realized in the South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia and the Philippines. Thus,
the psychological war consists of having an
effect on people’s psychology (on their
view-points, thoughts, moods, self-control)
as well as on the consciousness of the
masses and society by means of various
ways and methods.
Psychological influence can be realized
by means of various methods.
1. By personal psychological means,
for example, before the war any government tries, in accordance with its policy, to
form the patriotic sense and beliefs of its
people (particularly of the servicemen) by
means of the mass-media, and at the same
time a certain enemy tries to influence the
class-consciousness of the population and
especially the servicemen, only in compliance with its policy. For instance, the instigation of conflicts among the nations, crea-

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tion of discontent about the political and
economic steps of the government etc. As a
result, a moral-psychological tension arises
in people’s consciousness, and it affects the
mood of people and servicemen as well.
During the 1st and 2nd world wars, the governments all over the world did the same
in various military conflicts (in Korea, Vietnam, the Near East and other countries).
2. Psychological influence is realized
by military means. For example, the Soviet
Union placed its army on the borders of
China, Vietnam and Cuba for psychological
influence. The Soviet Union and the USA
used their armed forces for many times to
reach their political goals. The most primitive examples are: the systematic bombardments of Iraqi objects by the US Aviation, and an aviation application by NATO
against Yugoslavia. The question wasn’t
solved just by the force demonstration; the
military machine had already worked with
all its strength.
3. As the psychological influence, the
trade system and financial sanctions are
mostly used to strike an economical potential of the enemy. Such kind of economic
sanctions (including, on behalf of the UN)
were used against Iraq, Yugoslavia, Cuba,
Lebanon, the Sudan and other countries.
This method results in striking difficulties,
epidemics, hunger, and certainly mass
discontent for the great number of population.
4. Psychological influence can also be
realized absolutely by the political means.
For example, in January, 1999, the demonstrative marching called “Russian National
Unity” of the national organization under
the leadership of Barshakov in Moscow
caused great polemics among various political groups of Russia and increased the
confrontation among them.
In the mankind the organization of psychological war took a step during the
World War I. It comes across the period
during which appropriate structures were
created in Great Britain, the USA, France

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and Italy. Two elementary operations are
the basis of such propagandas:

Choosing and introducing the next
news collection to the population or rival
from the certain point of view.

Increasing or decreasing the essence of the events from the choice viewpoint.
These operations are based not on the
exaggerated influence power, but mainly,
on the trustworthy, reliably elucidated
events. Here, one can see the 2nd main
condition of trustworthiness in the professionalism of workers of the remarked
sphere. It is a typical mistake to correct the
enemy’s propaganda in the sphere of psychological war. In such a case, the images
of negative arguments and enemies are
animated in the listeners’ memory. Like in
advertisements, during the propaganda, a
propagandist is required to be positive, not
negative. The propagandist introduces just
his view-point. One of such professional
organizations was the Kirill Committee
created in the USA in 1917. It was just the
“civil variant” of the military structure.
And Kirill himself was the editor-in-chief
of a newspaper. Kiril’s belief for the president Woodrow Wilson gave him opportunity to continue his activities (It’s interesting that such kind of abnormal relations
play the role of significant element in
American bureaucratic structures, because
as a result of this, they work quite in a different way). After this, a lot of experts from
Kiril’s committee chose the public relations
sector. Such result was expected beforehand, as they had gained new knowledge in
the sphere of the active communication. Of
course, one cannot call this “an aggressive
step” and it’s difficult to use this method in
a peace period. By the way, most of the
experts of public relations sector dealt with
work like this during World War II. It was
quite impossible to do anything in the advertising sphere because of scarce commodities. During neither World War I
there was neither the radio nor TV in the
USA, therefore the information was mainly

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supplied by printing resources, pamphlets,
papers and newspapers. At the same time,
oral speech was also spread in this sphere.
Certain people made a 4-minute speech in
schools, churches and other places. As
Covvette and Donnel wrote, the tradition
of oral communication was created in this
way (Jowett,1993, p. 166). The texts of
those reports were given by means of
teleprograms from Kiril’s Committee mentioned above. Kiril himself called his world
“the bullets made of quite fightful paper”.
George Brown shows the following goals of
the likewise propaganda during the war
(Brown, 1963 p. 82): 1) Mobilizing the
hatred and direct it towards the enemy; 2)
Persuading your people for the truthfulness of your steps and protecting the
fighting spirit; 3) Developing the friendship with neutral countries and pretending
as if not only the allied powers are together
with us in this struggle, but also the other
countries will do their best for the potential
assistance; 4) Developing the senses of
friendship among people struggling together with us. According to the 2nd article,
it was an interesting practice to work with
the “neutrals” in special neutral halfcommittees. Well-known Britannians gave
the address of the half-committee to their
acquaintances as a result of which 250000
pamphlets, booklets and other resources of
this kind were spread from 1914 to 1918.
The fascist propaganda wasn’t so effective,
because the officers of the old school didn’t
believe in the significance of this job so
much. Hitler highly appreciated the political movement of the enemy during World
War I. And a certain part of the myth created by the fascists was that, the German
army was undefeatable in the battlefield,
one could defeat only by means of some
“mean” methods. During World War II, the
fascist propagandists violated the rules of
policy by attacking BBC commentators and
abusing their names: G.Brown wrote that if
the enemy’s thoughts were attacked, it
meant that superiority wasn’t on your side.
And that was just to attract attention and

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make an impression of what would be said
“Crowing means there is a cock” (“There is
no fog without fire”). There’s just one way
to justify oneself in defense position and
it’s the following: if enemy’s attack is very
dangerous, it will make more favor than
harm to answer the attack. Using three
radio-stations for this purpose, the fascists
pretended as if they broadcasted the news
from the territories of Great Britain. What
attracted attention was on behalf of whom
they spread information? One of these
stations was called Radio Caledonia and
the broadcast was against England by the
Scottish nationalists. The other ones called
themselves “worker” and represented the
lefts protecting their interests. The third
ones were called New Britain Radiobroadcasting and made programs like BBC.
In this way they introduced their thoughts
to the listeners. There were analogical radio stations broadcasting in France as well.
The Allies began to use such “black” stations only at the end of the war. The counter-propaganda of BBC was based on the
interesting rule as it was used to spread
information for the USSR from “The Voice
of America”. The information from the
occupied France was broadcasted by the
voice of the French speaker. But for the
fascists the English announcer spoke instead of German one. The main reason was
to make listeners not think the speaker was
betrayer or Jewish. And sometimes the
speakers spoke with an accent of “The
Voice of America” so that the listeners
wouldn’t take the speaker for “the refugee”.
Psychologists thought that a man with
accent was trusted in more.
In his book “Mein Kampf”, Hitler suggested some principal rules for preventing
abstract ideas during the propaganda: using usual phrases, it’s necessary to repeat
some ideas in consecutive order; it’s important to look through the arguments
unilaterally; always criticize the enemy of
the state; choosing one of the enemies, try
to introduce him to have weakened completely.

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Goebbels also briefly expresses the rule
of simplifying; this method is being used in
public relations propaganda at the present
moment, too. He wrote: “The masses are
usually more primitive than we imagine.
That’s why, the propaganda should be
simple and likewise. In this boring contest,
achieving successful results is possible only
when all the problems are explained in
simple terms. If a man attempts more and
always repeats the same things in a simple
way, despite the intellectuals’ objection he
can gain success” (Gersteyn, 1996, p. 33).
Hitler wrote in “Mein Kampf”: “Introducing the propaganda wrongly is manyfeatured” (Gersteyn, 1996, p. 91). The radio was the main resource for Hitler in
leading the foreign propaganda. The biggest radio-war was led by him against Austria in 1933 when he called the population
to overthrow the existing government. The
radio was used more during the voting in
Saara in 1936. Goebbels sent a great number of cheap radios to the country in order
to increase the propaganda movement. In
general, spoken words were more characteristic for the fascist propaganda. “Goebbels used Hitler’s words “Oral speech is the
key of the past revolutionary movement”.
Goebbels especially remarked several
names, except Lebo’s name. Moreover,
some of the names were just his addition:
Mohammed, Christ, Buddha, Zoroaster,
Robespierre Danton, Mussolini, Lenin,
Napoleon, Sezar, Alexander. The mentioned men were considered to be revolutionary speakers and introduced as the
brilliant personalities with organizational
talent” (Gersteyn, 1996, p. 75). Kertstein
wrote in other resource: “The fascists often
mentioned Frederich the Great and Napoleon, because their enthusiastic speech for
the warriors assisted the battles to come to
an end successfully” (Gersteyn, 1996, p.
186). There was organized a Headquarter
which, dealing with the speakers’ affairs,
united the structures like “Speakers’ Organization” and “News Agency for Speakers”. The official magazine “Our Will and

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Way” gave detailed information about the
techniques, members, goals and achievements of the fascist propaganda.
It was written there that the important
element in propaganda system had been
and would always be the speakers and
meetings. Within the fascist Reich frame
simple illustrated posters and notes written in syllables were widely used. Hitler
liked this method very much. The communication was connected in such way at that
time and the swastika – the emblem of
fascists, was described in the posters. Hitler admired this symbol because of its simplicity and effectiveness. Goebbels gave
special place to emotions and heroism in
his speech. Doing that, he thought that
they could conquer the hearts only in that
way. On the poster used before the elections in 1928, the silhouette of the soldier
killed during World War I was described
and it wrote: “National socialist or we
didn’t sacrifice us in vain”. In Hitler’s company against Hindenburg in 1932, the main
attention turned towards the posters, papers and brochures. There were a lot of
severe satires in the posters. They were
beautiful pictures drawn in very fascinating color tinges. Hitler’s enemies were
described like the embodiment of evil, and
Hitler himself was described like a rescuer
angel supporting the insulted Germany.
Such posters could be seen everywhere: on
the walls of the buildings, on the newsstands, on the windows of the party buildings, on everybody’s windows who liked
Hitler. The themes of the posters were very
clear and they were based on two strong
emotions: hatred and idealizing. During
the war Hitler’s propaganda realized the
idea of “The Slogan of the Week”. It was
necessary to change the expositions sent to
every region, as soon as the new ones had
been created. In 1943, Goebbels’s calling
for the total war found its place in the special poster propaganda. On the poster, the
following words describing Goebbels’s
superiority were written: “Victory or the
Bolshevik chaos?”, “Difficult Time, Diffi-

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cult Labor, Sound Heart!” One could see
millions of big (sometimes of size 90x150
sm.) posters all over the Reich: on the buses, on the trains, on the shop-windows, on
the facades of the buildings. Namely, that
year, a new stream of posters, the last in
the history of Reich III, appeared. In all of
them, there was a sentence “Adolf Hitler –
means Victory” (Gersteyn, 1996, p. 258259).
Unlike the defeat in the propaganda
sphere during World War I, propaganda
researchers thought that during World
War II, Hitler won propaganda, though he
was defeated in battle-field. Goebbels
(B.Bruce called him “The First Imagemaker”) stated the following among his services: “making ready the form and techniques in open
party ceremonies”, “creating a myth about
Hitler” (Gersteyn, 1996, p. 57).
The technological rules, which have a
social significance in the society, originate
from the mass communication. William
Hamson -the American professor considers that various social groups introduce the
reasons of happening of this or another
event to the society on their own way and
model of explanation (Hamson, 1989).
W.Hamson suggested his own model concerning the mass communication and
named it “constructive”. He sees directly
two old variants of the communicative
model in our century. The first one is
called “the maximal effect”. Researchers
took the following factors basic for the
successful use of the communication once
upon a time:
1. The success of the propaganda systematically manipulating consciousness on
a mass scale during the World War I. By
the way, Hitler, who was under the influence of his rivals’ success, used it in his
propaganda, too.
2. Creation of “public relations” in the
industry – the exact analysis of 1926, as
well as the newspapers of that time showed
that 57% of the first newspaper’s information and 47% of the second one’s bene-

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fited due to the work by the specialists of
this sphere.
3. The total control of the USSR over
Germany. Taking into consideration this
fact, researchers have come to such a conclusion that communication influences
people like the injection made under the
skin, and it is quite irresistible.
The second model is called “the minimal effect model”. It appeared in the postwar period. The factors forming the remarked model can be called in following
ways:
1. Perception of certain things. People choose not all the information, but
which corresponds to their thoughts, and
reject the rest of it. A practice was held
related to this matter. So, there was an
attempt to change the information about
the UNO in Cincinnati city of Ohio state. If
before this campaign, 30% of the adults
didn’t know anything about this organization, after training the population with
brochures, pamphlets, posters etc., during
a half-year, the ignorant of the UNO
formed altogether 28% (1, p. 145).
2. Transition from the treatment of
people as a social molecule into the treatment as an individualized atom. During
the World War II, the propaganda of the
Allies continued until the view against the
fascism was changed. The Fascists preferred the norms in a group more than the
individual norms. The Allies got across
from the propaganda “You save just yourself
by avoiding the Army” to “You save your family
by avoiding the Army” one.

3. The political behavior during the
elections. The researchers of the election
technology began to pay attention to the
resisting public phenomenon since 1960s.
At that time, the conclusion was the following: it was impossible to change the election thoughts. Neither money, nor struggle
could help it, you could only hope for those
who hadn’t given the last decision yet. These two models – the maximal/minimal
effect models – can be understood like
drawing attention to the source (in the

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maximal model conception – everything is
in the hand of the mass-media), or focus
on the information receiver (the problem is
namely like this in the minimal model conception).
W.Hamson suggests his new communicative model, being guided by a number of
new traditions which are realized in the
communication process. Taking into the
consideration an unstriking effect of the
mass-media, he remarks the following
suggestive parts:

to work taking into account “the
idea of the day”, help people to know the
truth, as the media does;

A job in the competition of the
Presidential year: it means that the media
here affects people’s evaluation.

the silence spiral phenomenon – as
the media, representing the rights of minority shows, makes the majority feel
themselves like minority and avoid from
telling their words openly, in public;

the cultivating effect, it happens
when the artistic TV affects the politicians’
manipulation by propagating the strength
on a mass scale.
W.Hamson writes the followings about
his model: “The constructive approach
makes the main processes clear. It is based
on the cognate psychology – schemes, cognate cards, as well as the model and script
of a political thought”. W.Hamson notes
two levels of function his model. They are
the cultural and cognitive levels. In the
first level, the metaphor, visual image,
morals are mentioned. This level is characterized by the mass-media. The cognitive
level is related to the general opinion. The
usage of the received information in live
experiments and the psychological state of
everybody plays an important role here. As
a result of mutual influence of the remarked two levels on each-other, the
communication gains the social-constructive meaning. These two levels exist
parallel. One of the systems has influence
on the other one: media becomes a part of
this process, because by means of its help,

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individuals become aware of the events’
essence, and the other part of this process
is the public opinion, by means of which
the journalists and other cultural entrepreneurs develop the essence of the events
in general discussions and work it up
(Hamson, 1989, p. 2).
There is a struggle for the interpretation
and reinterpretation of events in the massmedia. The Ukraine events may be cited as
an obvious example: a) white brotherhood
– with the eyes of the participants and
rivals; b) the newspaper wars about the
role of the authorities in providing the
Ukraine with gas process, in September,
1996. The active participation was used in
the search of the frame, scenario and artistic intellect. It was already found out that
the conception of a text machine modeling
required not changing its language only,
but changing the action model as well. The
conceptions “I’ve got a headache. So I need
walking a little” had no any connection
with each-other for a machine. The frame
doesn’t make strictly remarked spaces
strike somebody’s attention, it puts together the collection of positions like elasticity
which is possible within the given frame.
W.Hamson remarks the existence of freeman symbols in the discussion, as well. It
means it’s possible to replace a big article
just with a certain symbol. Five means of
such type are taken into consideration:
metaphor, examples, widely spread
phrases, visual light and collection of described images. As an example, the historical situations can be shown. For example,
during an adoption of the Constitution,
when Pilin Orlick referred to the Constitution, L.Kravchuk appeared with his symbolic truth. Even there were G.Udovenko
and S.Khmar’s “digital” efforts. As an example for the image situations, one can
show the starved, those seeking for food in
dust-bins, or begging in passages and
transport. If we look through the interpretation of Russian mass-media for the
Chechnya events, we’ll see the following
expressions: “Chechen mafia”, “people of

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the Caucasian nationality who create gang
bands” etc. And this approach exactly results in the violation of norms. If we approach the historical examples from the
other side, we can see that Russia isn’t able
to gain real victory in Caucasus. And this
practice comes from Afghanistan. The visual image of this sight is that the Russian
soldiers are always introduced in a strange
form: i.e., without certain form. As if they
are teenagers who really don’t know why
they’ve become a playthings of a destiny.
W.Hamson suggests three possible means
of discussion: referring to the reason, result and principle. Each political question
requires a political discourse consisting of
the support of constructive meanings and
symbols. It was organized in the form of
the special covers which have internal
structure. And in the main point of its essence, stands the idea or frame which is
mainly organized for the execution of appropriate events. The frame deals with
what the given problem is about. It answers the question “what is the reason and
interest for the creation of the main problem?” In this conception, media-discourse
becomes the sum total of interpretations
which explain the aims of the problems.
The attractiveness is that the media pays
attention to the events in a new frame,
giving its own interpretations for the new
events.
Formation and improvement of the
meanings give new colors to it at every
step. And three means give grounds for it:
cultural resonators, activities of the sponsors and practical mass-media. Not all the
symbols have the same potential in the
development of the events. People pay
more attention to some of them. Therefore
they are called cultural resonators. Such a
cover seems natural and close to everybody. For example, for the Americans, the
ideas of effectiveness and luxury are accepted as the natural resonators. A creative
man composing stories about Thomas
Edison, Benjamin Franklin becomes a cultural hero in such a society. At the same

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time, each theme has an opposite one. If
progress in a story is connected with a new
technology, in the other one, Henry, Toro,
Emerson and their returning to the nature
makes resonance. As themes and opposite
ones have cultural roots, we should confess
that the members of the remarked culture
have both of them. Resonance with both of
them is useful. The existence of the sponsors for this or other covers, as well as their
efforts in forging ahead for their purposes
represent sponsors’ activities. These organizations are usually used to simplify the
strengthening their contacts more with
journalists. They can talk to journalists in
their own professional language, at the
same time, they use the maintenance of
their communications for the favor of their
organizations. It means, these are collective talks. Common organizations, by
means of this method, try to mobilize their
potential adherents and demobilize their
enemies in accordance with various situations. In summer, 1996, the miners’ strike
was commented by the Ukrainian authorities and regions where miners lived.
The activeness of sponsors, however,
doesn’t mean the passiveness of journalists. Business norms and the practice of
journalists add valuable factors to this
process. Even if the official view-point is
the most important, such journalists are
always able to begin with this view-point
and then add their own ones to the next
stage of the events. On the other hand, the
use of the information in official channels
fits the interests of the journalists, too.
So, in 1973, during the check-ups related to the information coming to the journalists on the channels, it was found out
that only ¼ part of the information of
journalists was gained in the result of their
free reporter investigations and analysis.
The journalists could give 60% of the information, including conservative channels, press-releases, press conferences and
official meetings. Covers work during the
combinations of the cultural resonators
and discussions of the mass-media. It is

p.217-228

also reflected in the efficiency of sponsors
in accordance with the practice of journalists. There is a special scheme of working
up “the incomplete truth” within the cognitive level and there exist prognoses like
“what’ll happen later” together with the
main and initial hope. Working according
to schemes involves us to pay special attention to certain types of information and at
the same time ignore other details.
Schemes teach us what is necessary and
what it means. According to a certain
scheme, we follow what we hear in a hurry,
and have difficulty in understanding, so we
can’t succeed in it well. Schemes and covers convey parallel functions. Like in covers, there is a main frame in a scheme too.
It consists of symbols which briefly describe the sum total of the positions related
to it. The difference between the main
thoughts is the level of analyzing it: those
which are on the cultural level, are concerning the social discourse, the other ones
are those which are perceived freely. Receiving the scheme which was introduced
in connection with the nuclear energy,
W.Hamson considered its discussion and
analysis to be expedient. During 10 years,
the visual sight of the nuclear “mushroom”
was seen just four times in the US materials. The nuclear destructions were also
demonstrated few times, although such
kind of dangers were obviously reflected
quite enough in the understanding scheme
of the people of an average level. What’s
interesting is that the incident in Three
Mile Island was demonstrated by means of
cartoons which were familiar to people
from Chernobyl events. In one of them, a
two-headed announcer was described, and
one of the heads tells the other through the
screen: “the governmental experts persuade us that it isn’t worth to worry about
the nuclear incident, is it, Bob?”, and the
second head approves it, confusing everybody sitting in front of the TV screens.
There are various anecdotes about twoheaded Ukraine Emblem, as well. In this
situation, the description of a certain cover

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is analyzed like this. The Chernobyl subject
repeated the given image on American
TVs. People began to check on the first
sight if the food had exposed to radiation
or not. The radiation was always demonstrated with red color on TV. W.Hamson
discovered his scheme of social meanings
creation and their activities, within special
and open discussions of the struggle which
was created in mass consciousness. It also
concerns the Ukraine where a struggle of
frames contradicting each-other is on and
seen more clearly during the passing period of the society. However, in spite of this,
J.Brown considers that propaganda or
advertising can either speed up the traditions or slow them down, but not change
them on quite the opposite direction.
Elizabeth Noel-Normann - the German
professor suggested her model called “silence spiral”, in the sphere of the society
opinion’s formation. Social surveys show
that the groups which are like-minded with
the majority are more inclined to tell their
thoughts and insist on their view-points in
common places. She especially remarks the
following among the factors which influence on our talkativeness: noticing the
ability to save the tradition, and the spirit
of time. And there is a private belief which
is appropriate to this: those who share
your view-points are either more up-todate and clever, or just good men (Journal
PSP, 1987, No.1, p. 57-58). Some social
groups tend to speak much, some tend to
speak less.
E.Noel-Normann explained the role of
mass communication means which are
disable to support their opinion, in such
way: “If a man can’t describe his opinion
by means of generally accepted expressions, he’ll get lost in silence and stay
“mute”” (Journal PSP, 1987, No.1, p. 245).
So it becomes clear that if the means of
mass communication just promises (like
the admiration for “The Untilled Land” by
Brejnev), the others will feel themselves in
minority (even when they are the majority)
and keep silence. In such a way, means of

p.217-228

mass communication can strengthen what
the society prefers, in their thoughts.
Thomas Patterson – the American professor introduced his conception about the
role of mass media in the formation of the
general opinion in the society (Houman,
1996). One of his hypotheses is more appropriate to use. As the party doesn’t develop well, media takes their role in front
of the society, getting ahead of the presidential elections. In T.Patterson’s opinion,
“the presidential elections are introduced
from the view-point like a run-sack competition, because the main attention of journalists turn not to the essence of the discussed questions, but towards the dynamic
discussions of the politicians. Nevertheless,
during the last twenty-four hours, changes
attract the main attention of the journalists
more than answering the questions which
differ the candidates much”. The scheme of
the game influences a certain part of journalists’ view because it corresponds to the
conventionality of the new process
(Houman, 1996). Thus, during 1992 elections in the US, in the center of “run-andsack competition” aspect there were 27% –
35% of innovations and 33% of people
were asked their general opinions. At the
same time politicians’ private questions
took 1/3 part of the time in 1992 and 1/5 in
1988. This tradition reflects itself in the
report of the candidates who make a
speech without a break as well. In 1960,
the average quotation of a candidate took
14 lines in the “New-York Times”, nevertheless, in 1992, this indicator got decreased for six lines. As a result, the journalists’ thoughts stand in the first place,
but not a candidate’s own thought or
words. A bad estimation of media plays
more important factor role than the opinion of the society. G.Bush was a “leader”
according to a bad estimation in media.
T.Patterson explains it indirectly by the
subjective political thoughts of the journalists. So, during the survey held by the journalists in 1992, it was found out that they
were pleased with the ideas of the Demo-

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cratic Party only in the correlation of one
to three, whereas in the pre-Reagan period
it was two to three. T.Patterson remarks
that the electors become depended on the
media for getting necessary information
about the candidates. But if a special importance is given to a certain theme, the
thoughts of candidates, journalists and
electors may differ from one-another. For
example, in 1992, a foreign policy was
Bush’s strong side, but other candidates
weren’t interested in that, that’s why they
stayed aside from communications.
Conclusion and Final Considerations. During the definition of the first
person, a candidate which aims to be a

p.217-228

leader in the future, steps aside, because
the negative moments of the candidate ‘s
life come to the first place. Thus, in 1992,
unlike all other candidates, Clinton was
published for 90% in his private characteristic sphere, for his love affairs with Jennifer Flower. Owing to the lack of the information about the candidate, it seems to
an elector that the candidate repeats the
position of his party. Investigations also
show that in most cases, electors quickly
forget the content of the information. They
just remember impressions about the information. And generally, it helps to make
sure of the fact that the emotional memory
of a man is more long-lived.

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