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Dear Students,
Welcome to our new Business Communications! We will be exploring the many areas of
communication as they pertain to the business world. We will be finding ways to make
our writing, speaking and listening more effective in an increasingly diverse and
multicultural society.
I look forward to a good semester and hope that we all come away from this course with
a greater appreciation of each other and the world of Business Communications.

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By Alison Baduel
Russian text by Irina Nagai

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Lesson 1
Career Paths, the Importance of Business Communications, and New Vocabulary
Lesson Introduction
Introduction to Business Communications
Business Communications can be considered any form of correspondence or attemped
correspondence between a company and any other person or entity. Business
communications can exist on various levels. It can include communications amongst a
certain companys employees, or communications between a company and its clients, and
it even includes communications between a business and other businesses that it interacts
with. These businesses can include governmental agencies, suppliers, distributors,
partners, etc. Business communications also entails all forms of communication from
verbal, non-verbal, to interpersonal formats of communication.
The Importance of Business Communications
Learning how to communicate successfully in the business world can help to ensure a
successful business. It is a stated fact that if a business is unable to communicate with its
customers, employees, or other businesses then it is certain that the business will not
survive for long in the marketplace. However, a business must not only be able to
communicate. It must also be able to communicate clearly, accurately, and in a manner
that conveys goodwill towards the audience whom is being addressed. Business
communications is crucial and it is a subject that should not be taken lightly. Even a
company with the finest product, the best employees, and the highest level of quality will
ultimately fail if they are unable to communicate well with others.
Class Discussion Exercise
These are possible areas that students may want to go into after graduation. Can the
students name at least one company for each business sector?

Banking and Finance
Vehicle Manufacturing
IT (Information Technology)/Electronics
Food and drink


Exercise A- The phrases below all include the word, career. Match them to their correct
meanings. Use a good dictionary to help you.
1) career ladder
a) something you do in order to progress your job
2) career move
b) period of time away from your job to, for example,
look after your children
3) career break
c) series of levels that lead to better and better jobs
4) career plan
d) chances to start/improve your career
5) career opportunities
e) ideas you have for your future career
Exercise B- Complete these sentence with the verbs from the box.







1) Employees in large multinationals ________ excellent career opportunities if they are willing
to travel.
2) Some people _________ a career break to do something adventurous like sailing around the
3) One way to __________ a career move is to join a small but rapidly growing company.
4) In some companies it can take years to ___________ the career ladder and reach senior
management level.
5) Certain companies ___________ career opportunities to the long-term unemployed or to
people without qualifications.
6) Ambitious people often ____________ on a career plan while they are still at school or
Exercise C- Look at the groups of words below. Cross out the noun or noun phrase which doesnt
go with the verb in each group.
1) make

a fortune
a living
a training course

4) do

a mistake
a job
your best

2) get

a promotion
the sack
a nine-to-five job

5) take

a pension
time off
early retirement
a break

3) earn

a bonus
a part-time job
40 thousand ($40,000)

6) work

anti-social hours
an office job

Exercise D- Make sentences using the phrases in Exercise C. For example, You can
make a fortune with a career in computers.

Tara Fashions Exercise for Business Communications Introductory Lesson

(Pg. 27 Ex. B of Course Book)
Tara Fashions is a relatively new fashion merchandiser who sells new and
innovative clothing worldwide. Its main office is located in Cordoba, Spain though the
company has many offices located all over the world. Tara Fashions has its largest
number of stores located in Spain and other European cities although they also operate in
large cities located in North America, South America, Asia, and North Africa.
In total, Tara Fashions operates in 57 countries and has 25 stores located in Spain
and another 42 stores located in other European cities. The number of stores that operate
outside of Europe is approximately 52. Most of Tara Fashions customers are people who
belong to the middle class or upper middle class income levels of various countries. Tara
Fashions does not target the middle class or lower class levels of the market though some
of their consumers do in fact belong to these classes. Most people who choose to
purchase clothing from Tara Fashions are those who are extremely fashion conscious and
want to wear the latest fashion trends from Europe.
In addition, Tara Fashions does not have a distributor. Instead the company
chooses to distribute its clothing only through its own stores. It does not sell its clothing
to retail companies. Tara Fashions is the producer and final distributor of its own
Tara Fashions is a relatively new company that has only been in business for the
past ten years now. The annual net profits of the company average around $12,000,000 a
year but recently there has been a sharp increase in production costs so the annual profits
of the company have suffered. Last years annual net profit for the company was only
$9,000,000 as a result of these changes in the marketplace and a high turnover rate. Due
to changes in the employment market and a surge of older employees retiring Tara
Fashions also recently encountered a record high turnover rate for the company. The
turnover rate for employees was approximately 10 percent. Due to these factors,
company profits also suffered this past fiscal year.
Tara Fashions is aware that it will face many more changes in the marketplace but
it is a company with various strengths. The company has found itself to be sustainable
and popular among consumers for the past ten years and has built a reputation as being
one of the most fashionable clothing producers in the world and many of the companies
consumers are extremely loyal to the clothing Tara Fashions produces. Tara Fashions has
also managed to secure one of the cheapest material distributors in the world and has
limited its production costs more so than other companies. In addition, Tara Fashions has
been able to make multiple deals with transportation companies that have enabled them
to ship more goods to their stores with less expense being incurred to them.
In the future, Tara Fashions plans to extend its product line and start producing
clothing accessories as well. The company is particularly interested in producing such
items as belts, purses, and jewelry. The company plans to sell these new products in their
stores along with their clothing products.

Questions for the Class to Answer about Tara Fashions:


Where is the head office?

What does it sell?
Who are its customers?
Annual Turnover?
Annual Net Profits?
Number of stores in total?
Number of stores in Spain?
Number of stores in other European cities?
Company Strengths? Future Plans?

Lesson 1: English Grammar Exercise

Working with Articles and Verbs
Correct the following incorrect sentences.
Example: My name Victor.

The corrct version is: My name is Victor.

1) I want that he called me.

2) Could you tell him call me?
3) I get him for you.
4) Hello. Im Vladimir Ivanov speaking.
5) Im sorr. The line busy.
6) Can I help to you?
7) He not here at the moment.
8) Can I taked a message?
9) Im sorry. He have a meeting.
10) Ill put you back immediately.

Lesson 2
Human Resources
Lesson Introduction
Human Resources
By definition, human resources are the individuals who work within your company.
These individuals form your company workforce and your workforce can be considered
the most important assest of your organization. The study of Human Resources spans
over a variety of topics from employee compensation, new employee recruitment, the
hiring/firing of employees, employee motivation, to career counseling. The basic idea of
human resources is that your employees are the most valuable asset of your company and
without a dedicated, capable, and motivated workforce your company will eventually fail.
In-Class Exercises
Are certain careers more suitable fore women than for men? Which do you consider for
women only? For men only? For either? Write down other careers that you think fall
into any of these categories.

Police Officer
Car Mechanic
Construction Worker

The London Underground Railway system recently wanted to hire more women as train
operators. The company placed an ad in a popular womens magazine called,
Cosmopolitan. Below is an article based upon The London Underground placing this
job advertisement in the magazine. Read the article below and answer the questions that

Magazine Article from the Daily Telegraph Newspaper by Paul Marston:

Cosmopolitan Readers Queue for Tube Job
More than 1,400 readers of Cosmopolitan have applied to become a London Tube
train driver. London Underground described the response to its single advert in this
months issue as exceptional.
Successful applicants will have to get out of bed for regular 4:45am starts, but the
27,650 (pounds) salary and up to eight weeks holiday pay may prove sufficient
Lorraine Candy, editor of Cosmo, said the interest her reads had shown
demonstrated that young women were not bound by traditional career patterns.
Its always been a classic thing for boys to want to be train drivers. Now were seeing
that girls can do it too, she said.
I dont think the job is boring or un-sexy and Im sure the passengers couldnt
care less whether the train is being driven by a man or a woman-as long as it its on time.
The ability to break bad news to travelers more sympathetically is one reason
London Underground is keen to increase its number of female drivers from 100- just
three percent of its driving staff.
Exercise A: What do these numbers in the article refer to?
a) 1,400
b) 4:45
c) 27,650
d) eight
e) one
f) 100
g) three
Exercise B: Answer the following questions about the reading.
1) How many adverts did London Underground put in Cosmopolitan magazine?
2) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the job?
3) What do passengers care the most about?
4) Why does London Underground want to hire more women?

In- Class Exercises

Exercise A: Rearrange the words in 1 through 9 to make questions from a job interview.
Then decide whether each question is making a request, making an offer, or asking about
1) get you can I anything?
2) details contact your confirm I could?
3) can you software package use this?
4) speak languages any other you can?
5) about tell you job us your present more could?
6) tell your current salary me you could?
7) start you when can?
8) would you as soon as possible your decision let us know?
9) like coffee some more you would?
Exercise B:
Match the questions in Exercise A with the interviewees answers below.
a) Its $43,000.
b) Yes, I use it a lot in my current job.
c) I can let you know next week.
d) Yes, a cup of coffee would be great, please.
e) Yes, the address is the same, but my e-mail has changed.
f) Id love some more. Thank you.
g) Well, I am currently responsible for European sales.
h) Yes, I can speak French and Spanish
i) My notice period is two months
Useful Terms and Language
Phone Conversation Dialogue:


Whos calling please?
Could you tell me what its about?
Im calling about
Ill put you through.
Could you tell him/her that I called?
Can you hold?
Could you ask him/her to call me back?
Im afraid that theres no answer. Can I take a message?

Vocabulary Words
1. Absenteeism
2. Application
3. Appointment
4. Background (Information)
5. Bonus
6. Career
7. Career Ladder
8. Compensation
9. Human resources
10. Job advertisement (Job Ad)
11. Job opening
12. Labor force/workforce
13. Labor union
14. Morale
15. Motivation
16. Overqualified
17. Overtime
18. Overwork
19. Promotions
20. Qualifications
21. To apply
22. To appoint
23. Turnover
24. Under-qualified
25. Unemployment
26. Unemployment rate
27. Unskilled
28. Workaholic
29. Workload


Lesson 2: English Grammar Exercise

Working with Antonyms
Exercise A: Match the words on the left with their antonyms on the right.
1) incorrect
2) interesting
3) terrible
4) last
5) answer
6) near-sighted
7) unhappy
8) clean
9) indoors
10) difficult
11) safe
12) cheap
13) fast
14) hate
15) noisy

a) dull
b) first
c) far-sighted
d) dirty
e) quiet
f) dangerous
g) outdoors
h) easy
i) correct
j) expensive
k) ask
l) like
m) happy
n) slow
o) wonderful

Exercise B: Find the antonyms for the words in the sentences on the left with the words
listed in the column on the right.
1) Mary is very tall.
2) John is quite thin.
3) The floor is wet.
4) Why are you so sad lately?
5) She is an elderly woman.
6) I know he is right about this.
7) This is a very narrow street.
8) The weather is getting much warmer.
9) This water is far too hot.
10) They are the same products.
11) Today has been a horrible day for me.
12) He is going to be early to class today.
13) We had gone on a long trip to the city.
14) This is a new book.
15) That car is the quickest one.
16) I bought a secondhand car yesterday.
17) You have a very small suitcase.



Lesson 3
Selling Online & Business Negotiations
Lesson Introduction:
Online Selling
With the continued rise in the the popularity and availability of the Internet many
companies have chosen to operate online in addition to operating in their traditional
stores in order to become more competitive and make more profitable. In addition to
traditional companies opening up online websites in order to sell their products, many
new companies have been created that operate only online and do not have traditional
stores where customers may go to and buy their products. These types of companies are
referred to as .com or .comers. It is important to understand how technology and the
use of the Internet has revolutionized the way companies do business. These days it is
extremely hard for a company to remain competitive and make large profits if they do not
operate online and are not technologically savvy.
Business Negotiations
By definition, negotiations are simply talks, discussions, or communications between
businesses about areas of business where two or more companies have a mutual concern.
Business negotiations take place often when companies are seeking to form a partnership,
create a new working relationship with one another, facilitate a company buyout, or
change the terms of previous contracts made with one another. There is an art to business
negotiations that company negotiators have learned to follow in order to be successful in
business negotiations. This art includes individuals knowing when and what to say and
how to convince others to either meet their demands or how to strike a compromise
where all parties involved are content with the outcome of the talks. Business
negotiations are a fine art that is mixed with an awareness of human behavior and
eloquent, convincing speech.

Some Information on
.Com Companies


Bad ideas dont get better online- IBM advertisement

.Comers said as dot comers are companies that are only online and are not inperson retailers.
.Com companies were very popular and made a lot of money in the late 1990s and
early 2000. However, many .com companies in the U.S. went out of business or failed
right after the September 11th attacks. Many .com companies that operate only online
are still struggling or going out of business.

Warm-up Questions

Do you enjoy shopping?

Do you shop online?
Have you ever bought something over the internet? If so, what?
Why do you think some people prefer not to buy goods and services over the
What are the advantages of shopping online?

Exercise A: Fill in the blank with the correct word.

1) We offer a _______ to customers who buy in bulk.
a) Refund
b) Discount
c) Delivery
2) We ask customers who are not fully satisfied to _______ their purchases within 7
a) Discount
b) Refund
c) Return
3) In order to get a full ______, customers must send back goods in the original
a) Discount
b) Refund
c) Return
4) Goods will be ______ within 24 hours of your order.
a) Dispatched
b) Purchased
c) Exchanged
5) Goods are kept in our _______ until ready for delivery.
a) Stock
b) Storage
c) Warehouse
Exercise B: Match the terms on the left to their definitions on the right.
1) Credit card details

A) The time when you can change

your mind and cancel an order


2) Cooling off period

3) Money back guarantee
4) Method of payment
5) Interest-free period
6) Out of stock
7) After-sales service

B) The name, number, and expiration

date on your credit card
C) The way you choose to buy the
goods you want
D) When you can pay some time after
you buy, but at no extra cost
E) When the goods you require are not
F) A promise to give you your money
back if you are not happy
G) The help you get from a company
when you start to use their product

The Arrival of Virtual Pocket Money,

an article from the Financial Times by John Willman
They like using the internet. They have lots of money to spend. And they spend a
higher proportion of it online than the rest of us. Teenagers are just the sort of people an
Internet retailer wants to sell to, and the things they want to buy-games, CDs, clothingare easily sold on the Web.
But paying online is a tricky business for consumers who are too young to own a
credit card. Most have to use a parents card. Kids are frustrated with the Web. Says
Phil Bettison, European Managing Director of WorldPay, an Internet payments company.
They want a facility that allows them to spend money.
That may come sooner than they think: new ways to take pocket money into
cyberspace are springing up on both sides of the Atlantic. If successful, these products
could provide an important stimulus to online sales.
In general, teenagers spend enormous amounts: Visa calculates it totaled $153
billion in the US last year, while the UK market estimated $29.4 billion. Most teenagers
have access to the Internet at home or at school-88% in the US, 69% in the UK.
One in eight of those with Internet access have bought something online-mainly
CDs and music. In the US, 12-17 year olds spend an average of six hours a month
online according to Jupiter Research. One in six buys things over the Internet, with CDs,
books, games, videos and clothing being the most popular items.
In most cases, parents pay for these purchases with credit cards, an arrangement
that is often unsatisfactory for them and their children: Pressing parents to spend online
is less productive than pressing on the high street. A child who sees a pair of shoes in a
shop can usually persuade the parent to buy them. Theyre more like to ask Why? if
you ask to spend some money online, says Mike Young of Mondex, the electronic
payments company.
One way to help them convert notes and coins into cybercash is through prepaid
cards such as InternetCash in the US and Smart cards in the UK. Similar to those for
pay-as-you go mobile telephones, they are sold in amounts such as $20 or $50 with a
concealed 14-digit number that can be used to load the cash into an online account.


Exercise A: Answer the following questions as True/False based upon the reading.

Adults spend a greater proportion of their money online than teenagers.

Most teenagers pay for goods online with their own credit cards.
More than 66% of teenagers in the US and the UK have internet access.
Most teenagers in the US and the UK have bought something online
Children find it easier to persuade parents to buy in a shop than online.

Exercise B: Place a T next to the statements that are true about company

Be friendly
Have clear aims
Tell the other side what you want
Dont listen carefully
Pay attention to the others body language
Dont change your plan during the meeting
Never be the first to make an offer
Be strong and try to win
Prepare carefully before you negotiate
Ask a lot of questions
Make sure you have only one option
Summarize often the points you agree on
Change your strategy during the negotiation, if necessary
Never show any emotions
Main Strategies and Key Phrases for Business Negotiations

State your aims/your goals- Wed like to.., We must

Make concessions- I can do that if you.., That could be all right as long as
Rejecting suggestions- We prefer, Wed rather..
Bargaining- How about?
Focusing on the discussion- Lets talk about
Negotiations Case Study


Background Information:
Lifetime holidays is a package holiday firm. It has many high street shops and a
large catalog of holidays. However, it is currently facing problems. Fewer people
are visiting its shops, and demand for its holidays has fallen. Most of its customers
are aged over 50, so it now wants to appeal to a wider range, especially those aged
30 to 50. The solution seems to be to sell holidays online.
As Lifetime has no experience of e-commerce, they want to join with an existing
online company, DirectSun. DirectSun is a low-budget holiday website. It offers
cheap flights to a small range of destinations and can arrange accommodation,
insurance, and car rentals. It has a good customer base, but it wants a bigger
catalog of holidays to offer.
The two firms have met several times and are now ready to negotiate the details
of a possible joint venture.

Number of Lifetime Vacations Sold


2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Lifetime Holidays
Consumer Profile by Age


Ages 20-29
Ages 30-39
Ages 40-49
Over 50

Negotiations Case Study Task

Half of the class are directors of Lifetime Holidays

Half of the class are directors of DirectSun
Activity: Each company needs to come up with their goals and demands for the
negotiation of the joint venture and present these demands to the representatives of
the other company.
Items on the Agenda

Length of the contract

Range of holiday destinations
Car rental and insurance
Advertising budget
The structure of the joint venture (who will be in charge of the online services, how
the profits will be split, etc.)


Homework Assignment
Make up your own online company. Make sure you include all of the information below
when writing about your company.
Your Company Name
Your Company Website Address
Product/Services Offered
Your Target Market
What Countries You Operate In
The Price Range of Your Goods/Services
If You Provide Money Back Guarantees
What Kind of After Sales Service You Provide to Your Customers

Lesson 4
Products and Writing Ads/Sales Presentations
Lesson Introduction
Advertising/Sales Promotions
While there are many forms and approaches to selling products, any approach will
require a good command of the English language and the ability to speak to customers in
a way that is convincing and appeals to their needs or desires. When attempting to sell a
product, you must keep in mind the audience you are speaking to. You must remember
the Who, What, and How aspects of your presentation or advertisement. You must keep
in mind:
Who will read or see what you are about to write or advertise? What point of view
might they be coming from?
What is it that you want to accomplish through your advertisement?
What are your main points about your product? What main features are you going to
concentrate on when it comes to trying to sell your product?
How will you organize your ideas? How will you reach the customers of your target
Warm-Up Questions
1) Describe some of your favorite products. Why do you like them?
2) If you could afford any product, what product would you like to own?
3) Why would you like to own that product?
4) What are some words you could use to describe that product to the class?
In-Class Exercises

Exercise 1-Read this report which was written by an expert on products. Each of the
underlined words is incorrect. Write the correct form of the incorrect word.
Can we have too many products?
There are two cars in the garage. In the living room, there is a wide-screen TV with 100
channels, and first-class hi-fi equipment. Each child has a television in his or her
bedroom. The kitchen contain a dishwasher, an ordinary oven and a microwave oven.
The cupboard in the bedroom is fill of designer-label clothes. Is it possible too have so
many products that we dont need any more? Some economy think so. They points to
Japan, where demand for certain goods has been flat for 10 years now. They say that one
reason for this is that Japanese people have all the material goods they want and save
their money instead of buying more. Compare this with the poorest countries in the
world, where there is one TV set for every 60 people!
Exercise 2-Look over the words used below and define them in English and write their
Russian equivalents.
Common adjectives used in advertising products:
Exercise 2- The opposites of these adjectives are made by adding prefixes. The prefixes are un-,
in-, im-. Write the words above in the correct boxes below in order to give the adjectives negative



Exercise 3- Compound adjectives are also common in the advertising world. Use the words in
the box to complete the sentences below.






1) IBM manufactures ______-tech computer products.

2) Timberland makes a range of _________-wearing footwear.
3) Ferrari produces __________-quality sports cars.
4) Coca-Cola and Pepsico both developed ________-selling soft drinks.


5) Duracell sells _________-lasting alkaline batteries.

6) Levi jeans are a ___________-made clothing product.
Exercise 4- The following verbs are also terms commonly used when speaking about products
and when a company is advertising their products. Match the verbs on the left to their meanings
on the right.
1) launch
2) test
3) promote
4) manufacture
5) modify
6) discontinue
7) design
8) distribute

a) to stop making
b) to build or make
c) to introduce into the market
d) to change in order to improve
e) to try something in order to see how it works
f) to make a plan or drawing
g) to increase sales by advertising, etc.
h) to supply to shops, companies, customers

Business Communications
Products and Advertising
In-Class Quiz
Name: ________________


Complete the following sentences using a compound starting with the word in brackets,
and using one of the words from a) to f). Each word is used only one time.
a) wearing
b) quality

c) tech
d) lasting

e) selling
f) made

1) Go to SaveMoney Supermarkets for (high-) _______ met produced with the best
farming methods.
2) Valley of the Dolls by Jacqueline Susann has sold 30 million copies- it is the (best-)
______ of all time.
3) Doc Martens boots which average a life of seven years are said to be (long-) _______
4) Buy Good Era tires. Theyre so (hard-) ________ : 200,000 kilometers later and they
still look the same!
5) German cars are famous for being solid and (well-) ___________.
6) No more posting of documents from one department to another- Docushare is the
(high-) ________ solution to distributing information on the Internet.

Lesson 5
Email/Fax Communications and Marketing
Lesson Introduction
Email and Fax Communications


With the increased use of technology in the business world and in the workplace more
and more forms of communications are emerging. With each new medium of
communicatins a new procedure and style are set as the standards for formal business
communications. This lesson will help you to understand the main outlines for both
formal and informal communications using the mediums of email and fax
In any company, marketing is a key aspect of how a company remains in business and
successful. The general idea of marketing is to let your current and potential consumers
know what you have to offer them. However, marketing is not only conveying what you
have to offer. In its own right, marketing is also an art form. It is the art of convincing
consumers that your product is the best and that they want your product versus the
product of your competitors. Marketing is the art of displaying and maintaining a positive
company image while getting the attention of the marketplace.
In-Class Exercises: An Introduction to Marketing
Exercise A: What are the Four Ps of the Marketing Mix?
P __ __ __ __ __ __
P __ __ __ __
P __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
P __ __ __ __
Exercise B: Using the words above, complete the sentences below.
1) The ________ is the cost to the buyer for the goods or services they want or need.
2) ___________ informs consumers about the products a company offers and persuades
consumers to buy those products.
3) A ________ is where goods or services are available for people to buy them.
4) ___________ is the actual good or service that is sold to the consumer.
Exercise C: Fill in the missing vowels in the words below.

r_ s_ _r c h= information about what consumers want and need

s _g m _n t= a group of customers of similar age, income, and social group
s h _ r_ = the percentage of sales a company has
b_ h _ v_ _ r= where and how people buy things
p r _ f _ l _= description of a typical consumer



g _ _ d s= things people buy for their own use

l _ _ n c h= introduction of a product into the marketplace
l _ f _ c y c l _= length of time people continue to buy a product
r _ n g _= set of products made by a company
f _ r _ c _ s t= how much a company thinks it will sell in a period
f_ g _ r _ s= how much a company has sold in a period
t _ r g _ t= how much a company wants to sell in a period
c _ mp _ _ g n= program of advertising activities over a period of time
b _d g _ t= the amount of money available for advertising
_ g _ n c y= a business that advises and makes ads for other companies

In-Class Assignment
Case Study
Group #

Names of the People in the Group:


1) What do you think the normal consumer profile is for your customers?



Income Level:

2) If you were an advertising agency what recommendations would you make to this
Ex: advertise in different ways-billboards, TV, radio, magazines, etc. And WHY does the
company need to use these different ways to reach its customers?

3) If you worked for this company, and had an advertising budget of $25 million, how
would you try to increase their sales?

4) What seems to be the target market for this company?

Ex: children, young adults, university students, young professionals, older professionals,
retired individuals, families, or any combination of the above.

5) Do you think that it would help this company to expand its advertising campaign to
reach children or university students?
Class Materials
Fax and Email Forms of Business Correspondence
Things to Include in a Fax:

Have the headings of: To, From, Fax Number, Date, Number of Pages, and Subject

The style of the fax can be formal, as in a business letter, or informal. This depends
on who you are writing to.
Points can be but do not have to be numbered for clarity.
Regards or Sincerely is often used for the closing of the letter.
The persons name and position are typed out and the individual also signs their

Example of a Fax:

Denton County Chamber of Commerce

To: Arnold Coleman, CEO
From: John Smith
Date: October 10, 2004
Subject: Your letter, October 2, 2004

Fax Number: 972 298 8160

Faxed From: 717 245 4356
Pages: (including this page) 1

Dear Mr. Coleman,

Thank you for your letter of 2 October 2004 asking about the possibility of opening a
factory for the manufacture of your products in Denton County. Let me answer some of
your questions.
1. Employees
Yes, Denton County has a large workforce of well-trained and hard-working possible
employees available.
2. Infrastructure
Road and rail links to the main cities in TX and throughout the U.S., the airports and
ports are excellent.
3. Local Tax
In certain situations it is possible to arrange favorable tax conditions for start-up
If you would like to discuss the possibilities further, please call my office at (972) 567- 8160 to
arrange a meeting for when you are in the area. I look forward to hearing from you.
John Smith
John Smith
Chief Development Officer

Things to Remember When Writing an Email:

They can have a formal business style or a very informal style, similar to spoken
English. There is also a semi-formal style which is in between these two styles.
Remember who you are talking to in order to decide how you should compose your


The Semi-Formal Email:

It is similar to a standard business letter, but less formal and usually shorter. The ending
is typically Best wishes rather than Sincerely. This style is best used when you are
sending an e-mail to somebody who is outside of your company, or whom you do not
know very well. The focus is on giving or asking for information quickly.
The Informal Email:
It is the most suitable for e-mails within your company and for people whom you know
well. The greeting is often, Hi, Hello, or even How are you?. Sometimes endings
are omitted altogether. Sometimes the writer will type only in small letters. This style is
much more similar to spoken than written English. Sometimes people use abbreviations
if they want to save time.
Ex: CU=See you, Thx=Thanks, 2=to/too, 4=for, RUOK?=are you okay?, TTYL=talk to
you later, WBS=write back soon, ASAP=as soon as possible, How R U?=How are you?
Example of a Formal Email:
To: jedwin@worldcu.org
From: tsmith@bankone.com
Cc: callen@bankone.com
Subject: Cooperation agreement
Attachments: Word Document 52K
Dear Jim,
To celebrate the signing of the agreement between our two companies we would like to invite you
to participate in our annual sales meeting which is taking place this year in Hawaii, October 2529. Please feel free to bring another person with you as our guest if you would like to join us.
I hope it will possible for you to join us. Please let us know.
Best wishes,
Tammy Smith
Product Manager
Bank One
21 Gold Street
Garland, TX 75210

Phone: 001 972 675 8760

Lesson 5: English Grammar Exercise
Prefixes are placed before a word and change the meaning of the word. If you are not
familiar with what certain prefixes mean you can completely change the meaning of a
word and the message that is being conveyed may not make sense or you may interpret it


incorrectly. It is important to know what prefixes are, how they are used, and how they
affect words in the English language.
AntiBiContraDiDisExEx-, EExtraHyperIn-, Im-, Il-, IrInterIntraIntroMacroMicroMisMonoMultiNeoNonOmniPolyPostPreReRetroSemiSubSuperTriUnUni-

Apart, Away from
Go out from
Negative, Not
Tiny, Small
Negative, Not
Negative, Not

Irresponsible, Impossible

Exercise A: Describe what the words below mean based upon sentence context and what
you have learned about prefixes..
1) There was an anti-war campaign going on in Austrailia.
2) Her ex-boyfriend hasnt talked to her in years.
3) One of the computers microchips was damaged so we had to take the computer to be


4) Her new outfit was multi-colored and very fashionable.

5) The couple decided that a non-traditional wedding was the best choice for them.
6) The post-depression period left many people without money or food.
7) In retrospect, it was not a good idea to.
8) International relations are much better now.
9) He was mistaken to think that he could cheat.
10) He is an unreliable person. You cant depend on him to do what he says he will do.

Lesson 6
New Business and Strategic Planning
Lesson Introdction
New Businesses
In order to create a new company you must first evaluate your marketplace and make an
estimation of the future success of the company you wish to create. The typical approach
to make this kind of assessment is through writing a business plan. A business plan will
allow you to get a better idea of whether or not your idea for the new company you are
considering is a good idea or not. When writing a business plan there are many factors
that and individual must consider and evaluate in order to conclude whether or not a
business idea is a good one or not.
Strategic Planning
Strategic planning is key to the evaluation of a new business idea and to the established
company. Strategic planning goes through a very rigorous process of identifying strengths
and weaknesses of different ideas and directions the company is considering. This
process allows the company to make well informed decisions and plans for the future.
The evaluation system of strategic planning helps to ensure that the company will remain
stable and profitable in the future. Although strategic planning is limited due to a
companys inability to see unpredictable changes, it offers the company a plan of action
to follow. This plan of action helps the company to stay in business and be aware of its
Factors that are Important for New Business


Low taxes
Skilled staff available for hire
Low interest rates
Cheap rent prices
Stable economy
Good transportation links
Cheap labor
Strong and stable currency
Government grants

Exercise 1: Match the words on the left to their definitions on the right.
1) Interest rate
2) Exchange rate
3) Inflation rate
4) Labor force
5) Tax incentives
6) Government bureaucracy
7) GDP
8) Unemployment rate
9) Foreign investment
10) Balance of trade


The market value of a countrys output

General increase in prices
Cost of borrowing money
Price at which one currency can buy another
Percentage of people without jobs
People working
Low taxes to encourage business activity
Money from overseas
Official rules/regulations/paperwork
Difference in value between a countrys
imports and exports

New Vocabulary Review



The interest rate is the cost of borrowing money.

The exchange rate is the price at which one currency can buy another.
The inflation rate is the general increase in prices.
The labor force is the total number of people working.
Tax incentives are low taxes that are offered to encourage business activity.
Government bureaucracy consists of official rules, regulations and paperwork.
GDP is the Gross Domestic Product and is the total value of goods and services
produced in a country.
8) Unemployment rate is the percentage of the population without jobs.
9) Foreign investment is money from overseas.
10) Balance of trade is the difference in value between a countrys imports and
Vocabulary Exercise
The economy is stable following the problems of the past two years. By following a
tight monetary policy the government has reduced the i____ r___ to 2%. After
going up dramatically, the i_____ r_____ to 8%. The last six months has seen a
slight improvement in the e______ r____ against the dollar. The G____ has grown
by .15%. Exports are increasing and the b_______ of t_______ is starting to look
much healthier. The u____ r____ continues to be a problem as it is still at 16%. In
order to stimulate the economy and attract f____ i____ the government is offering
new t____ i____ as well as making a renewed effort to reduce g____ b____.
Finally, a large skilled l___ f____ means there could be attractive investment
opportunities over the next five years.
Answers to Vocabulary Exercise
The economy is stable following the problems of the past two years. By following a
tight monetary policy the government has reduced the interest rate to 2%. After
going up dramatically, the inflation rate to 8%. The last six months has seen a
slight improvement in the exchange rate against the dollar. The GDP has grown
by .15%. Exports are increasing and the balance of trade is starting to look much
healthier. The unemployment rate continues to be a problem as it is still at 16%. In
order to stimulate the economy and attract foreign investment the government is
offering new tax incentives as well as making a renewed effort to reduce
government bureaucracy. Finally, a large skilled labor force means there could be
attractive investment opportunities over the next five years.


Homework Assignment
Try to answer the following questions about Ukraine.

What is the population of Ukraine?

What is the population of Berdyansk?
How many people study at ARIU?
What is the average salary in Ukraine?
What is the inflation rate in Ukraine?
What is the interest rate for savings in Ukraine?

Interesting International Facts (data as of the year 2000)

Biggest cities in the world (population in millions):
1st Tokyo, Japan- 26.4
2nd Mexico City, Mexico-18.1
3rd Lagos, Nigeria-13.4
Oldest populations (% aged over 65):
Belgium- 16.7%
Computers per 100 people:
United States 45.5
Switzerland 42.1
Australia 41.1
Cars per 1,000 people:
Lebanon 732 (268 people without cars)
Italy 539 (461 people without cars)
Germany 506 (494 people without cars)


Lesson 6: English Grammar Exercise

When,While, Before, After, Until, As Soon As
Exercise A: Fill in the blanks below using the word(s); when, while, before, after, until,
as soon as.
1) Dont make a decision ____ weve seen the report.
2) Im meeting with Angela this afternoon. Send her up _____ she arrives
3) Lets sort out this problem _____ she gets here.
4) Im going to fly out to Paris tomorrow. Ill phone you ______ I get there.
5) Will you type this report for me _____ I am away.
Case Study
Company Name: Marcia Lee Jeans
Company Information: Marcia Lee Jeans is a company that is based in NY. It is a brand
that is well known in the U.S. The jeans sell in the upper price ranges and appeal to
fashion conscious people aged 15-40. They are distributed in major department
stores throughout the country. At present, the jeans are made in the U.S. by a
number of factories on the East coast, none of which are owned by the company.
Competition in this segment of the market is strong, so the company has to keep
costs as low as possible in order to remain profitable. In the next 10 years, the
company plans to expand in Europe and Southeast Asia so that it becomes a global
company. To do this, it has decided to build its own factory in an overseas country.
The factory will have approximately 2,000 workers who will produce the jeans.
These workers will be recruited locally. Denim, the raw material which is used to
make jeans will be imported from several countries. The company is considering
two countries as a location for their new factory. Based upon the information you
have about the two countries, which country do you think is the best place for the
new factory to be located in?


Country A

Country B

Growth Rate: 2% a year
Inflation Rate: 5%
Interest Rate: 10%-15%
Unemployment Rate: 25%-30%
The country has a lot of debt and is
Trying to modernize its economy.

Growth Rate: 1.5%
Inflation Rate: 0.5%
Interest Rate: 8%-10%
Unemployment Rate: 3%

Good rail and network but poor roads
New international airport
Main seaport is in poor condition
Unskilled labor available. A lot of training
Will be needed for jeans production.
No unions in most industries
Wage rates very low
The country has a military government.
Bribery is common. Political problems:
In the North want to become an
state. The government will contribute 30%
towards the cost of a new factory.

Has a fully integrated road and rail
International airport
No seaport
Not a lot of skilled labor available
Strong unions
Wage rates are high
The country has a stable government.
It is a member of a large trading group.
There are strict new laws on pollution.
There are no tax incentives for building
new factories. Business tax is very high.


Lesson 7
British English versus American English
Lesson Introduction
British and American Variants of English
Although most individuals who learn English as a second language are unware of it, the
British and American variants of English are very different. However, native speakers of
English are easily able to recognize the differences between the two dialects. There are a
number of words that exist in the British variant of English that do not exist in the
American variant of English and vice versa. There are also grammatical, spelling, and
sentence contruction differences between the two variants. Although native speakers of
American English and British English can usually communicate with one another with
few misunderstandings there are many instances where clear communication may be
made difficult due to the differences between the two variants. The likelihood of
misunderstandings is even higher when non-native speakers of English mix together
British and American English. This typically confuses the native speaker of English and
can lead to many misunderstandings. It is important to note that although British English
is widespread in use it is becoming second to American English in terms of popularity.
This is especially true in terms of business and business communications. American
English is quickly becoming the standard of English that is expected of those who learn
English as a second language.
Common Words in Everyday Speech
British English words defined in American English
Blag (verb)- to mooch or get something for free
Blimey (exclamation word)- wow or my goodness
Brill (adjective)-shortened version of the word brilliant
Busk (verb)-to busk is to sit in the street playing music and hoping people will give you
money for it.
Cheerio (exclamation word)-a light-hearted way of saying goodbye
Cheers (exclamation word)- thank you in informal conversations
Crikey (exclamation word)- an expression of surprise
Dear (adjective)- when used as an adjective it means, expensive
Fluke (noun)- a rather fortunate chance win, a stroke of luck


Give Over (exclamatory phrase)- equivalent to the American expression Give me a

Gobsmacked (adjective)- someone is very surprised or taken aback
Haver (verb)- to ramble incoherently, or to speak nonsense
Hire (verb)- the American word is to rent
Kip (noun)- sleep, a short nap
Natter (noun)- to gossip or to talk about nothing
Nick (verb/adjective)- as a verb it means to steal, as an adjective it means to be in some
state of condition.
Phut (adjective)- something is described as such when it has died, expired, or breathed
its last
Pinch (verb)- to steal
Post (noun)- equivalent to the American word, mail
Queue (noun)- a line of people
Rubbish (noun)- everyday waste, in American English, trash or garbage
Skive (verb)- to be absent for no real reason, to play hookey
Smashing (adjective)- describes something as being good or great
Sterling (adjective)- also describes something as being good or great
Tad (noun)- American equivalent is the word bit or a bit
Tick (noun)- a checkmark or a short space of time similar to a second
Wee (adjective)- equivalent to the American English word, small
Whinge (verb)- American equivalent is the word whine, to whine
Whoops-a-Daisy! (exclamatory phrase)- American equivalent is the phrase Oops
Wonky (adjective)- American equivalent is to say that something just isnt right
Yonks (noun)- an unspecific length of time but typically used to describe some period of
time from a minute to years.

Some Facts about American English and British English

American English is the language spoken by U.S. government officials, network

newscasters, et. It does not include Canadian English which falls outside of the
definition of American English. Canadian pronunciation is similar to American
English but the spelling is more often like the Commonwealth form of English.
American English is also used by countries and organizations like Japan, Philippines,
and Liberia where English is the most influenced by the United States.
British English is otherwise known as Commonwealth English and is assumed to be
the form of English spoken in southeast England and the BBC and understood in
other parts of the United Kingdom. Various forms of pronunciations exist throughout
the region. Commonwealth English is written in most of the English-speaking world
including Australia (though the dialect is different), New Zealand (different dialect
like the one in Australia), South Africa and the United Kingdom. The dialect differs
some from country to country but is much like Commonwealth English versus
American English. British English, or Commonwealth English is widespread
throughout the areas that Britain had or currently has as colonies.


Although British English and American English are similar there are enough
differences between the two languages to cause some awkward situations and
misunderstandings. Sometimes the differences between the two languages can even
lead to a complete communication failure. There is a famous quote by George
Bernard Shaw that the United States and United Kingdom are two countries divided
by a common language.
Spelling Differences between American English and British English

American words ending in or may end in our in Commonwealth English.
American English Examples: color, flavor, honor, favorite, savory
Commonwealth English Examples: colour, flavour, honour, favourite, savoury
Some words of French or Greek origin in Commonwealth English end in consonants and
are followed by re which is unstressed and pronounced r. Most of these same words
have a er ending in American English. This is especially true of words in
Commonwealth English that end in bre and tre.
American English Examples: fiber, saber, center, specter, theater
Commonwealth English Examples: fibre, saber, centre, spectre, theatre
American English retains the noun/verb distinction in certain words which are indicated
by their endings.
For example, advice/advise, device/devise, licence/license,
American English Examples: defense, offense, pretense
Commonwealth English Examples: defence, offence, pretence
American English Examples: inflection, deflection, reflection
Commonwealth English Examples: inflexion, deflexion, reflexion
American English Examples: colonize, harmonize, realize, organize
Commonwealth English Examples: colonise, harmonise, realize, organize
This ending is possible only in American English.
American English Examples: analyze, catalyze, hydrolyze, paralyze
Commonwealth English Examples: analyse, catalyse, hydrolyse, paralyse
American English Examples: analog, catalog, dialog,
Commonwealth English Examples: analogue, catalogue, dialogue


Miscellaneous Spelling Differences between American English and British English

American English

Commonwealth English
For ever
Per cent

Class Exercises
Exercise A: What do you think the following British English words mean? Match them
with what you think to be their correct American English definitions.
1) Blimey
2) Cheerio
3) Cheers
4) Crikey
5) Gobsmaked
6) Kip
7) Hire
8) Wee
9) Tick
10) Pinch

A) Small or to be small
B) To steal
C) To be surprised or taken aback
D) Checkmark or a second in time
E) Wow or My goodness
F) To rent
G) A way of saying goodbye
H) Thank you in informal conversation
I) An expression of surprise
J) A short nap, or to sleep

Exercise B: What do you think the following British English Expressions mean in
American English?
1) There was a queue of people waiting to pay their phone bills.
2) The car was phut, there was no way to repair it or fix it any longer.

3) He is just totally brill! I have never met anyone so smart in my life!

4) A bill for electricity just arrived in the post today.
5) People just dont seem to care about the city. There is rubbish everywhere on the
6) Its positively smashing that you could join us tonight!
7) Whoops-a-daisy! It appears that Ive lost my car keys.
8) He was not feeling well so he havered on about nothing and we were not able to
understand what he was talking about.
Exercise C: Is it British English or American English?Place an A next to those
sentences with an American spelling of the word and a B next to sentences with a
British spelling of the word.
1) This disc doesnt work on my computer.
2) The sky is really gray today.
3) I need to buy new tyres for my car.
4) I am 100 per cent sure that I can find a new job.
5) This television program is not very good.
6) I think that I have a high level of organizational skills.
7) The company placed an advert in the newspaper last week.
*Please read on to Lesson 8 and read the introduction to the lesson and complete the
homework assignment before Lesson 8 so that you are prepared to participate in class
Lesson 8
Country Studies, How Culture Affects Business Communications
Lesson Introduction
Country Studies
It is important to be aware of not only your own country and culture but also the world
around you, especially in terms of business communications. In order for a business to
survive in such a global marketplace it must have a good understanding of how its own
country and other countries as well. It is important to note that every country has its own
form of culture, history, habits, ideas, style, language, manners of speech and so on. Even
countries that border one another and speak the same language contain their own culture.
It is also possible that even within the borders of one country, communication can be
hindered by different subcultures. A good example of this is the US where subcultures
have developed throughout the country. These various subcultures sometimes make it
difficult for people of the same country from different regions of the country to
communicate with one another even though they speak the same language. This proves
the fact that language is not the only key to successful communication. In order to be
successful in business communications you must be knowledgable and mindful of the
cultural climate in which you are operating. The differences between different cultures


can make for horrible problems in business communications and the complete failure of a
business. This is why it is good to learn more of the world around us and how it operates.

Homework to prepare for Lesson 8 before the class

Please bring with you to Lesson 8 some information on any country that you find
interesting. You will need to learn about some of the cultural differences between that
culture and your own and you will need to find out some of the following information
about the country:
Geograhpich location
Literacy rate
GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per household/family
Main language(s)
Type of government
Main religion(s)
Main export
Main import
Percentage of population below the poverty line
One interesting fact about the countrys culture
*You are welcome to look up any additional information about the country that you
would like. You will need to discuss the information that you find out about your country
during the next lesson.
*There are many sources on the Internet that will help you to find the information above.
One of the best sources that will help you to find this information is
www.ciaworldfactbook.gov This site has all of the information listed above for every
country in the world and the information is up to date. It should take you approximately
15 minutes to complete this assignment.
Below are some ideas of countries that you may be interested in researching. Please feel
free to look up information on any country aside from your own country.
Saudi Arabia


South Africa






Lesson 9
Entry into Foreign Marketplaces
Lesson Introduction
Foreign Marketplaces
Business is truly global. More so than ever we live in a global world where international
business is unavoidable and many business markets are already very dependant upon one
another. Although many businesses are already deeply involved in international trade and
international business, there are many other businesses that are seeking to expand into
even more countries or to expand out of their home marketplace for the first time. It is
important to be able to recognize how businesses go about expanding into a new
marketplace and how the environmental factors of any country outside of your own can
seriously affect your business. Every country has its own language, culture, history,
habits, infrastructure, laws, and unique way of doing business and when entering into a
foreign marketplace a company must be very aware of what they are getting themselves
into. Whether the company is a global giant like Microsoft or a small, family owned
company the differences that exist in a foreign marketplace must be researched and the
necessary changes must be made in order to ensure the success of the companys future
operations in its new market.
In-Class Reading Exercise: Barham, John. Dell Tries to crack South America. The
Financial Times, Pearson Education Limited, 2001

Dell Tries to crack South America

Dell computers, the Texas-based computer-maker that was among the pioneers of
online ordering, is preparing to attack the difficult Latin American market. Soon, Dell
will start making computers at a new factory in the small, southern Brazilian city of
Eldorado in its first manufacturing venture in South America. With a few hours flying
time of Eldorado lie four of the continents main metropolitan regions-Buenos Aires, Rio
de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Santiago- which generate about half the regions wealth and
where most of the computer-using populace is concentrated. Dell hopes to serve all these
markets- including more distant regions in northern Brazil and the Andean countries-from


According to Dells plan, aircraft from Miami will land at a nearby international
airport carrying computer components that will be sent straight to Dells factory.
Together with parts delivered from suppliers in Brazil, they will be assembled to order,
packed and delivered to consumers across the continent.
The challenge for Dell is not only to mount an effective marketing campaign to
educate customers about online ordering, it must also manage a complex logistics system
and deal with the problems of unreliable road and air networks. And it must operate in
half a dozen volatile Latin countries, with unpredictable governments and consumers as
well as well-established competitors.
Dell could not afford to ignore the South American market much longer. It
currently exports computers to a few Latin American countries such as Mexico and
Colombia, but has never sold to markets in Argentina or Brazil. Latin American
consumers last year bought 5 million PCs and demand is growing at 15 per cent a year.
Growth is likely to remain strong for some time to come: in Brazil, the regions largest
market, only 3-4 percent of the population owns a PC.
Dell is not the first company to view South America as a single market. For a
decade, Ford and Volkswagen and many other multinational companies have operated in
the regions main countries as if they formed one integrated market. That was a natural
reaction to falling import tariffs and consolidation of the Mercosur customs union linking
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. However, the distances, the red tape, and the
animosities between national governments often make fulfillment of this strategy
Dell decided to locate in Brazil because it is the regions biggest market and
because the government gives computer companies substantial tax incentives as part of
its plan to develop local high technology industries. If Dell meets Brazilian local content
criteria and attains agreed production volumes, its products are considered to be 100
percent locally made and automatically gain duty-free access to Mercosur countries.
However, there is little Dell can do about the internal transport networks in Brazil
or the bureaucracy in neighboring countries. Although roads, air transport and delivery
systems are tolerably efficient in south eastern Brazil and parts of Uruguay, Chile, and
Argentina, Dell may still find it is struggling to co-ordinate operations and sales over a
vast region.
In-Class Exercises
Exercise A: These phrases summarize the main idea of each paragraph. Match each phrase to
the correct paragraph.
1) the challenge for Dell
2) reason for choosing Brazil
3) an overview of Dells intentions
4) reason to enter the South American market
5) how Dells plan will work
6) other companies experiences
7) problems Dell may face in Brazil and elsewhere
8) advantages of Eldorados location

a) paragraph 1
b) paragraph 2
c) paragraph 3
d) paragraph 4
e) paragraph 5
f) paragraph 6
g) paragraph 7
h) paragraph 8

Exercise B: Find a word or phrase in the text that has a similar meaning.


1) one of the first to do something (paragraph 1)

P_ _ _ _ _ _ _
2) buying something through the internet (paragraph 1)
O ____________ O _____________
3) business activity with some element of risk (paragraph 2)
V _________________
4) general population in a country (paragraph 2)
P _________________
5) a difficult task which needs skill and determination (paragraph 4)
C _________________
6) describes something or someone that can change quickly and suddenly (paragraph 4)
7) lots of rules and regulations, which often seem to have no purpose (paragraph 6)
R _________________ T ________________
8) strong dislike between people or groups (paragraph 6)
A _________________
9) reach or achieve an objective (paragraph 7)
10) trying very hard to do something under difficult conditions (paragraph 8)

Exercise C: For each part match the words on the left to their pairs on the right.
Part A- Match these nouns as they occur together in the text.
1) tax
a) venture
2) manufacturing
b) incentives
3) import
c) system
4) customs
d) tariffs
5) production
e) volumes
6) logistics
f) union
Part B-Match these verbs as they occur together in the text.
1) mount
a) access
2) serve
b) criteria
3) generate
c) a campaign
4) gain
d) a market
5) meet
e) wealth
Exercise D: Use an appropriate phrase from Exercise C to complete each sentence.


1) Many countries offer companies ___________ to encourage inward investment.

2) When we launch our new internet service we will need to __________ a big marketing
3) In order to be successful, the new manufacturing plant will have to reach target ______
within six months.
4) Assembling to order and delivering to each customer means managing a complex
5) When importing is expensive due to high ________ the alternative is to manufacture
6) In order to have free access to other EU market, Japanese car manufacturers in the UK
need to _________ minimum content ___________.
7) In some countries the only way to _______ well is to have local production.
8) Most countries in Europe are now a part of a ________ which allows free movement
of goods.


Management Style Test

Circle your answer to the following questions
1) Question: I need to keep my eye on my employees to ensure the job gets done.
Your Answer: Agree or Disagree
2) Question: Incentives such as bonuses and prizes keep my employees motivated.
Your Answer: Agree or Disagree
3) Question: My employees personal problems wont affect their ability to work.
Your Answer: Agree or Disagree
4) Question: I instinctively know when my employees are unhappy.
Your Answer: Agree or Disagree
5) Question: I feel unable to praise my staff as I know it would stunt (lessen) their
Your Answer: Agree or Disagree
6) Question: I share an interest in the lives of my employees and whatever they feel is
important to them.
Your Answer: Agree or Disagree
7) Question: I am open to employee suggestions in the workplace, and willing to change
how things are done.
Your Answer: Agree or Disagree
8) Question: My employees are aware of the impact their work contributions have on my
Your Answer: Agree or Disagree
9) Question: There is no need to share the companys progress and achievements with


my employees.
Your Answer: Agree or Disagree
10) Question: All employees should be encouraged to move towards a more demanding
Your Answer: Agree or Disagree
Management Style Test Answers

1) Question: I need to keep my eye on my employees to ensure the job gets done.
Answer: Disagree/No. Trusting your staff will help to build their respect for you.
2) Question: Incentives such as bonuses and prizes keep my employees motivated.
Answer: Disagree/No. These are only short-term measures and only act to instantly
boost levels of motivation but this level of motivation is only short-lived.
3) Question: My employees personal problems wont affect their ability to work.
Answer: Disagree/No. Countless business days are lost due to employees personal
Problems, being aware and able to identify potential problems can help the situation.
4) Question: I instinctively know when my employees are unhappy.
Answer: Disagree/No. Dont rely on your instincts, instead ask your employees. It
is bound to eliminate guesswork and avoid other communication problems.
5) Question: I feel unable to praise my staff as I know it would stunt (lessen) their
Answer: Disagree/No. Employee recognition is one of the greatest tools to boost
Employee motivation levels.
6) Question: I share an interest in the lives of my employees and whatever they feel is
important to them.
Answer: Agree/Yes. Employees will feel you value them as a person and not just as a
work unit.
7) Question: I am open to employee suggestions in the workplace, and willing to change
how things are done.
Answer: Agree/Yes. This is a good way to help your employees feel as if they are a
part of your company.
8) Question: My employees are aware of the impact their work contributions have on my
Answer: Agree/Yes. Your employees will feel valued and have a sense of belonging
your organization.


9) Question: There is no need to share the companys progress and achievements with
my employees.
Answer: Disagree/No. Your employees make a large contribute to the growth of your
Company and should be kept informed at all times.
10) Question: All employees should be encouraged to move towards a more demanding
Answer: Agree/Yes. Not all employees are against the idea of a challenge and should
at least be given the opportunity to progress in their careers.
Lesson 9: English Grammar Exercise
Suffixes are just as important as prefixes. Suffixes are added to the end of words and can
also change the part of a speech a word represents in the English language. If you do not
understand how a suffix impacts the meaning of a word it could lead to a business
communications nightmare. This is why it is important to review the suffix chart below
and review it often to make sure you know what each of the following suffixes mean.
-ance, -ence
-ant, -ent
-tion, -ation
-able, -ible
-ous, -ious

Part of Speech

Teacher, Director
Difference, Attendance
Deviant, President
Employee, Trainee
Stewardess, Waitress
Electrician, Beautician
Communism, Theism
Capatalist, Artist
Rarity, Velocity
Action, Coronation
Deviate, Create
Typify, Solidify
Tenerize, Authorize
Realiable, Sensible
Comical, Radical
Wonderful, Helpful
Sheepish, Squeamish
Creative, Sensitive
Quickly, Happily

Exercise A: Identify the part of speech for the underlined word based upon the chart
1) He was not satisfied with the results of his exam.

2) People rarely apply for jobs without resumes.

3) He had infuriated her with his words.
4) She is the Princess of Spain.
5) She slowly picked up her bags and walked away.
6) He has a very serious personality.
7) Her parents were proud of her for the accomplishments she had made in life.
8) It was a logical solution to our problem.
9) She was capable of doing the work assigned to her.
10) She is a very thoughtful person.
Lesson 10
Leadership vs Management
Lesson Introduction
Leadership and Management
The idea of leadership and management are closely related but are not the same. A leader
and a manager require different traits of character and different perspectives. These days
it is far more common for companies to seek out the traits of character that exist within a
leader. Leadership is becoming far more valued in the workplace than pure management.
This is a result of a change in western business practices and perceptions. Due to a heavy
investment in human resources, western companies are very focused upon their
employees and have found that a leader interacts and motivates their employees much
better than a person who is only able to manage and not lead. The ability to lead has
become very valuable in the eyes of most companies. However, in the eyes of any
company the ideal candidate for a job must possess both the qualities of a leader and the
qualities of a manager. A person who lacks the ability to be a leader or a manager is at a
serious disadvantage. Companies are now seeking out those who can be both leaders and
managers. Such people are in high demand.
Both a manager and a leader may know the business well. But the
leader must know it better and in a different way. S/he must grasp the
essential facts and the underlying forces that determine the past and
present trends in the business, so that s/he can generate a vision and a
strategy to bring about its future. One telling sign of a good leader is an
honest attitude towards the facts, towards objective truth. A subjective
leader obscures the facts for the sake of narrow self-interest, partisan
interest or prejudice.
Effective leaders continually ask questions, probing all levels of
the organization for information, testing their own perceptions, and
rechecking the facts. They talk to their constituents. They want to know
what is working and what is not. They keep an open mind for serendipity
to bring them the knowledge they need to know what is true. An important


source of information for this sort of leader is knowledge of the failures

and mistakes that are being made in their organization.
To survive in the twenty-first century, we are going to need a new
generation of leaders leaders, not managers. The distinction is an
important one. Leaders conquer the context the turbulent, ambiguous
surroundings that sometimes seem to conspire against us and will surely
suffocate us if we let them while managers surrender to it.
Leaders investigate reality, taking in the pertinent factors and
analyzing them carefully. On this basis they produce visions, concepts,
plans, and programs. Managers adopt the truth from others and implement
it without probing for the facts that reveal reality.
There is profound difference a chasm between leaders and
managers. A good manager does things right. A leader does the right
things. Doing the right things implies a goal, a direction, an objective, a
vision, a dream, a path, a reach.
Lots of people spend their lives climbing a ladder and then they
get to the top of the wrong wall. Most losing organizations are overmanaged and under-led. Their managers accomplish the wrong things
beautifully and efficiently. They climb the wrong wall.
Managing is about efficiency. Leading is about effectiveness.
Managing is about how. Leading is about what and why. Management is
about systems, controls, procedures, policies, and structure. Leadership is
about trust about people.
Leadership is about innovating and initiating. Management is
about copying, about managing the status quo. Leadership is creative,
adaptive, and agile. Leadership looks at the horizon, not just the bottom
Leaders base their vision, their appeal to others, and their integrity
on reality, on the facts, on a careful estimate of the forces at play, and on
the trends and contradictions. They develop the means for changing the
original balance of forces so that their vision can be realized.
A leader is someone who has the capacity to create a compelling
vision that takes people to a new place, and to translate that vision into
action. Leaders draw other people to them by enrolling them in their
vision. What leaders do is inspire people, empower them.
They pull rather than push. This "pull" style of leadership attracts
and energizes people to enroll in a vision of the future. It motivates people


by helping them identify with the task and the goal rather than by
rewarding or punishing them.
There is a profound difference between management and
leadership, and both are important "To manage" means "to bring about, to
accomplish, to have charge of or responsibility for, to conduct." "Leading"
is "influencing, guiding in direction, course, action, opinion." The
distinction is crucial.
Management is...

Leadership is....

Coping with complexity

Coping with and promoting change

Planning and Budgeting

Setting a Direction

Organizing and Staffing

Aligning People

Controlling and Problem Solving

Motivating and Inspiring People

Effective Action

Meaningful Action

*Both are necessary and important.

Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do
the right thing. The difference may be summarized as activities of vision
and judgment effectiveness versus activities of mastering routines
efficiency. The chart below indicates key words that further make the
distinction between the two functions:

The manager administers; the leader innovates.

The manager is a copy; the leader is an original.

The manager maintains; the leader develops.

The manager accepts reality; the leader investigates it.

The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on


The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust.

The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range


The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why.


The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader
has his or her eye on the horizon.

The manager imitates; the leader originates.

The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it.

The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own

The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing.

The most dramatic differences between leaders and managers are found at
the extremes: poor leaders act like dictators, while poor managers are
bureaucrats in the worst sense of the word. While leadership is a human
process and management is a process of resource allocation, both have
their place and managers must also perform as leaders. All first-class
managers have quite a lot of leadership ability.
Managerial Functions and Activities
1-Formulating objectives and strategy
2-Planning and organizing the work
3-Handling disturbances
4-Directing subordinates
5-Motivating commitment
6-Facilitating cooperation and teamwork
7-Disseminating information
8-Monitoring operations and the environment
9-Recruiting and maintaining networks
10-Building and maintaining networks
11-Representing the organization to outsiders
Communication Process in Organization
Downward communication- flowing from top management down
Upward communication- flowing from lower level positions up to top management
Lateral communication- flow of information between people of the same amount of power in the
Informal communication- Watercooler talk
Influences on Communication
Task interdependence
Physical facilities
Interaction of the individuals (parties, lunches, etc.)\
Status of the individual- higher level individuals tend to dominate conversation
Cultural norms- specific to cultures: ex-Japanese vs American culture


Requirements for Communication

Barriers to Understanding
The use of SRC- self-reference criterion, seeing things only from your perspective
Over interpretation- inferring the meaning from an incomplete message
Projection- trying to make others feel the way we do about something
Stereotypes- having preconceived notions about others
Arrogance- believing that your views are superior
Evaluative responses- judging a message as either right or wrong
Steps to Improving Communication
Determine the objectives and analyze the situation
Clarify relevance and purpose
Use simple language
Avoid redundancy (stating the same thing over and over again)
Ensure appropriate feedback

The 4 Main Types of Corporate Culture

1) Power Cultures
In these cultures self-reliant and highly competitive self-development provides the basis
of relations. A managers success is related to their charisma, ambition, and influence,
rather than their knowledge and experience. The style of the chief executive (CEO) is the
model for other mangers. In organizations of this type mangers need to be tough-minded
and aggressive.
Highlights: Charisma, ambition, influence, self-reliance are all important. This type of
organizations has a highly competitive environment where aggression is rewarded.
2) Role Cultures
In these cultures a mangers role is completely related to their place within a centralized
system. Their success depends on how well they adhere to rules, procedures, and
precedents. Individualism and aggression are NOT valued in these cultures. Employees
in these organizations should NOT exceed the limits of their roles. Empowerment is not
a management theory that is put into practice in this type of corporate culture.
Highlights: Organizational structure, rules, regulations, and job titles are all very
important. Individualism, aggression and assuming responsibility for job functions
outside of your job are NOT highly valued.
3) Task Cultures


In organizations of this type, they value everything that makes it possible to get the work
done and get company goals accomplished. The main concern in these types of
organizations is to be successful with the completion of projects. A managers success is
related to their knowledge and experienced required to achieve tasks, rather than to meet
the requirements of their role. If something does not help the company to meet its goals,
it is not considered to be of any value.
Highlights: Things and people in the organization only have value if they add to the
ability to get the job done. The bottom line is highly valued.
4) Individual Cultures
In organizations of this type freedom of expression is valued the MOST. Effectiveness of
any activity in these organizations is rated by how much the activity satisfies the staff
rather than by how well it conforms to the companys business plans. Independence,
creativity, and innovation are highly valued in these types of organizations.
Highlights: Freedom of expression and individualism are highly valued. People in the
organizations are valued more highly than the bottom line. Independence, creativity,
and innovation are all highly valued as well.

Lesson 10: English Grammar Exercise

Common Root Words
The following is a chart of common root words in the English language. By learning the
meanings of root words you will be able to understand a greater variety of words just by knowing
the root of a word. Even if you dont know what a word really means, you will be able to guess at
its meaning and figure out its what is being said based upon the root word and sentence context.
Manu, Mani
Ped, Pod

Study, Word
Feeling, Pain

Aquatic, Aquarium
Monarch, Anarchy
Astronomy, Astronaut
Beneficial, Benevolent
Biology, Biography
Chromatic, Monochrome
Corpse, Corporation
Encyclopedia, Cyclical
Dictionary, Predict
Effort, Fort
Legal, Legitimate
Zoology, Ecology
Manual, Manipulate
Maritime, Submarine
Sympathy, Pathologist
Pedicrure, Tripod


Vert, Vers


Philosophy, Bibliophile
Telephone, Phonology
Photon, Photograph
Metropolitan, Politics
Microscope, telescope
Tactile, Contact
Vacuum, Evacuate
Verify, Veracity
Convert, Reverse

Exercise A: Define the underlined words based upon sentence context and the chart above.
1) He is a doctor in the field of astrophysics.
2) She has a very versitale personality.
3) Dolphins are some of the most popular marine animals.
4) It would be beneficial for you to follow the doctors advice.
5) The study of phonetics in a second language is difficult.
6) A submarine uses a periscope when it is underwater.
7) He has a doctoral degree in podiatry.
8) Very few countries are still governed by a monarchy.
9) You will have to shift the gears of the car manually.

10) He has dedicated his life to the field of Sociology.

Lesson 11
The Basics of Organizational Design
Lesson Introduction
Organizational Design
The organizational design of a company is extremely important in business communications
because it changes the environment and the manner in which things are communicated. If a
person outside of a company is able to discern the organizational design of the company they are
trying to communicate with then they are more capable of making informed decisions on the best
way to approach the company they are wanting to initiate communications with. It is important to
remember that every company has its own corporate culture and the culture within a company
can have a huge impact upon business communications within the company as well as outside of
the company. Knowing the structure and organization of a company not only helps others to
understand how the company works but also how the company communicates. Being aware of
how a company communicates will help to ensure that business communications are successful.
1) Functional Organization
-Reduces duplication of activities
-Encourages technical expertise
-Creates narrow perspectives
-Difficult to coordinate
2) Divisional Organization


-Improves decision making

-Fixes accountability for performance
-Increases coordination of functions
-Hard to allocate corporate staff support
-Loses some economies of scale
-Fosters rivalry among divisions
3) Matrix Structures
-Reinforces & broadens technical excellence
-Facilitates efficient use of resources
-Balances conflicting objectives of the organization
-Increases power conflicts
-Increases confusion & stress for 2-boss employees
-Impedes decision making
4) Lateral Relations
-Dotted-line supervision
-Liaison roles
-Temporary task forces
-Permanent teams
-Integrating managers

Organizational Designs
Functional- organizational units are created on the basis of specialty functions
(production finance, marketing, etc). Strengths: specialization and all the strengths tied to
specialization. Weaknesses: slow response to change because of coordination and
decision making problems, difficulty with the wide-system view.
Divisional- evolve over time from a functional organization, are general decentralized
organizations, a good example is the Chevrolet division of General Motors (GM). Is used
in large organizations to provide better response to environmental change than the large
whole could. Weaknesses: can lose well-focused technical specialization and in-depth
technical development. May lose economies of scale from larger functional organization.
Focus may be on the goals of the division rather than on the goals of the entire company.
Hybrid- a combination of a functional and divisional organization with the hope of
gaining advantages of each and getting rid of the weaknesses of each type of organization
when it stands by itself. Strengths: can be very adaptable to differences in products,
customers, and changes in environment. Can provide efficient use of expensive shared
resources and work well with economies of scale. Weaknesses: difficult to get uniform
application of organizational policies with decentralized and duplicated functions.
Integration is difficult. Potential for high administrative costs and communication and
managerial difficulties.


Matrix- an organic design alternative that includes both vertical and horizontal lines of
authority. It will use functional and divisional chains of command simultaneously in the
same parts of the organization. It has dual lines of authority. The functional hierarchy
runs vertical. The divisional hierarchy runs laterally. Is used when there is environmental
pressure for both functional and departmentalization and divisional departmentalization.
Strengths: more efficient use of resources than a single hierarchy, adaptable to a changing
environment, allows development of both specific and general skills, expertise available
to all divisions. Weaknesses: dual chain of command can be confusing, high conflict
between the two sides of the matrix, many meetings are necessary to coordinate
activities, need for human relations training, power domination by one side of the matrix
may occur.

Business Jargon
The Importance of Business Jargon
In addition to companies having their own organizational designs, communication
channels, and corporate cultures they also tend to have their own jargon. Below is a
lsiting of some of the most commonly used phrases that exist in business jargon.
Companies do not expect that those outside of their company or their particular
marketplace understand the jargon that exists within their company. However, they still
continue to use common business jargon aside from the jargon that exists within their
company and it is important to know these phrases and terms so that business
communications is made easier on both parties involved.
Exercise A: Match the term on the left the correct definition on the right.
1-The bottom line
2-20/20 hindsight
3-Catch 22
4-Deep pockets
5-Dog and Pony show
6-Fence mending
7-Free ride

A) What his motivation is

B) Getting something for free
C) It will never work
D) Big business dealing at lunch time
E) Doing well, moving forward
F) To say something jokingly or not truthfully
G) It is needed now or immediately


8-I needed it yesterday

9-It will never fly
10-On a roll
11-Power lunch
12-Lay your cards on the table
13-To play hardball
14-Tongue in cheek
15-What makes him tick

H) The final result (from accounting)

I) Be truthful or honest
J) Perfect knowledge but too late
K) Whatever you do, it wont work
L) A financial presentation
M) An apology, smoothing of bad relations
N) Wealthy or having the ability to pay
O) To do business in a hard/tough manner

Exercise B: Match the term on the left to its definition on the right.
1) Back door
A) a complex problem
2) Bait and switch
B) to falsify records
3) Bang for the buck/Bang for your buck
C) a hopeless person/situation
4) Basket case
D) to expand, make stronger
5) Batting average
E) no longer contributing
6) Beef up
F) an unethical sales technique
7) Bells and whistles
G) an unsolvable problem
8) Can of worms
H) of questionable ethics, dishonest
9) Catch 22 situation
I) questionable past activities
10) Dead wood/Dead weight
J) % of the time you are successful
11) To cook the books
K) most results for your money
12) Dirty laundry
L) features/details of a product
Common Business Abbreviations
Introduction to Business Abbreviations
The use of business abbreviations in the business world is as common as the use of
business jargon. Most businesses are unaware of the fact that they are using jargon or
abbreviations because such forms of communications have become the standard in their
workplaces. Abbreviations are typically used by businesses in an effort to save time and
money. You will commonly find business abbreviations in memos, faxes, notes, emails
and job advertisements. The following is a list of some of the most commonly used
business abbreviations.
A/C- account current
adsd- addressed
adse- adressee
ad- advertisement
app- appendix
Attn.- attention
cc- copies
CEO- Chief Executive Officer
Co.- company
Corp.- corporation


Dept.- department
doc.- document
e.g./e.x.- example
exc.- except, excluding
FY- fiscal year
Inc.- incorporated
info- information
inv.- invoice
IOU- I owe you
L/C- letter of credit
LLC- limited liability company
mdse- merchandise
memo- memorandum
N/A- not applicable
PO- post office
pp.- pages
R&D- research and development
ref.- reference
V.I.P.- very important person
vs- versus
v.v.- vice versa
w/- with
w/o- without
&- and
@- at
#- number

Lesson 12
In-Class Final Project
Have class use Order terminology to write formal business letters. Break the class into
two groups or four groups depending on the size of the class. One or two groups will be
ABC company writing to Xerox company and one or two groups of the class will be
Xerox company responding to ABC companys request. The groups that are ABC
company do not need to write their letter before the Xerox groups start their work. They
can simply write a letter at the same time as the other groups since they know what the
people who are part of the ABC group will be writing. Below is what the letters from
each group should be based upon. This outline should go on the board for the class to
better understand what they are doing.

You want to order 5 copiers from Xerox
but only can afford to pay for 3 of those
machines right now. You want to see if
Xerox will agree to arrange some kind of
payment terms for you so you can get all 5

You need to respond to ABC companys
request. You need to tell them if you are
willing to extend credit to them or if you
have other options available to allow them
to get all 5 copiers right now. You can

photocopier machines now.

deny their request for the 5 copiers but

must explain your denial in your letter.

Appendix A
English-Russian Business English Reference Guide
Useful Words and Expressions

enquiry for delivery

We ask you to inform us whether you are able ,
to supply us with ...
Please inform us of your possibility to provide
us with ...
Please send us an offer quoting your best
prices and possible discounts.

We shall be very grateful if you could send us ,
your quotation as soon as possible.

We are in the market for ...
We would like to know the lead time of the
goods and your payment terms.
We would like the delivery to be made ...
... on FOB conditions.
... .


... during September.

... no later than October of the current year.

... .
... .

Sample Letter
Dear Sirs:

Our company is one of the major furniture importers

in Russia. At present time we are looking for a
foreign manufacturer who is able to supply us with
modern elite models of kitchen furniture.
We learn from your catalogue that you are producing

kitchen suits. Please inform us of your current export ,
prices and delivery terms.

If your conditions are acceptable to us, we'll be ready .
to place regular large orders with your company.

We are looking forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,
T.P. Ivanov
Sales Manager


We have received your enquiry.
We thank you for your enquiry for ...
We'll send you our quotation in the nearest
We are pleased to quote as follows:



In reply to your enquiry of ..., we regret to

inform you that we cannot offer you the goods ,
Referring to your enquiry we are pleased to let ,
you know that we can supply you with ...
deadline for delivery

delivery time
Delivery: approximately 2 to 3weeks from
: 2-3
receipt of order.

ex works

delivery method



The price is ... per unit.

- ... .
total price

VAT inclusive

exclusive of VAT

bank charge

quoted in US dollars

payment terms

Payment is net 30 days from the shipping
30 .
Payment terms - open account 60days.
- 60 .

The quotation is valid for 30 days.

We trust we have supplied sufficient
information for your requirements.

If you require any further information we
shall be happy to let you have this, on request. ,

We kindly ask you to confirm the present offer
by fax.
Trust the above quotation is of interest.
Sample Letter
Dear Sirs:

With reference to your enquiry of June 2nd we are

2- ,
pleased to confirm that we manufacture the goods you ,


are interested in. Our current price-list is enclosed

herewith. Please note that our price is understood to be .
FOB London, delivery time: three months after the
order received. The terms of payment are the subject of , -
. -
We hope our offer meets your requirements and will
result in an appropriate order. Your prompt reply will
be appreciated.
Yours faithfully,
N.V. Popov
Head of Import Dpt.


purchase order
sales order
order number
We thank you for your quotation dated ...
We are glad to inform you that your terms of
delivery and payment are quite acceptable to
Unfortunately your conditions are not
acceptable to us.
We find your quoted prices much higher than
those of other companies who have made us
similar offers.
We could place an order with you if you
reduce your prices at least by 5 per cent.
Please tell us if it's acceptable to you.
We are placing an order for ...
We have decided to place a trial order with
you for ...
Please acknowledge the receipt of our order
and fax your invoice for prepayment.
Your prompt execution of our order would be
We are looking forward to your confirmation
of the order.


, ,


5 .






Sample Letter
Dear Mr. Stone:

Many thanks for your offer of Apr. 5, 2001.

2001 .
Your delivery and payment terms suit us though

we find your quoted prices a bit too high. We
, ,
hope, however, that you will grant us a discount .
when we become your regular buyers.
Now we would like to place an order with you for .
5 machines. Please send your order

acknowledgement by fax asap.
5 .

Yours respectfully,
V.N. Silin


Order Acknowledgement
order acknowledgement
Thank you for the order.
We are thankful for your order of ... for ...
We were so pleased to receive in today's mail
your order for our equipment.

... ...

We are pleased to have your first order for ... ...
pieces of ...
We confirm delivery of ... in May.
... .
Please find our pro-forma enclosed.
We are certain that a trial order will give you ,
full satisfaction and we shall be very glad to ,
hear from you.
Sample Letter
Dear Mr. Kapustin:

Thank you very much for your first order of 04/12/01.

We shall be only too pleased to supply you with 500 12.04.01.


barrels of oil within 2 months after your prepayment. 500 2

Please note that we shall ship the first batch as soon as .
we receive the copy of your payment order.
We are quite sure that you'll be satisfied with the
quality of our product and hope to have long lasting
mutually beneficial business relations with you.

With best regards,
John Smith
Technical Director

Cover Letter
cover letter
We are sending you ...
We are forwarding you ...
Further to our letter we are sending you ...


At your request we are sending you ...

In reply to you fax we are sending you ...
We are pleased to send you ...
... by parcel post ...
... ...
... in today's mail ...
... ...
... separately ...
... ...
Sample Letter
Dear Mr. Johnson:

In reply to your fax of 05.14.2001 we are sending you,

under separate cover, the Contract of Guarantee No 365
for your signature.
We kindly ask you to sign the Contract in the shortest

possible time and send us the copy within a week.

With best regards,
P.O. Sidorov



Opening Salutations
Dear Sirs:
Dear Sir or Madam:
Dear Sir:
Dear Madam:
Dear Mr. :
Dear Mrs. :


Referring Phrases
Referring to your letter of ...
In reply to your letter of ... we are glad to
inform you that ...
With reference to your fax dated ... we are
pleased to confirm that ...
We refer to our letter regarding ...
In accordance with your order of ...
Further to our letter of ... we ...

, ...
, ...,
, ...
... ...

notification letter

letter of advice

Please note that ...

, ...
Let me inform you that ...
, ...
We are pleased to inform you that ...
, ...
, ...
I have pleasure in informing you that ...
, ...
We are sorry to have to remind you that ...
, ,
We regret to inform you that ...
, ...
Be advised please that ...
, , , ...
This is to inform you that ...
, ...
Please take due note that ...
, ...
We would like to notify you that ...

We ask you ...

Please send me ...
We should be very glad/grateful/thankful if
you would ...


... send us your reply by return.
... give us your banking details.
Please do your best to bring this matter to a , , ,
fast positive end.

Asking for information
Please let me know if ...
, , ...
Could you please tell us ...
, ,
, ...
We would be very much obliged if you could ,
inform us ...
We would be pleased to hear from you
, ,
concerning ...
I would be very grateful if you could explain ,
me ...
I wonder if you could give me some
information about ...

We confirm ...
We acknowledge ...
We have received ...
We are in receipt of ...
This letter shall confirm ...
In confirmation of our telephone
conversation ...
I confirm with thanks the receipt of your
We apologize for ...
We offer apologies for ...
Please accept our apologies for ...
... this mistake.
... the delay in answering your letter.
We are very sorry ...




... .
, ...


... to have caused you so much trouble.

..., but we cannot be of assistance to you in
this matter.
I regret any inconvenience that I may have
caused your company.

... .
, , ,
, , ,


I thank you for ...
I am writing to thank you very much indeed , ...
for ...
We are obliged for ...
We are most grateful to you for setting this

matter in such a friendly way.

Thank you so much for your letter and

Thank you in advance.


We ... agree with you.
... .
... quite ...
... ...
... fully ...
... ...
We agree with your proposal.
You are right that ...
, ...
I am of the same opinion.
We are looking forward to your consent.
I agree with you.

I don't agree with ...

Refusal and Disagreement

We can't agree with you.

You are mistaken.
We cannot accept your point of view for the



following reasons ...

We are of a different opinion.
We are sorry we are unable to meet your
I regret that I cannot give you more complete


Expressing Worry
So far we have received no reply from you. .
We are most disturbed that you will not be
able to ...
We are surprised that we have not yet received ,
the goods.
You can understand that this worries us a lot. ,
Should you have any comments regarding ..., - ,
we would very much appreciate hearing from ...,
I hope that all is going well with ...
, ...
We are very disappointed about this fact, and
hope that you can help us to clear out this very ,
strange situation.

We hope that you'll settle the matter to our full ,


I assure you that ...

, ...
We assure you that ...
, ...
... we'll get in touch with you without delay. ... .
... we'll take urgent actions to correct the
... your order will be completed by the
stipulated date.
... we'll do our best to bring this matter to a ... ,
fast positive end.

We are sure, you'll find our goods excellently ,
suited to your requirements.

I can assure you that it will not happen again. , .



We regret to learn from your letter that ...

, ...
We were deeply grieved to hear of ...
, ...
Accept our most heartfelt/sincerest
condolences on the death of ...
We hold his/her in deep respect.
/ .

Merry Christmas!
Happy New Year!
Happy birthday!
Let me congratulate you on ...
Congratulations on ...
On behalf of ... I congratulate you on ...
... ...
Please accept our best/sincerest wishes.

/ .
We wish you ...
... happiness!
... !
... luck!
... !
... success!
... !
About Business Relations
business relations

We value friendly relations between our

customers and ourselves.
We value you as a business partner.
We would like to maintain cooperation with
We hope to have the pleasure of doing

business with you again.
It is a pleasure doing business with your firm.
I look forward to cooperating with you on this
new venture.

I hope that we will continue our mutually

satisfying relationship.
About Assistance
Please do no hesitate to contact us if we can ,
be of any service to you.
If you ever have any problems with ..., feel -


free to contact us for help.

We certainly appreciate your help.
We shall be very grateful for any assistance
you can give us I this matter.



About Enclosure
We enclose ...
We are enclosing ...
We are sending you ... under separate cover. ...
Please enclose ... with your reply ...
Enclosed you will find a copy of the contract. .
Connective Words
First of all ...
Please note that ...
, ...
We wish to bring to you notice that ...
We would like to note that ...
The matter is ...
, ...
The point is ...
We think ...
, ...
We believe ...
In fact ...
In this connection ...
In view of the above ...
Apart from the above ...
In addition to the above ...
Further to the above ...
On the other hand ...
Moreover ...
Besides ...
Nevertheless ...
Closing Phrases
We are looking forward to hearing from you. .
We look forward to your reply.
Your early reply will be appreciated.
We would appreciate your cooperation on this
Awaiting your prompt reply.
Best regards.
With best wishes.
Yours faithfully, ...
, ...


Yours sincerely, ...

, ...
, ...

1. .., .., ,
5- ., - : , 2003.
2. Business English and Communication, 7th edition, Clark, Zinmer,
Tineria, MacMillian/McGraw Hill, NY,1988.
3. Market Leader; International Management, Business English. Adrian
Pilbeam, Pearson Education Limited, England, 2000.
4. Market Leader Course book; Pre-Intermidiate Business Englaish.
David Cotton, David Falvey, Simon Kent, Pearson Education Limited,
England, 2002.
5. http://choo.fis.utoronto.ca/FIS/Courses/LIS1230sharma/od2.htm
6. http://www.learningrussian.com
7. http://www.bash.edu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/categor.htm
8. http://www.eslgold.com