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Swinburne University of Technology

Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science (FECS)


(Sarawak Campus)

HES 2340 Fluid Mechanics

Lab Sheet: IMPACT OF JET

Name:
Student ID:
Group Number:..
Date performed experiment:..
Lab supervisor:...

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
OBJECTIVE ..3

1.0

INTRODUCTION 3

2.0

GENERALDESCRIPTION 4
2.1

3.0

4.0

Parts Identification

..5

SUMMARY OF THEORY
3.1

General Analysis......6

3.2

Application to Impact of Jet Apparatus...7

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
4.1

General start procedures..9

4.2

Experiment: Reaction force Determination10

4.3

General Shut-down Procedures ......11

5.0

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS..14

6.0

DATA SHEET 15

7.0

RESULT ..16

CONCLUSION16
REFERENCE..16
APPENDIX A

Experimental Data Sheets

APPENDIX B

Typical Experimental Results

OBJECTIVE

1. To investigate the reaction force produced by the impact of jet of water on to


various target vanes.
2. To experimentally determine the force required to keep a target at a datum level
while it is subjected to the impact of water jet.
3. To compare the experimentally measured force with the theoretical calculated
force.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Impact of jet apparatus with hydraulic bench

1.0

INTRODUCTION
Impact of Jet apparatus enables experiments to be carried out on the reaction
force produced on vanes when a jet of water impacts on to the vane of various
form. The study of these reaction forces is an essential step in the subject of
mechanics of fluids which can be applied to hydraulic machinery such as the
Pelton Wheel and the Impulse Turbine.

2.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION


The Impact of Jets Apparatus, which is illustrated in Figure 1, is intended to be
used with the Hydraulic Bench which provides the water supply and the means of
measuring flow rate. The apparatus is supported on a PVC base into which a
vertical nozzle supply pipe is fitted. Surrounding the supply pipe is a transparent
acrylic plastic shield/tube fitted with a removable top PVC flanged cover
assembly.
A vertical shaft, which passes through the top flange assembly, has provision for
attaching the target vane at its lower end. The top of the shaft is screwed to a
weight platform and a spring between the top flange and the weight platform
provides vertical support to an equilibrium position. A weight carrier and a set of
brass weights are supplied.
Four interchangeable target vanes are supplied; the flat, 120 conical, 60 plate
and semi-spherical, dimensional detail of the three target vanes are shown in
Figure 2. Three interchangeable plain bore nozzles are supplied, one 5 mm
diameter and one 8 mm diameter. Screws are provided on the base plate of the
apparatus for storage of the nozzle and target vanes which are not in use.
The reaction vane is held within the transparent shield approximately 20 mm
above the vertical water supply pipe nozzle by a rod which passes through the top
cover and supports a flat tray, onto which masses may be placed. In operation,
water from the Hydraulic Bench flows vertically from the nozzle and impacts
onto the target vane. The impulse force produced by the impact of the jet onto the
vane lifts the vane, shaft and weight platform upwards and weights can then be
added to restore the weight platform to its equilibrium position. The water from
the jet is deflected by the reaction vane under test and drains away through three
apertures in the base of the chamber.

2.1 Parts Identification

Weight Carrier
Pointer

Brass Weights

Weight Platform
Interchangeable
Target Vane
Interchangeable
Nozzle

Drain holes in base


Water Supply
Connection

Figure 1: Impact of Jets Apparatus

120

30

A) Flat Target

60

30

B) Conical Target

C) Semi-Spherical Target

Figure 2: Interchangeable Target Vanes

30

30

D) 60 Plate Target

3.0

SUMMARY OF THEORY
3.1

General Analysis
When a jet of water flowing with a steady velocity strikes a solid surface,
the water is deflected to flow along the surface. Unlike the impact of solid
bodies, there is no rebound and unless the flow is highly turbulent, there
will be no splashing. If friction is neglected by assuming an inviscid fluid
and it is also assumed that there are no losses due to shocks then the
magnitude of the water velocity is unchanged, the pressure exerted by the
water on the solid surface will everywhere be at right angles to the surface.
Newtons second law of motion states that a mass that is accelerated
required a force that is equal to the product of the mass and acceleration.
In fluid mechanics, whenever fluid are forced to go through a restriction or
change direction. The analogy to Newtons second law in fluid mechanics
is known as the momentum equation.

FX
Vi

Vi
T

Vi cos T

Impact Velocity, Vi

Vi

Height, h

Vi sin T

Vi

Exit Velocity, Vn

Figure 3: Impact of a Jet


Consider a jet of water which impacts on to a target surface causing the
direction of the jet to be changed through and angle as shown in Figure 3
above. In the absence of friction, the magnitude of the velocity across the
surface is equal to the incident velocity Vi. The impulse force exerted on
the target will be equal and opposite to the force which acts on the water
to impart the change in direction.

Applying Newtons Second law in the direction of the incident jet


Force
Mass u Acceleration
Mass Flow Rate u Change in Velocity
.

M 'V

- FX

M (VX,out - VX,in )

- FX

M Vi cosT - Vi

FX

M Vi 1 - cosT

But M = Q

therefore
.

Q V i (1  cos )
.

And dividing trough by Q Vi which is the incident momentum


F

1  cos

Q Vi

3.2

Application to Impact of Jet Apparatus


In each case it is assumed that there is no splashing or rebound of the
water from the surface so that the exit angle is parallel to the exit angle of
the target.

a)

Effect of Height
The jet velocity can be calculated from the measured flow rate and
the nozzle exit area.
.

Vn

Q
A

However, as the nozzle is below the target, the impact velocity will
be less than the nozzle velocity due to interchanges between
potential energy and kinetic energy.
Applying the Bernoulli equation between nozzle and plate:

Pn

Vn2
 Z n


g
2

Pi

Vi 2
 Z i


g
2

Since the jet is open to the atmosphere,

Pn

Pi

J

And

Z n  Z i

Therefore,

Vi 2

Vn2  2 gh

Where h is the height of target above the nozzle exit.

b)

Impact on Normal Plane Target


For the normal plane target is 90. Therefore cos = 0
F
1  cos
1
.
Q Vi

c)

Impact on Conical and 30 Plate Target


The cone semi-angle is 120. Therefore cos = 0.5
F
1  cos
0.5
.
Q Vi

d)

Impact on Semi-Spherical Target


The target exit angle is 180. Therefore cos = - 1
F
1  cos
2
.
Q Vi
By using the above equation, we can compare the theoretical and
experimental of force value of target with different angle.
Experimentally,

mg

Theoretically,
Q Vi u 1 - cosT
.

4.0

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
4.1

General Start-up Procedures

Figure 4: Impact of a Jet Apparatus with Hydraulic Bench


The Impact of Jet (Model: FM 31) is supplied ready for use and only
requires connection to the Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM 110) as follows:
1. Locate the apparatus on top of the Hydraulic Bench with the left hand
support feed of the Impact of Jets Apparatus located on the two left
hand locating pegs of the Hydraulic Bench so that the apparatus
straddles the weir channel.
2. Attach a spirit level to baseboard and level the unit on top of the bench
by adjusting the feet.
3. Connect the feed tube from the Hydraulic Bench to the base of the
Impact of Jets Apparatus by using a hose.
4. Fill water into the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench until
approximately 90% full.
5. Fully close the bench flow control valve, V1 then switch on the pump.
6. Gradually open V1 and allow the piping to fill with water until all air
has been expelled from the system.
7. The actual flow of water can be measured using the volumetric tank
with a stopwatch.

4.2

Experiment: Reaction force Determination

Objective:
1. To investigate the reaction force produced by the impact of a jet of
water on to various target vanes.
2. To experimentally determine the force required to keep a target at a
datum level while it is subjected to the impact of a water jet.
3. To compare the experimentally measured force with the theoretically
calculated force
Procedures:
1. Position the weight carrier on the weight platform. Adjust the spring
tension adjuster to a distance of XX mm between the nozzle and the
target, then record this value as h. Move the pointer so that it is aligned
to the weight platform that is floating in mid position.
2. Start the pump and establish the water flow by steadily opening the
bench regulating valve until it is fully open.
3. The vane will now be deflected by the impact of the jet. Add weights
onto the weight carrier until the weight platform is again floating in
mid position.
4. Measure the flow rate and record the result on the test sheet, together
with the corresponding value of weight on the tray. Observe the form
of the deflected jet and note its shape.
5. Reduce the weight on the weight carrier in steps and maintain balance
of weight platform by regulating the flow rate in about eight or ten
even steps, each time recording the value of flow rate and weight on
the weight carrier.
6. Close the control valve and switch off the pump.
7. Repeat the experiment with different target vanes and nozzles.

Results and analysis:


1. Record the results on the result sheets.
2. Calculate the flow rate and the nozzle exit velocity. Correct the nozzle
velocity for the height of the target above the nozzle to obtain the
impact velocity.
3. Calculate the experimental force and the theoretical force, then
compare.

10

Discussion:
1. In the installation of this apparatus, its crucial to make sure the
placement of the nozzle head is at the centre under the vane. The
displacement of it causing a loss in water velocity due to splashing by
the rebound water. If the vane and the nozzle shaft are placed in series
and centered, there will be no water rebound as jet water exerted will
be deflected to flow along the surface to the surrounding shield when it
hits the target vane. Due to this displacement also, it will cause an
uneven force impact on the target vane hence decreasing the reaction
force produced on the vane.
2. Higher water jet velocity will produce a higher force exerted onto the
target vane. The amount of weight can be supported indicate the force
exerted by the jet.

4.3

General Shut-down Procedures


1. Close water supply valve.
2. Turn off the water supply pump.
3. Drain off water from the unit when not in use.

11

5.0

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


1.

Make sure the control valve is close completely every time before the pump
is switch on. This is to avoid intrusion of air into the pump. Entrapped air
can reduced the force exerted by the jet thus reducing it efficiency.

2.

Do not place the weights on the weight platform when the unit is not in use.

3.

It is important to drain all water from the apparatus when not in use. The
apparatus should be stored properly to prevent damage.

4.

The apparatus should not be exposed to any shock and stresses.

5.

Always wear protective clothing, shoes, helmet and goggles throughout the
laboratory session.

6.

Always run the experiment after fully understands the unit and procedures.

12

6.0 DATA SHEET:


Nozzle Size : ____________

Target: ______________

Weight (g)
Volume (Liter)
Time (s)
Flow rate, Q
(m3/s)
Exit Velocity,
Vn (m/s)
h (mm)
Impact Velocity,
Vi (m/s)
Experimental
Force, F (N)
Theoretical
Force, Fn (N)
% Error

13

Nozzle Area: _____________

Model table:

Nozzle Size: 5mm

Weight
(g)

Target: Hemisphere

Volume
(L)

Vn

T1

Nozzle Area: 1.963E-05

Time (s)
T2

Vi

T3

F (Exp)

14

Average
Time (s)

F
(Theory)

Flow Rate

Error
%

RESULTS
1. Record the results on the result sheet
2. Calculate the flow rate and the nozzle exit. Correct the nozzle velocity for height
of the target above the nozzle to obtain the impact velocity
3. Calculate the experimental force and the theoretical force , the compare

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES
Applied Fluid Mechanics 5th Edition, Robert L. Mott, Prentice-Hall
Elementary Fluid Mechanics 7th Edition, Robert L. Street, Gary Z. Watters, John
K. Vennard, John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Fluid mechanics 4th Edition, Reynold C. Binder
Fluid Mechanics with applications, Anthony Esposito, Prentice-Hall International
Inc.

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APPENDIX A

Experimental Data Sheets

16

APPENDIX B

Typical Experimental Results

Sample Calculation:
Nozzle Size: 5 mm
Target: Hemisphere ( = 180)
Weight loaded, m =

g
m3/s

Flow rate, Q:

Height of impact, h= 20 mm

Nozzle Area, A:

SD 2
4
m2

Exit Velocity, V n :

Vn

Q
A

Vn

m/s

Impact Velocity, Vi :

Vi 2

Vn2  2 gh

Theoretical Force,

F
F

F:

mg

17

Experimental Force F

Q Vi u 1 - cosT
.

% Error,

Theoretical  Experimental
u 100%
Theoretical

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