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Summary of lecture

2.f.

Thermodynamics: the specific heat is a fundamental


property of the fluid; the internal energy and enthalpy
depend on the fluids temperature and pressure

Elger 2.3

2.g.

Surface tension is important for dispersions like oil in


water, or for small-scale flows in which liquids are
exposed to gases

Elger 2.6

2.h.

Vapour pressure is important during cavitation and


boiling systems

Elger 2.7

Fluid Statics

Crowe et al. textbook,

Chapter 3
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdOGPBnfoKE

Teton Dam disaster on June 5, 1976

Fluid Statics
Week 2&3
3.a.

Pressure

Crowe 3.1

3.b.

Pressure variation with elevation

Crowe 3.2

3.c.

Pressure measurements

Crowe 3.3

3.d.

Forces on plane surfaces - magnitude

Crowe 3.4

3.e.

Forces on plane surfaces centre of pressure

Crowe 3.4

3.f.

Forces on curved surfaces

Crowe 3.5

3.g.

Buoyancy

Crowe 3.6

3.h.

Stability of immersed and floating bodies

Crowe 3.7

Contents of this Lecture 3.1

3.a.

Pressure

Crowe 3.1

3.b.

Pressure variation with elevation

Crowe 3.2

3.c.

Pressure measurements

Crowe 3.3

3.d.

Forces on plane surfaces - magnitude

Crowe 3.4

Fluid Statics
Green usually means youve learnt this already

From Lecture 1.1:

Fluids cannot support a shear stress


If there is a shear stress, fluids flow: deform continually
So, if there is no shear stress, fluids are at rest or moving as a
solid body: motionless or no relative motion
From Lecture 1.1:

In a fluid at rest, there is a stress, though the pressure


Another term for pressure is normal stress it acts normal (at
right angles) to any given surface
The study of pressure or normal stress is fluid statics

Fluid Statics

In fluid statics, pressure variations are due only to the fluid weight
So, fluid statics is due to gravity

Pressure is stored energy


When pressure is released, it
creates fluid flows sometimes
desired, sometimes catastrophic

http://www.hydropowerusa.com/images/home/hydroelectric_dam.jpg

Pressure
The New Cotter Dam, Canberra, 2-3 Mar 2012

http://www.abc.net.au

Thursday, 2 Mar

http://www.abc.net.au

Friday, 3 Mar

T2
3.4

Pressure

Pressure is the normal force per unit area exerted by fluid

dFnormal
p
dA

Defined using a derivative because


it often varies with location

Pressure has a magnitude, but no direction


thus it is a scalar, not a vector
Units of pressure in the SI system are Pascal = N/m2
In fluid mechanics, it is usually easy to calculate or measure
pressure, but often what we need to know is the force the
pressure causes on some boundary (like a dam wall)

Pressure variation with elevation


Consider a static container of fluid
Consider a differential element in this container
Since the element is not accelerating, the forces on it
must sum to zero
What are the forces acting on this element?
Gravity (a body force) Fg and pressure Fp on the
surfaces, so that Fg + Fp = 0
Fg is the same everywhere, Fg = gxyz
Fp must also the same everywhere, Fp= pxy
So gxyz + pxy = 0, or p = gz, or p/z = g
Remember g = -9.81m2s-1; its easy to forget the
negative
So if is constant, the pressure gradient is constant
Homsy et al. Multimedia fluid mechanics, second edition

p+p
p

Pressure variation with elevation


Physical interpretation: the
fluid elements at the bottom
need to bear the weight of the
fluid in the elements above
Mathematical interpretation:
we can integrate from
position 0 to any other
position to find the pressure

p0
p1 = p0+gz
p2 = p1+gz

p3 = p2+gz
p4 = p3+gz
p5 = p4+gz
p6 = p5+gz

Pressure variation with elevation


Pressure in a fluid increases with depth
We know p/z = g
So, if the density is constant: pressure in a liquid is directly
proportional to depth

Pressure in a gas (for example, in the Earths atmosphere) is more


complex because the density varies significantly. Still we could use
our physical interpretation of lower elements supporting higher
ones and we could still integrate to find the pressure

Pressure variation with elevation


http://askthephysicist.com/ask_phys_q&a.html

We found p/z = g
This is known as the

dp
g
dz

Hydrostatic Differential Equation

= g is the specific weight (the negative comes from the fact that g acts
down
If we assume constant density and integrate from z=0 to some depth -z,
we get

p z

p0

p g z p0

Remember to be careful with


signs: its easy to forget gravity
accelerates in the negative z
direction

Most engineers remember one thing from fluid statics:

p gh

h is the depth (height) of liquid from free surface

For problems over great heights in the atmosphere, or great depths, you
need to go back to the hydrostatic differential equation
Pressure in a gas (for example, in the Earths atmosphere) is more
complex because the density varies significantly)

Lab

Pressure variation with elevation


The Hydrostatic Differential Equation, integrated assuming density is
constant, can be re-arranged into two equivalent forms:

pz p z
h

pz is piezometric pressure
p z g h h
h is piezometric head

Both forms are called the hydrostatic equation


Piezometric head is the height of a column of fluid such that the
pressure is pz at the bottom

Lab
4

Pressure variation with elevation

Piezometric pressure pz is a pressure, measured in Pa (N/m2)


Piezometric head h is a height, measured in m
Intravenous (IV) drip: h

Water tower: h

In both cases h is
used to control
pressure at the
bottom
http:// zeroemissionsexpeditions.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/DSC00915.jpg

http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5045/5321588137_20d1d03f69_z.jpg

Pressure variation with elevation


Equality of pressure at the same level in a static fluid
Pressure is the same at every point on a
horizontal plane through the same fluid, no
matter how complicated the connection

2
4

3
5

Pascals Law
Blaise Pascal, French
mathematician, 1623-1662

p1 p2 p3
p4 p5 p6

p=gh: pressure depends on depth only


The length or cross-sectional area of the tube
has no effect on the height of the fluid column
of a barometer

Pressure
Absolute, Gauge and Vacuum Pressure
This concept is also covered in HES2330 Thermodynamics, Lecture 1

Pressure that is measured;


(positive)

Gauge Pressure:
Pressure
below
Vacuum
atmospheric
(negative)

Usually written
simply as p

Pressure due to weight of


the atmosphere above us

pgauge = Pabsolute - Patm

Pressure: pvac = Patm Pabsolute

Total pressure; use


this in thermodynamic
calculations

Most instruments (gauges) measure the difference between the absolute


pressure and your local atmospheric pressure (how far the measured
pressure is above atmospheric pressure)
Standard atmospheric pressure is 101,325 Pa ... but actual Patm varies
from hour to hour depending on the weather
Atmospheric variations are tiny compared with most engineering gauge
pressures
But sometimes engineers deal with very small pressures, so check Patm
(www.bom.gov.au); (http://www.met.gov.my/index.php?lang=english)

Pressure
Pressure acts on the container surface
Force exerted by pressure in a fluid is always perpendicular
to the surface of the containing vessel

http://faculty.wwu.edu/vawter/
PhysicsNet/Topics/Pressure/
HydroStatic.html

Forces on plane surfaces


Pressure distribution
Fluid is a gas

Fluid is a liquid

Data on the pressure at all


points along a surface is the
pressure distribution
Forces due to the
pressure distribution act
normal to the surface
At right angles

Uniform pressure
distribution

Hydrostatic pressure
distribution

Hydrostatic pressure forces acting over the complete surface can be


replaced by a single resultant force, FR, which acts through some point
on the surface called the Centre of Pressure (CP)

Forces on plane surfaces


Magnitude of Resultant Hydrostatic Force
FR is determined by integrating the force P dA acting on a
differential area dA over the entire surface
The pressure on the differential area is

p ( g ) h ( ) y sin
The differential force is

dF pdA y sin dA

The total force on the area is

F pdA y sin dA
A

F sin ydA

first moment of the area = y A

F y sin A
A

pressure at the
centroid of the area

F pA

Pressure
The Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam, 17 Aug 2009
http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=817_1252777993

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2a/GES2007.JPG/800px-GES2007.JPG

Pressure
The Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam, 17 Aug 2009
Official Report
At 8:12 the turbine 2 output power was reduced by an automatic turbine regulator,
and it entered into a powerband unrecommended for the head pressure that day.
Shortly afterwards the bolts keeping the turbine 2 cover in place were broken.
Under water pressure (about 20 atmospheres) the spinning turbine with its cover,
rotor and upper parts jumped out of the casing, destroying the machinery hall equipment
and building.

Pressurised water immediately flooded the rooms and continued damage to the plant.
At the same time, an alarm was received at the power station's main control panel,
and the power output fell to zero, resulting in a local blackout.
But it took 25 minutes to manually close the water gates to the other turbines
Death toll: 75

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shhpp2.jpg

The Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam, 17 Aug 2009

http://www.bigpicture.in/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/TheSayanoShushenskayadamaccident_031.jpg

Pressure measurement

Pressure measurement
Barometer
Atmospheric pressure can be measured through a mercury barometer

A simple barometer consists of an inverted glass tube filled


with mercury with its open end submerged in a mercury
container

patm = Hgh + pvapour


The vapour pressure in the
glass tube is negligibly small,
hence the atmospheric
pressure is simply given by
the height of the mercury
column

patm = Hgh

Pressure measurement
This concept is also covered in HES2330 Thermodynamics, Lecture 1

Bourdon-Tube Gauge
Measures pressure by sensing the deflection of a coiled tube
At atmospheric pressure (zero gauge
pressure), the gauge needle is calibrated
to read zero
elliptical cross-section tube
bent into a circular arc

When pressure is applied, the curved tube


straightens, turning the needle
The most common pressure gauge in industry,
particularly for typical engineering pressures

Lab

Lab

Pressure measurement
Piezometer
A piezometer is the simplest form of a pressure measuring device.
Vertical tube in which a liquid rises in response to a positive gauge
pressure

The pressure head of the fluid column indicates the pressure


of the container:

pabs = h + patm

pgauge= h

gauge pressure at desired measurement point inside pipe

Cannot measure vacuum


pressure - air would be sucked
into the container through the
tube
Measured pressure should be
low, otherwise a very long tube
would be needed

Pressure measurement
Piezometer

1718 Rev. Stephen Hales is the


first to measure blood
pressure, using a glass pipe
stuck into a horses neck

1847 Carl Ludwig develops a


device that recorded human
blood pressure, also by
puncturing an artery

T2
3.34

Pressure measurement
Manometer

A U-tube containing one (or more) fluids such as mercury,


water, alcohol, or oil
Does not need to use the same type of fluid as the fluid you
are trying to measure
Can measure very small pressures accurately and very
simple

T2
3.34

Pressure measurement
Manometer

Remember two points at the same elevation is the same,


connected fluid are at the same pressure

1. Start from one end (point 1),


and work from one fluid level
to another, up to the other end
(point 4).
2. Add pressures when going
down and subtract them when
going up

p4 p1 i hi i hi
down

up

i and hi
are the specific weight and displacement in
each leg of the manometer

T2
3.36

Pressure measurement
Manometer
What is the gauge pressure at point A?
Working from A to the open end,

pA + 1h1 2h2 = 0,
giving

pA = 2h2 1h1
If the fluid in the tank is a gas and the manometer fluid is liquid (1<<2),
then the pressure difference between 1 and 2 is negligible, so

pA = 2h2
https://ecourses.ou.edu/cgi-bin/ebook.cgi?doc=&topic=fl&chap_sec=02.2&page=theory

T2
3.36

Pressure measurement
Manometer
What is the pressure difference
between A and B?

Start at A as before,
pA + 1h1 2h2 - 3h3 = pB
giving
p A - p B = 2 h 2 + 3 h 3 1 h 1

https://ecourses.ou.edu/cgi-bin/ebook.cgi?doc=&topic=fl&chap_sec=02.2&page=theory

Lab

Pressure measurement
Pressure Transducers
A pressure transducer is a device that converts pressure to an
electrical signal.
There are many types
of sensing elements;
one common type: the
resistance-wire strain
gauge attached to a
flexible diaphragm
As the diaphragm flexes, the wires of the strain gauge change
length, changing the resistance of the wire. This change in
resistance is converted into a voltage change

Pressure measurement
In some situations, we might want to ignore the variation with depth
(because it is small compared to what we want to measure), and
assume the pressure is constant in a given container.
Since piezometric head is constant in the water,

ha = hb = hc
pa

za

pb

zb

pc

zc

Similarly the piezometric head is


constant in the oil:

pd

hd =p he = hfp f

zd

ze

zf

But the piezometric head is


constant when density changes

hc hd

not

because points c and d are in different fluids

Pressure: liquids and gases


Pressure and density
The pressure in a liquid at a
given depth is directly
proportional to the density of the
liquid
Pressure and Volume in a gas
From Lecture 1.2, slide 12:

10 m

The ideal gas law, for constant


temperature, takes the form

p / constant , thus

p v constant

Boyles Law, 1662

20 m

30 m

Specific Volume, from Lecture 1.2, slide 4

So, as pressure increases, gas volume decreases

Pressure: liquids and gases


p v constant

Lecture 1.2, slide 4:


Convert from intensive to extensive by multiplying by total mass

p V constant
p1 V1 p2 V2
How much would the air in a divers lungs
expand on ascending from 30 m depth?

p1 patm 101,325N/m 2
p2 patm gh patm 1000 9.81 30 395,625N/m 2
V1
p2 395,625 N/m 2

4
2
V2
p1 101,325 N/m
If you hold your breath on ascent, your lung volume would
increase by a factor of 4: would rupture lungs
Hence the number one rule of SCUBA: Never hold your breath!

Crowe et al. pg. 67

Summary of Lecture 3.1

3.ab.

Pressure changes with height or depth only in a


fluid static fluid

Crowe 3.2

3.c.

We can use this fact to easily measure pressure


by the height of a liquid column or a variety of
instruments

Crowe 3.3

3.d.

Pressure can be converted to a force on a


plane surface

Crowe 3.4