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COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR IN PRACTICE


REPORTED SPEECH

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I-II

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COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR IN PRACTICE


REPORTED SPEECH
()
- I-II


2014

811.111 (075.8)
143.2173
354
... Communicative Grammar in Practice. Reported
Speech. (): -
I-II . :
, 2014. 58 .
-
1-2


. (Theory and Practice, Tests,
Additional Tips for Practicing Reported Speech)
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- .
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: (). :
www.umk3.utmn.ru,.

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, 2014
.., 2014
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COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR IN PRACTICE


REPORTED SPEECH
()
- I-II

____________. __300__
_________.. 6084/16. _____

4

625003, . , . , 10

Direct and Reported Speech


We will have to
spend a lot of money
on this project.

What did Mr. Brown tell his partner


yesterday?
He told his partner, We will have to
spend a lot of money on this project.
OR
He told his partner (that) they would
spend a lot of money on that project.

Identify Direct and Reported Speech in the given examples and notice
the difference!
Direct speech
1. The

exact

Reported speech
words

someone

used.

1. The exact meaning of what


someone said, but not the

2. We use quotation marks ( )

exact words.

3. Reporting words can either go


before Direct speech or follow
it.

2. We do not use quotation


marks.
3. That is optional.

4. Reporting words are usually

4. Personal

pronouns,

separated from Direct speech

possessive adjectives change

by commas.

according to the meaning of


the sentence (we they).

5. No change in tenses.
6. No change in demonstrative

5. Change in tenses (will

pronouns and time expressions.


7. Direct

speech

can

be

would).
6. Some

words

and

time

introduced by various reporting

expressions change (this

verbs.

that).
7. Reported

speech

introduced

by

can

be

various

reporting verbs.
Say Tell

Say is used in Direct speech. It is also used in Reported speech when it

is not followed by the person the words were spoken to (object). It can be
followed by the object but with the preposition to.
I can fix it, he said. He said he could fix it.

Tell is used in Reported speech when it is followed by the object

I can do it, he said to me. He told me he could do it.

Expressions with say and tell


say good morning/evening, something, ones prayers, a few words, so, no
more, for certain
tell truth, a lie, sb the time, sb ones name, a story, a secret, sb the way,
one from another, sbs fortune, sb so, the difference..

Decide between say or tell and put them in the correct tense.

This sugar-free chocolate is delicious, said Sandra. I cant ____ the

difference between this chocolate and the one containing sugar. I like it,
too, _____ Mark. I wish someone had ____ me about it sooner. I could have

lost so much weight! To ____ you the truth, I dont think you should lose
weight, _____Sandra. I like you just the way you are, she _____ him.

I saw Paul in town today, Steve ____ Louise. I _____ good afternoon

to him and I noticed that hed had his hair cut. I should have _____ something
about it, but it looked awful, so I didnt mention it. You did the right thing,
Louise ____ him. Its better to _____ nothing than to _____ a lie.

At Alisons wedding reception, her father stood up and _____ the

guests that he would like to _____ a few words. He started to _____ a story
about when Alison was young. Alison felt embarrassed, but she didnt _____
so. Then her father _____ the guests some jokes, which everyone found very
funny. Finally, he _____ a prayer for the happy couple.

REPORTED IMPERATIVES
Read the conversation. What are the doctors exact words?
-

Dara! What are you doing?

Ive been having trouble sleeping. The doctor told me not to eat a

heavy meal before bed. So, Im having it now.

Grammar explanations

Direct speech

Reported

examples

speech
examples

1. Direct speech imperatives use the


base form of the verb. Reported
imperatives use infinitive to report
Come early, he He

instructions

commands

said

to

said.

come early.

Wait.

He told me to

wait.
Could

requests

you She asked him

please arrive by to
8:00?

arrive

by

8:00.

Could you join She invited me

invitations

us for lunch?

to join them for


lunch.

2. Use a negative infinitive (not + Dont go.


infinitive)

to

report

He told her not


to go.

negative

imperatives.
3. Change

pronouns

and He said to Ann, He asked Ann


Tell

possessives.

me

your to tell him her

problem.
Call

4. Change time phrases.

problem.
me She said to call

tomorrow.

her

the

next

day.
Sign this form She told him to

5. Change this and here.

here.

sign that form


there.

Common reporting verbs in reported imperatives


advise, ask, caution, command, demand, instruct, invite, order, say, tell, urge,
warn, agree, offer, promise, refuse, threaten, claim, allow, beg, encourage,
forbid, instruct, invite, permit, remind, want.

Common words and time expressions changes in Reported speech


Direct speech

Reported speech

now

then, at that time, immediately

today

that day

tomorrow

the next day/ the following day/ the day after

yesterday

the day before/ the previous day

this week/month/year

that week/month/year

last week/month/year

the week/month/year before

next week/month/year

the following week/month/year

two days ago

two days before

here

there

come

go

1. Read the article about sleep disorders. Identify all the reporting

verbs, all the direct imperatives and all the reported imperatives.
TOSSING AND TURNING by Connie Sung
Cant sleep? You are not alone. Millions of people are up tossing and
turning instead of getting their zzzzs. Dr.Ray Thrope, Director of the Sleep
Disorders Clinic, says, Dont think that loss of sleep is just a minor
inconvenience. During an interview he told me to think about what can
happen if people drive when theyre tired. Every year up to 200,000 car
accidents are caused by drowsy drivers. Then he asked me to think about a
recent industrial disaster. Chances are that it was caused at least in part by
sleep deprivation. Being an insomniac myself, I asked Dr.Thrope for some
suggestions. He told me to stop drinking coffee. He said to have a warm
glass of milk instead. A lot of old-fashioned remedies work. Have a highcarbohydrate snack like a banana before you go to bed, he said. But he
advises patients not to eat a heavy meal before turning in for the night. What
about exercise? Regular exercise helps, but dont exercise too close to
bedtime, he suggested. Finally, he told me not to despair. Dont worry about
not sleeping. Its the worst thing to do, he said. I dont know. After thinking
about those industrial accidents, I doubt Ill be able to sleep at all!

2. Connie Sung visited Dr. Thropes sleep clinic. Complete her

notes with the correct word in parentheses.


Last week I visited the sleep clinic. Dr.Thorpe called and asked me (arrive / to
arrive) at 8:30 (tonight / that night). He (said / told) to bring (my / your)
nightshirt and toothbrush. I arrived on schedule. The technician, Juan
Estrada, invited me (watch / to watch) TV in the lounge. He (said / told) to
relax (here / there) while they got my room ready. An hour later, Juan came
back and got me ready to sleep. He attached electrodes to my body and
hooked me up to a machine. Could you please (explain / to explain)? I
asked. The machine records brain activity. Juan instructed me (dont / not to)
leave the bed until (tomorrow / the next) morning. To my surprise, I fell asleep
right away. In the morning, Dr. Thrope told me that except for some leg
movements during the night, I have healthy sleep patterns. He advised me
(get / to get) some more exercise.

3. Read the advice that TV news commentator John Stossel gave

viewers about the common and very dangerous problem of feeling


sleepy when driving. Turn his advice in reported speech.
1.

Pull over and take a brief nap. He told them to pull over and take a
brief nap.

2.

Dont take a long nap. ____________________________________

3.

Sing to yourselves. _______________________________________

4.

Turn your radio to an annoying station. ________________________

5.

Dont drink coffee. _______________________________________

6.

Open your window. _______________________________________

7.

Let cold air in. ___________________________________________

8.

Be careful when you stop your car. ___________________________

9.

Dont stop on a deserted roadside. ____________________________

10.

Dont drink and drive. ____________________________________

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4. First write an appropriate reporting verb (see the above list),

then turn the following sentences in reported speech.


1.

You should go to a doctor.

advise

He advised me to go to a
doctor.

2.

The bread is stale.

______

______________________

3.

I will buy you a present.

______

_____________________

4.

You ought to tell her the news. ______

_____________________

5.

Im sorry I insulted you.

______

_____________________

6.

Shall I help you?

______

_____________________

7.

Give me a statement or
Ill detain you!

______

_____________________

8.

Dont go near the fire!

______

_____________________

9.

Thats why I didnt go.

______

_____________________

10.

I didnt steal the money.

______

_____________________

11.

Lets go out tonight.

______

_____________________

12.

You must spend Christmas


______

_____________________

some money!

______

_____________________

14.

Dont forget to tell Ann!

______

_____________________

15.

Yes, she is a good person.

16.

Can you pass me the salt,

with us.
13.

Please, please give me

______

_____________________

please?

______

_____________________

17.

Yes, Ill help you.

______

_____________________

18.

No, I wont get out of bed.

______

_____________________

19.

You mustnt be back later than ten.___

_____________________

20.

Shes such a funny person!

_____________________

21.

Everybody be quiet!

______
______

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_____________________

22.

You may see Mr.Rogers.

_____ _

______________________

23.

Go on, do as you want.

______

_____________________

24.

Im the fastest swimmer of all. ______

25.

Thats how you can do it.

5. Read this students journal entry. Find and correct fourteen

______

_____________________
______________________

mistakes in the use of reported imperatives. Remember to check


punctuation!
In writing class today, Juan read one of his stories. It was wonderful. After
class, the teacher invited me read a story in class next week. However, I
asked her no to call on me next week because Im having trouble getting
ideas. She said me not to worry, and she said to wait for two weeks. Then I
talked to Juan, and I asked him tell me the source for your ideas. He said that
they came from his dreams, and he told me keep a dream journal for ideas.
He invited me to read some of his journal. It was very interesting, so I asked
him to give me some tips on remembering dreams. He said getting a good
nights sleep because the longer dreams come after a long period of sleep.
He also tell me to keep my journal by the bed and to write as soon as I wake
up. He said to no move from the sleeping position. He also told me to dont
think about the day at first. (If you think about your day, you might forget your
dreams.) Most important every night he tells himself that to remember his
dreams tomorrow morning.

6. Choose any problem from the list and make a brief legend about

yourself. Then tell your legend to all the students in class and ask them
to give you advice. After you finish, give an account of all the tips you
got from the students using reported imperatives. Remember to use
various reporting verbs!
Read the legend model:

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I have been struggling with overeating for several years. I tried different
kinds of diets, but they didnt help. When I turn in for the night it seems to me
that I hear the voice of the fridge calling me to come up to it, open it and eat
something! What would you recommend me to do? Could you give me some
tips?

Problems options:
1)

Insomnia

2)

Frequent headaches

3)

Smoking

4)

Quarrelling with parents

5)

No bounds to ambitions

6)

Having no desire to mix with people

7)

Coffee addiction

8)

Having butter fingers

9)

Indisposition for reading books

10)

Nail biting

11)

Couch-potato lifestyle

12)

Watching soap-operas

13)

Lack of confidence

14)

Seeing everything through rose-colored glasses

15)

Easily falling in love

REPORTED STATEMENTS
Read what a woman is saying in a clothing store. What are her
husbands exact words?
-

My husband said that shirt and skirt looked great on me. Ill take

them all!

13

Grammar explanations

Direct speech

Reported

examples

speech
examples

1. When the reporting verb is in I run a mile every She

says

that

the present tense, do not change day.

she runs a mile

the

every day.

verb

tense

in

reported

speech.

2.

Verb

tenses

and

time

expressions change in reported


speech:
when the reporting verb is Im moving to a She said (that)
in a past tense

new

flat

next she was moving

week, she said.

to a new flat the


following week.

in out-of-date reporting

(Monday 2 May) (Thursday


Mike

said,

borrowed

I May) Mike said

some (that)

he

had

money from my borrowed some


parents.

money from his


parents.

when we consider what the Paula and I are Jack said to me


speaker says to be untrue

best friends, Jack that


said to me.

he

and

Paula were best


friends, but Paula

14

had

never

actually met him.


3.Verb tense change is optional
when reporting:
What did you just I said I am / was

someone has just said

say?
something that is still true

The bank wants Rick

said

wants

check,

said.
a general truth or scientific Everyone
sometimes,

law

tired.

said.

Rick bank

the
/

wanted a check.
lies She

said

that

she everyone lies /


lied sometimes.

4. When this/ these are used in this week

that week

time expressions, they change to these days

those days

that / those

6. When this / that/ these / those


are

not

used

in

time

expressions, they change as


follows:
film
is Claire told me
they change to the when This
boring, Claire told that the film was
used as adjectives
me.

boring.

is
an Dad said that it
they change to it or they/ This
them when used as unusual situation, was an unusual
pronouns

Dad said.

The tenses change as follows:

15

situation.

Present simple

Past Simple

I need a new car, Greg said

Greg said he needed a new car.

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

He is sleeping, she said.

She said he was sleeping.

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Ive already seen this film, he said. He said he had already seen the film.
Past Simple

Past Simple or Past Perfect

I got up late, Tonia said.

Tonia said that she (had) got up late.

Past Continuous

Past Continuous or Past Perfect


Continuous

I was working at four oclock, Tim said.

Tim said he was working /

had been working at four oclock.

Future (will)

Conditional (would)

Ill call you tomorrow, Rea said.

Rea said she would call me


the following day.

REMEMBER!
Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous remain the same.

Common reporting verbs in statements


+to-inf

+ing form

+that-clause

agree

accuse sb of

explain

believe

*claim

*admit (to)

inform sb

claim

demand

apologize for

exclaim

conclude

offer

*boast about/of

remark

confess

*promise

*complain to sb of

acknowledge

declare

refuse

*deny

add

indicate

*threaten

*insist on

announce

mean

*suggest

maintain

note

answer

argue

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+how
explain to sb

assert

observe

promise

repeat

reply

report

state

warn

*Note: The verbs marked with an asterisk can also be followed by thatclause in reported speech.

He claimed that he had won a prize.

He boasted that he was very rich.

He promised that he would call.

He complained that he didnt earn


enough money.

He threatened that he would leave.

He denied that he had taken the


money.

He reminded me that I had a meeting. He insisted that I (should) work on


Saturday.
He admitted that he was wrong.

He suggested that we (should) take


out a loan.

1. Read the article about lying. Identify all the reporting verbs, all

the direct statements and all the reported statements.


THE TRUTH ABOUT LYING by Jennifer Morale
At 9:00 Rick Spivaks bank phoned and said that his credit card payment was
late. The check is in the mail, Rick replied quickly. At 11:45 Rick left for a
12:00 meeting across town. Arriving late, Rick told his client that traffic had
been bad. That evening, Ricks fiance wore a new dress. Rick hated it. It
looks just great on you, he said.
Three lies in one day! Yet Rick is just an ordinary guy. Each time, he told
himself that sometimes the truth causes too many problems. He told himself

17

that his fiance was feeling good about her purchase. Why should he hurt her
feelings?
Is telling lies a new trend? The majority of people in a recent survey said that
people were more honest ten years ago. Nevertheless, lying wasnt really
born yesterday. In the eighteenth century, the French philosopher
Vauvenergues told the truth about lying when he wrote, All men are born
truthful and die liars.

2. Read this magazine article. Complete it with the correct

underlined words.
Lying during a job interview is risky business, said / told Marta Toledo,
director of a management consulting firm. The truth always has / had a funny
way of coming out. Toledo tells the story of one woman applying for a job as
an office manager. The woman said / told the interviewer that / what she has /
had a B.A. degree. Actually, she was eights credits short. She also said I /
she made / had made $30,000 at her last job. The truth was $ 5,000 less.
When the interviewer called to check the information, the applicants former
boss told her that the applicant has lied / had lied. Another applicant, Gloria,
reported that she is quitting / was quitting her current job to advance her
career. She got the new job. All went well until the company hired Pete, who
had worked at Glorias old company. Pete eventually told his boss that his old
company fired / had fired Gloria. The new company fired her too, proving,
once again, that it doesnt pay to lie.

3. Work in pairs and quiz each other on the given questions. Then

report some interesting facts about your partner. Mind that Present
Simple changes to Past Simple in reported speech but sometimes it is
optional!
- Do you love cats?

18

- Do you go jogging in the morning?


- Are you a computer addict?
- Do you eat out?
- Are you a hard-working student?
- Do you listen to classical music?
- Do you eat Chinese food?
- Do you save up?
- Do you have bad habits?
- Are you a shopaholic?
4. Look at the pictures and contradict the teachers statements.

Remember to report Present Continuous!


T: Benny is playing the violin.
S: Benny is playing the guitar but you said he was playing the violin.
Teachers statements:
1) Benny is playing the violin
2) Marta is reading a magazine.
3) The students are sitting in the canteen.
4) The business partners are having a video conference.
5) Tom is jogging.
6) The speaker is taking his seat.
7) The people are waiting at the bus station.
8) Teresa is watching a cartoon.
9) Jessica and Peter are planting flowers in the garden.
10) Mrs. Hopkins is writing an email.

19

10

5. Play a role of a sportscaster. You are interviewing a

biathlete, who has just come in an easy first. The athlete is out
of breath and cant be distinctly audible. Thats why you have
to report his exact words. Remember to report Present Perfect and
Present Perfect Continuous.
I just cant believe I have done it! It is my second championship and I have
been the first to come in. I have been running 8.5 kilometers non-stop and it
seems to me I have covered the half of the Earth. The participants have to
run in most unfavorable conditions. It has been snowing heavily for several
days. It has made the race difficult for the athletes. Because of the poor
visibility I have missed the aim several times. But the fans support has
become a crucial moment in the competition. They have pushed me to gather
myself up and spurt at the last minute. I have been waiting for this day all my
life! I have been wondering if I have any chance to become a champion

6. Rumour game. Ask 2 or three students to leave the

classroom. The other students are to listen to an unfinished


story and to come up with endings of their own. Then let
one of the students in and tell him or her the version of the story. This
student has to retell the story to the second student, and the second
student to the third one. After you are done compare the first and the
last versions. Remember to report Past Tenses!
Last night I was walking home next to the river Thames, when something
strange happened to me. It was late at night and Id had a long and difficult

20

day at work. There was a large full moon in the sky and everything was quiet.
I was tired and lonely and Id just had a few pints of beer in my local pub, so I
decided to stop by the riverside and look at the moon for a while. I sat on
some steps very close to the waters edge and looked up at the big yellow
moon and wondered if it really was made of cheese. I felt very tired so I
closed my eyes and after a few minutes, I fell asleep.
When I woke up, the moon had moved behind a cloud and it was very dark
and cold. The wind was blowing and an owl hooted in a tree above me. I
rubbed my eyes and started to get up, when suddenly I heard a splash. I
looked down at the water and saw something. Something terrible and
frightening, and unlike anything Id ever seen before..

3. Turn the following sentences into Reported speech. Change the

reporting verbs!
1.

A lot of English words are borrowed from other languages, the teacher

said to us.
The teacher explained to us that a lot of English words are borrowed from
other languages.
2.

China

is

densely

populated

country,

she

said.

___________________________________________________________
3.

Its

time

they

moved

to

new

house,

Ann

said._______________________________________________________
4.

Water

freezes

below

C,

he

said.

___________________________________________________________
5.

I was reading the children a story last night when the lights went out,

she said.____________________________________________________
6.

Ill

help

you

to

repair

your

car

tomorrow,

he

said

to

me.________________________________________________________
7.

didnt

understand

the

meaning

of

the

film,

he

said.

___________________________________________________________

21

8.

I saw the film you recommended last night, he said to her.

___________________________________________________________
9.

am

going

to

Spain

next

week,

he

said.(out-of-date)

___________________________________________________________
10.

She

doesnt

understand,

he

said.

(up-to-date)

___________________________________________________________
11.

I would invite more people if I had a bigger flat, he said.

___________________________________________________________
12.

I have applied for several jobs this week, he said. (out-of-date)

____________________________________________________________
13.

If I finish it this evening, we will go out, he said to her. (out-of-

date)_______________________________________________________
14.

saw

him

yesterday

but

he

didnt

recognize

me,

she

said.________________________________________________________
15.

will

not

repeat

this

again,

he

said

to

us.

(out-of-date)

___________________________________________________________

4. Answer the teachers questions following the model.

T: Mary, what would you like to get for your birthday?


S1: Well, I would rather get a new pair of jeans!
T: Helen, what did Mary say?
S2: Mary said she would like to get a new pair of jeans.
Questions options:
1)

What is the weather like today?

2)

What did you do yesterday evening?

3)

Are you planning to go somewhere for your summer vacations?

4)

Have you passed an English exam?

5)

How many meals a day do you usually have?

6)

Will you go to the cinema today?

22

7)

What language is more difficult: English or Chinese?

8)

What subject are you majoring in?

9)

Have you written your course paper?

10)

Do you like your University?

11)

What were you writing when I entered the classroom?

12)

When did you last ride a bicycle?

13)

Was it raining when you got to the University yesterday?

14)

Have you ever eaten frogs legs?

15)

Are you an early bird or a late riser?

5. Work in pairs. Complete the sentences with your own ideas

using reported speech, as in the example.


1.

I bought a new dress yesterday.


Did you? But you told me you had bought trousers.

2.

Bill is moving to a new house on Saturday.


Is he? _____________________________________

3.

I like Chinese food a lot.


Do you? ___________________________________

4.

Tom speaks German fluently.


Does he? __________________________________

5.

I havent seen Anna for months.


Havent you? _______________________________

6.

Sam is working for his father at the moment.


Is he? _____________________________________

7.

Im afraid I have to work this weekend.


Do you? ___________________________________

8.

Janet knows about the surprise party.


Does she? __________________________________

23

6. Team work. Make groups of 3-4 students. Each group is to

interview students from the other groups and to complete the answer
sheet. The first group to complete it is the winner. Make sure you use
various reporting verbs!

Questions:

Answers:

1.

What is the number of Xs house?

2.

Is X feeling happy today?

3.

Does X like ice cream?

4.

What did X do last night?

5.

Where is X going for his/her holidays?

6.

What is X doing tonight?

7.

What is X going to do after the lesson?

8.

Where will X be this time tomorrow?

9.

What was X doing between 6 pm and 8 pm last night?

10.

What has X been doing in his/her spare time recently?

11.

Has X ever been to Paris?

12.

Has X ever stayed up all night?

13.

Does X cook well?

14.

Is X getting married soon?

15.

Has X just bought a new car?

7. Complete the sentences in Reported Speech.

1.

You should spend more time studying.

_______said that _________

The teacher advised me to spend more time studying.


2.

Dont forget to lock the door before you leave.


Sam reminded _______________________________

3.

Im sorry I forgot to call you.


Jim apologized _______________________________

24

4.

You never listen to me, Stuart.


Mary complained _____________________________

5.

Shall we go bowling this evening?


Mark suggested ______________________________

6.

You mustnt play near the road.


Farther forbade ______________________________

7.

This man stole my wallet!


Mr. Brown accused ___________________________

8.

Im the best basketball player in the school.


Steve boasted _______________________________

9.

Yes, I took the letter.


Claire admitted _______________________________

10.

You must stay for lunch, Sarah.


Mrs Stamp insisted ____________________________

11.

Please, please, let me borrow your bicycle.


Martin begged _______________________________

12.

Dont touch the oven. Its hot.


Mother warned ______________________________

8. Decide which introductory verb suits better in the given

sentences. Choose from the list below.


deny

suggest

boast

agree

insist

accuse

promise

complain

advise

threaten

warn

remind

1.

Im the fastest runner on the team, he said.


He boasted about being the fastest runner on the team.

2.

I didnt take your jacket, he said to her.


He __________________ taking her jacket.

25

3.

You should go to the doctors, Mum said to me.


Mum _________________ me to go to the doctors.

4.

Ill call you next week, she said to him.


She _________________ to call him next week.

5.

Yes, Ill set the table for dinner, he said to her.


He _________________ to set the table for dinner.

6.

He always forgets my birthday, she said.


She _______________ that he always forgot her birthday.

7.

Lets go for a walk, she said.


She ______________ going for a walk.

8.

Leave, or Ill shoot, the man said to them.


The man __________ to shoot them if they didnt leave.

9.

Dont forget to feed the cat, she said to him.


She _____________ him to feed the cat.

10.

You broke my CD player, she said to him.


She ____________ him of breaking her CD player.

11.

Dont go near the edge of the cliff, Dad said to them.


Dad ____________them not to go near the edge of the cliff.

12.

You must do your homework before you go out, she said to us.
She ____________ on us doing our homework before we went out.

MODALS IN REPORTED SPEECH


Grammar explanations

Direct speech

Reported

examples

speech
examples

1. Modals

often

change

in

reported speech too.


will would

26

said,

The I said the winds

winds

will

be would be strong.

They

told

us, They told us we

You

can

stay could stay with

strong.
can could/would be able to

with us.
may might/ could

He

them.

said,

The He said that the

storm may last storm might last


all night
shall should / would

He

all night.

said,

How He asked how he

shall I repair the should repair the


tap?
must had to / must

tap.

She told us, You She told us we


must leave.

neednt didnt need to/ didnt He


have to/wouldnt have to

said,

had to leave.
You He said I didnt

neednt

do

it need

now.
2. Do not change should, could, You
might, ought to.

listen

present

change
and

verbs

past

in If

it

then.

to

the we should listen

report, to

he told us.
not

do

should He told us that

weather

3. Do

to

knew,

unreal would tell you.

conditional sentences.

the

weather

report.
I Jim said if he
knew he would
tell me.

If I had known, I He said if he had


would have told known he would
you.
4. Do not change past modals.

have told me.

I should have He said that he


left.

should
left.

27

have

1. Read what someone reported about the weather forecast. Then

check the sentence that shows the weather forecasters exact words.
1.

She said it was going to be a terrible storm.


It was a terrible storm.
Its going to be a terrible storm.

2. She said the winds might reach 170 miles per hour.
The winds may reach 170 miles per hour.
The winds would reach 170 miles per hour.
3. She said there would be more rain the next day.
There will be more rain the next day.
There will be more rain tomorrow.
4. She told people that they should try to leave the area.
You should have tried to leave the area.
You should try to leave the area.
5. She said that they could expect a lot of damage.
We can expect a lot of damage.
We could expect a lot of damage.

2. You are in New York. Imagine you heard these rumors about a

hurricane in Florida yesterday, and you are reporting them today. Use
They said to report the rumors.
1.

The hurricane will change direction tonight.


They said that the hurricane would change direction last night.

2.

Its going to pass north of here.


__________________________________________________

3.

It may become a tropical storm when it lands here.


__________________________________________________

4.

They had to close some bridges yesterday because of high tides.

28

__________________________________________________
5.

They wont restore electricity until tomorrow.


__________________________________________________

6.

The schools here may be closed for a while.


__________________________________________________

7.

We ought to use bottled water for a few days.


__________________________________________________

3. Read this interview with a meteorologist. Rewrite his answers in

reported speech. Make necessary changes.


1.

Q: A hurricane is just a bad storm, right?


A: To be a hurricane, a storm has to have winds of at least 74 miles per
hour.
He said that to be a hurricane, a storm had to have winds at least 74
miles per hour.

2.

Q: We seem to be having more of these big storms.


A: Its true, and they will probably become more frequent.
_________________________________________________________

3.

Q: Why is that?
A: The planet may be getting warmer, and that can cause more severe

storms.
_____________________________________________________________
4.

Q: What went wrong after the last storm?


A: Emergency workers should have arrived more quickly.

_____________________________________________________________
5.

Q: Is there an upside to all this?


A: The new satellites will help. If we didnt have them, we wouldnt be
able to warn people.
_____________________________________________________

29

4. Read Ritas e-mail to her friend Emily. Find and correct twelve

mistakes in the use of reported speech.


We had some excitement here because of the hurricane last week. Jims
mother called just before the storm. She said she is listening to the weather
report and that she was worried about us. She told Jim that if you two were
not so stubborn, we will pack up and leave immediately. Jims father told us
how to get ready for the storm. He said we should have put tape on our
windows right now and that we ought to fill the bathtub with water. He also
told Jim that we should buy a lot of batteries before the storm hit tonight. Sue
called. She said that her place was too close to the coast and that she
couldnt stay here. She told me I wanted to stay with me and Jim. She said
she should called us sooner. I told her she should come right now. Then we
listened to the weather advisory, and the forecaster said that the storm is
going to go out to sea. She said it wont hit this area at all!

5. Read this e-mail once again and change the reporting verbs

where possible to make it more expressive.

6. Imagine you have just visited a fortune-teller. Share the

information you got with your friend. Remember to report


modal verbs!
1) You should attend all the lectures otherwise youll fail your coming exams.
2) Next week might be difficult for you, so be careful.
3) You can get married next year.
4) You will have an argument with your boss.
5) You mustnt travel this summer. It might be dangerous.
6) You can make things better with your parents, if you say you are sorry.
7) Next month may be fruitless for you.

30

8) You ought to be more persevering. You might lose your job.


9) You shouldnt have asked for help. It was meaningless.
10) You might have called the police. But there is no use crying over spilt
milk.

REPORTED QUESTIONS AND INDIRECT QUESTIONS


Grammar explanations

Direct speech

Reported

examples

speech
examples

1. In reported questions we
use the affirmative word order
and

the

question

mark

becomes a full stop. To report


a question we use:
ask + wh-word

He said, What are He asked what I


you doing?

ask + if/ whether

was doing

He said, Did you He


enjoy the party?

asked

if

whether

enjoyed/

had

enjoyed

the

party.
He

2. We use indirect questions

wondered

to express something we do

what I was doing

not know and ask politely for

He

information.

know whether I

wanted

enjoyed
party.

31

to

the

Question words (what, who, He

asked

where..) or whether can be Shall

me, I wonder whether


phone to phone her /

followed by an infinitive in the her?

whether I should

reported sentence.

phone her.
He asked me,

Do

you

know

Where can I put where to put it /


it?

he can put it.

If the indirect question is in a I asked, Who is I dont know who


statement, use a period at the our server?

our server is.

end of the sentence. If it is in

Do

a question, use a question

who our server

mark.

is?

you

know

3. Do not use do, does or did in I asked, When did I asked when the
reported or indirect questions. the pizza come?

pizza came.
I

dont

know

when the pizza


came.

Common phrases introducing Indirect Questions


I dont know

Id like to know.

Do you know?

I dont understand.

I want to understand

Do you understand.?

I wonder..

Id like to find out.

Can you tell me.?

Im not sure .

We need to find out

Could you explain.?

I cant remember..

Lets ask..

Can you remember?

I cant imagine

Would you show me?

It doesnt say..

Who knows?

32

1. Fiona went for an interview last week. First read, then report Mr.

Roberts questions.
Mr Roberts asked Fiona why she wanted to work for Portman Plastics.
1.

Why do you want to work for Portman Plastics?

2.

How long were you employed at Smithson Steel?

3.

Can you speak French?

4.

Are you familiar with the plastic industry?

5.

Why did you leave your last place of employment?

6.

Is this the first time you have applied for a managerial post?

7.

Would you be willing to move to Paris?

8.

When did you graduate?

9.

What salary would you hope to receive?

10.

May I check your references?

2. Turn the questions into reported speech. Begin each one with I

asked the.. and give the name of the person who does the job, as in
the example.
1.

Do I need another filling?

I asked the dentist if I needed another filling.


2.

How much does this blouse cost?

3.

How many tablets should I take each day?

4.

Can I borrow the book for another week?

5.

Will it cost very much to repair the television?

6.

May I look at the menu, please?

7.

What do I have to do for homework?

8.

When will the report be typed?

9.

Will you be able to deliver the flowers today?

10.

Can I make an appointment to have my hair cut?

33

3. Work in pairs or in a chain and turn the following into reported

questions.
1.

Whats your name?

S1: Whats your name?


S2: Mary asked me what my name was.
2.

Where are your parents?

3.

Will you help me to carry the box, please?

4.

What time will you be home?

5.

Can you play the guitar?

6.

Who was at the door?

7.

Where is the post office?

8.

When will you do your homework?

9.

Have you finished these reports?

10.

Do you like computer games?

11.

Will you give me a lift to work, please?

12.

Where is your jacket?

4. Read part of a memo an interviewer wrote. Find and correct

eight mistakes in the use of indirect questions.


I did some stress questioning in my interview with Carl Treng this morning. I
asked Mr. Treng why couldnt he work under pressure. I also asked him why
did his supervisor dislike him. Finally, I inquired when he would quit the job
with our company? Mr. Treng answered my questions calmly, and he had
some excellent questions of his own. He asked if we expected changes on
the job. He also wanted to know how often do we evaluate employees. I was
impressed when he asked why did I decide to join this company. I think we
should hire him.

34

5. Read this online ad for the book Tips on Tipping. Identify the

indirect questions
Tips on Tipping by Irene Frankel
This book is for you if.
youve ever avoided a situation just because you didnt know how much to tip.
youve ever realized (too late) that you were supposed to offer a tip.
youve ever given a huge tip and then wondered if a tip was necessary at all.
youve ever needed to know how to calculate the right tip instantly.
youre new to the United States and you are not sure who you should tip
here.
youd like to learn how tipping properly can get you the best service for your
money

6. Complete these questions about tipping customs. Change the

direct questions in parentheses to indirect questions. Use the infinitive


whenever possible. Use correct punctuation.
1.

Can you tell me whether (Should I tip in Canada?)

Can you tell me whether to tip in Canada?


2.

I am going to France. Please explain (How can I tell if the tip is included

in the bill?)
3.

Can you tell me (Why did service people in Iceland refuse my tips?)

4.

Im moving to Japan. Id like to know (How much should I tip airport

porters?)
5.

We are visiting Australia. Please tell us (Who expects a tip and who

doesnt?)
6.

Im vacationing in Norway. Id like to know if (Should I tip my ski

instructor?)
7.

I took a job in China. I need to know whether (Is tipping still illegal

there?)

35

8.

In Germany the tip is included. I dont know whether (Should I tip

anyway?)

7. Two foreign exchange students are visiting Washington, D.C.

Complete their conversations. Choose the appropriate questions from


the box and change them to indirect questions.

How much should we tip the taxi driver?

Where is the Smithsonian


Museum?

Could we rent a car and drive?

What did they put in the sauce?

Where can we buy metro tickets?

1.

Where is it?

Marta: Were going to the Hotel Edison. Do you know _____________


Driver: Sure. Get in and Ill take you there.

2.

Muiki: (whispering) Do you know ____________________________


Marta: According to the book, were supposed to leave 10 to 15
percent. Ive got it.

3.

Marta: Excuse me. Can you tell me __________________________


Officer: Sure. Just turn right at the corner. Youll see it right away.

4.

Muiki: Id like to take the metro to the zoo, but I dont know _________
Marta: Probably right in the station.

5.

Marta: I want to visit Williamsburg. Do you think __________________


Muiki: Lets find out. That sounds like fun.

6.

Marta: This is delicious. Lets try to find out ______________________


Muiki: It takes like ginger and garlic to me.

8. Turn the following questions into indirect questions. Use a new

introductory phrase each time.


1.

Have they sold the picture?

36

I didnt know whether they had sold the picture.


2.

Do they know anything about the conference?

3.

Has Jack given you his telephone number?

4.

Is he coming back today?

5.

Have you found the glasses?

6.

Are there any more articles here?

7.

Did she go clubbing yesterday?

8.

Has she called the police?

9.

Does she know the name of the man?

10.

Did Joan see the manager this morning?

9. Restore direct speech in the following sentences.

1.

I wondered if they had taken the sick man to hospital.

2.

I asked my friend if he had a headache.

3.

I wanted to know when he had fallen ill.

4.

I didnt know whether he had taken his temperature.

5.

I asked him if the doctor had given him some medicine.

6.

I cant imagine how long youve been staying at this awful place.

7.

Lets ask her if he was going to a health resort.

8.

We wanted to find out whether the spy was still in China.

9.

We need to find out what sort of work he is doing there.

10.

Could you explain why he is so upset?

11.

Would you show me where the Town Hall is?

12.

Do you understand what language he is speaking at the moment?

10. Work in pairs. Play out small conversations asking for some

information. Let the other students guess where a situation is taking


place. Use reported and indirect questions. Remember to use various
introductory phrases!

37

11.

Watch

video

on

the

worlds

(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IabUseJrh4U).

most

polite

Describe

robbery
it

using

reported speech. Watch it one more time and using the prompts make
as many reported sentences as possible. Present it in a newscasters
tone!

Can you do me a favor?

Yes

Empty the till for me, please. Put it right here.

What do you mean?

Empty the till and put it right here, because Im robbing you, sir.

Are you sure?

Im sure.

Why do you want to do that?

Because I need the money. I have kids that need to be fed, sir. Im
really sorry that I have to do this.

What if I give you $ 40 dollars?

Im sorry to do that, sir. Ive got rent to pay, Ive got bills, and my kids
need to eat. Thank you very much. I appreciate it, and I am really sorry.
If I ever get back on my feet again sir, Ill bring it back. Im sorry!

Im sorry. God be with you, man.

Sorry. And be with you too.

12. Let one of the students play a part of a top civil servant

/ politician / businessman/ famous actor / writer / psychologist. The rest


of the students are to be journalists. Ask as many questions related to
spheres of interests as possible. Write an article about the interviewee
using reported speech. Remember to use various reporting verbs!
38

EXCLAMATIONS YES/NO SHORT ANSWERS QUESTION TAGS


REPORTING A DIALOGUE

Grammar explanations

Direct

speech Reported

examples

speech
examples

1. We use the verbs exclaim/say that


to

report

exclamations

What

an He

exclaimed

which unusual design! that it was an

begin with What a. or How. he said

unusual design.

In direct speech.
But with exclamations such as Wow! he said He

gave

an

Splendid! Great! Good! Excellent! as he unwrapped exclamation


Oh!

Oh

dear!

We

use

the his gift.

surprise as he

expression give an exclamation of

unwrapped

delight/ disgust/relief/surprise

gift.

Study the following examples:

of

They

said, They

Thank you

his

thanked

us.

You fool! she She called him


said.

a fool.

Happy Birthday! We
we

said

to Tamzin a happy

Tamzin.
2. Yes/

No

short

answers

wished

birthday.

are Congratulations! They

expressed in reported speech with they said to us.

congratulated

subject + appropriate auxiliary Will you help me us.


decorate

verb/introductory verb.

39

the

cake?

she She asked him

asked him. Yes, to


he said.

help

her

decorate

the

cake

he

and

said he would /
he agreed.
3. Question tags are omitted in You

wont

reported speech. We use an anyone

tell She asked him

will not

to

tell

appropriate introductory verb to you? she said to anyone.


convey the same meaning.

him.

4. In dialogues we use a mixture of Ill take a taxi He said that he


questions, home. Its getting would

statements,

take

commands, requests. In reported late, he said.

taxi

speech we use and, as, adding

as/because/sinc

that, and (he/she) added that,

e it was getting

because, but, since, and then

late.

home

(he/she) went on to say, while, -Can I talk to Mr Mr


then to link the sentences in a Stephens?
dialogue.

We

can

also

use -Im

introductory verbs in the present hes

asked to talk to

sorry,
not

Adams

but Mr

Stephens.

here. His

secretary

participle form (offering, begging, Would you like said


me

explaining).

to

take

message?

that

a wasnt

there

and offered to

-No, thank you. I take


need to see him message.
in person.

he

a
Mr

Adams
declined,
explaining

40

that

he

needed

to

see

him

in

person.

1. Turn the following into Reported speech.

1.

Will you call me? he asked. Yes, of course, she said.

He asked her to call him and she said she would.


2.

Wow! they said as the fireworks exploded in the sky.

3.

Youll try to visit John, wont you? he said to us.

4.

How delicious! she said as she tasted the dessert.

5.

What a surprise! he said when he saw the present.

6.

Amazing! she said when she saw the magicians act.

7.

Well, good luck, then, she said to him.

8.

Can you do this puzzle? she asked. No, he said.

9.

Ouch! he said, as the nurse gave him the injection.

10.

Ugh! she said, as she stepped into the muddy puddle.

2. Turn the following sentences into reported speech. Remember

to use linking verbs!


1.

Im hungry, she said. I havent eaten all day.

She said that she was hungry, explaining that she hadnt eaten all day.
2.

Lets go to the cinema, he said. We havent seen a film for months.

3.

Tim : Dave is ill. He cant come to the party.


Mike: Whats wrong with him?
Tim: Hes got flu. He has to stay in bed.

4.

You are early, he said to her. Im not ready yet.

5.

Hurry up! she told him. Were going to miss the bus.

6.

Have you got your key? she said. Ive forgotten mine.

41

7.

Im going out, Colin said. I might be back late.

8.

Sally: Ive bought a car. Its being delivered tomorrow.


John: What kind of car is it?
Sally: Its a sports car. It was very expensive.

9.

Im sorry Im late. I overslept, he said to them.

10.

Martin: Can you help me? I need some advice.


James: Whats the problem?
Martin: I dont know what to buy my mother for her birthday. I want to
get something special.

3. Rewrite the conversation in Reported Speech.

A.

Oh, Roger! What a surprise! Lisa said at the sight of her husband.

Hello, Lisa. Happy Valentines Day! Roger said, giving her some flowers.
Wow they are lovely! Lisa said. Thank you.
Would you like me to put them in water for you? Roger asked.
Yes, please, Lisa said.
Lets go out tonight, shall we? Roger said. Ive found a new restaurant
which I think youll like.
B.

Mother : Nick! Do you hear the alarm clock? Wake up!

Nick: Oh, I am so sleepy!


Mother: Well, thats what you always say. Now, get out of bed quickly.
Nick: Oh!
Mother: Be quick, or you will be late for school.
Nick: No fear. I have a lot of time.
Mother: You forget that you have to brush your teeth and to wash your hands
and face.
Nick: Mummy, I remember everything.
C.

Waiter: What will you order?

Man: Give me the menu, please.

42

Waiter: Here you are.


Man: Chicken soup for the first course.
Waiter: For the second course I recommend you to take fried fish. It is very
good.
Man: All right, bring me fried fish.
Waiter: Any vegetables?
Man: Yes, bring me some potatoes, and then cheese, coffee and fruit.
Waiter: Yes, sir.

4. Work in pairs. Restore the initial conversation and

act it out.
Daniel invited Sally to go out for a change that night. Sally gave an
exclamation of delight and suggested going for a meal. Daniel hesitated for a
moment and confessed that he had bought two tickets for the opera. Sally
readily agreed but warned Daniel saying that if he fell asleep like the previous
time she would walk out. Daniel didnt want to admit that he had fallen asleep
during the performance, explaining that he had his eyes closed to enjoy the
music. Sally made up her mind to go and forbade him to open his mouth if he
was going to snore.

5. Work in pairs. Choose any situation from the list and make up

conversations. Play them out for the rest of the group. Let the other
students describe the conversations using reported speech.

Situations options:
1)

Ann and Paul are talking in front of a shop window about some clothes

they want to buy.


2)

Jim and Kristi have been waiting at the bus stop for a long time.

3)

Kate and Bob are in a restaurant.

43

4)

Mary and Tim are discussing their coming exams.

5)

Bill and Joan are discussing a hot political issue.

6)

Kate and Ann are exchanging tips to keep fit.

7)

Sam and Robert are driving in an incredibly beautiful city.

8)

James and Stuart are in the Art gallery discussing some extraordinary
pictures.

9)

Dora and Christine are contemplating on the point of life.

10)

Jessica and Sean are discussing a film they have watched.

PUNCTUATION IN DIRECT SPEECH

We put the speakers words in quotation marks and we capitalize the

first word of the direct speech. When the speaker is mentioned before the
direct speech, we put the comma outside the quotation marks. When the
speaker is mentioned after the direct speech, we put the comma inside the
quotation marks.
He said, I love Paris in the winter.
I love Paris in the winter, he said.

If the direct speech is a question and the person being spoken to comes

after it, we put a question mark and not a comma.


Shall we go now? he asked her.
He asked her, Shall we go now?

1. Punctuate the following, making any other necessary changes.

1.

would you like a drink she asked me

2.

shall we go out tonight Bill asked

3.

David said shut the door please

4.

why are you crying Steve asked Jenny

44

5.

Im sorry Im late he said I was stuck in traffic

6.

Rachel said Im afraid I cant help you

7.

I dont want eggs she said to her mother Id rather have a steak

8.

we have to leave in five minutes Sally said can you call us a taxi

9.

did you go to the library today Sean asked me

10.

Daniel said stop talking I cant concentrate

2. Turn the following sentences into direct speech. Mind the

punctuation.
1.

He threatened to tell the headmaster if we didnt behave properly.

2.

She invited me to go to the cinema with her.

3.

He offered to help me clean the house.

4.

We explained that we were late because we had missed the bus.

5.

She advised me to see a professional.

6.

She admitted to reading my diary.

7.

She agreed to help me interview the candidates.

8.

He accused me of breaking his glasses.

9.

We apologized for missing their dinner party.

10.

Edward complained that the children were always disturbing him.

CHALLENGE YOURSELF

Famous Quotes

Match the following quotes with the people you think said them, and put
them into reported speech. Then discuss with your partner whether you
agree with the quotes.

45

a. Honor de Balzac
b. Bible (Saint Paul)
c. Buddha
d. Winston Churchill
e. Albert Einstein
f. Mahatma Ghandi
g. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
h. Friedrich Nietzsche
i. Mohammad
j. Nelson Mandela
1. When a man sits with a pretty girl for an hour, it seems like a minute. But
let him sit on a hot stove for a minute-and it's longer than any hour. That's
relativity.
2. Those that fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat it.
3. All greatness in the world came about because someone did more than
he had to do.
4. What we think, we become.
5. I do not want my house to be walled in on all sides and my windows to be
stuffed. I want the cultures of all the lands to be blown about my house as
freely as possible. But I refuse to be blown off my feet by any.
6. Your god is dead and only the ignorant weep. And if you claim there is a
hell, then we shall meet there
7. It is easier to be a lover than a husband for the simple reason that it is
more difficult to be witty every day than to produce the occasional bon mot
8. Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all.
9.

God enjoins you to treat women well, for they are your mothers,

daughters, aunts
10. Be not righteous overmuch

46

Turn the extract from Barack Obamas 2014 State of the Union address
into reported speech

Now, as president, I'm committed to making Washington work better, and


rebuilding the trust of the people who sent us here. And I believe most of you
are, too. Last month, thanks to the work of Democrats and Republicans,
Congress finally produced a budget that undoes some of last year's severe
cuts to priorities like education. Nobody got everything they wanted, and we
can still do more to invest in this country's future while bringing down our
deficit in a balanced way.
But the budget compromise should leave us freer to focus on creating new
jobs, not creating new crises.
And in the coming months -- (applause) -- in the coming months, let's see
where else we can make progress together. Let's make this a year of action.
That's what most Americans want, for all of us in this chamber to focus on
their lives, their hopes, their aspirations. And what I believe unites the people
of this nation, regardless of race or region or party, young or old, rich or poor,
is the simple, profound belief in opportunity for all, the notion that if you work
hard and take responsibility, you can get ahead in America. (Applause.)
Now, let's face it: That belief has suffered some serious blows. Over more
than three decades, even before the Great Recession hit, massive shifts in
technology and global competition had eliminated a lot of good, middle-class
jobs, and weakened the economic foundations that families depend on.
Today, after four years of economic growth, corporate profits and stock prices
have rarely been higher, and those at the top have never done better. But
average wages have barely budged. Inequality has deepened. Upward
mobility has stalled. The cold, hard fact is that even in the midst of recovery,

47

too many Americans are working more than ever just to get by; let alone to
get ahead. And too many still aren't working at all.
So our job is to reverse these trends.
It won't happen right away, and we won't agree on everything.

Find mistakes in the use of reported speech and direct speech. Mind the
punctuation as well!
The human nose has a new role as a secret weapon in the fight against
terrorism. British scientists have worked out that our noses might have been a
better way of identifying people than fingerprints or iris scans. Dr Adrian
Evans of the University of Bath, who conducted the research, said scanning
noses be an important tool in the battle against crime, illegal immigration and
terrorism. The new system works by photographing the nose from different
angles using a software programme called PhotoFace. This analyzes the
shape of the nose and where it fits on the face. It places the image into one of
six basic nose shapes shared by all humans: Roman, Greek, Nubian, Hawk,
Snub and Turn-up. This method of recognizing humans is part of the science
known as biometrics.Dr Evans tells reporters that the nose could be very
useful for crime-fighting agencies: "Noses are prominent facial features, and
yet their use as a biometric has been largely unexplored. We wanted to find
out how good they could be at recognizing individuals from a database he
says. Dr. Evans explained that noses could have be better to work with than
irises or fingerprints, saying Noses are much easier to photograph and are
harder to conceal, so a system that recognizes noses would work better with
an uncooperative subject or for [undercover] surveillance." Nose recognition
is not new. Dog breeders have used nose prints for years to identify their
dogs. The Canadian Kennel Club has used nose prints to prove a dogs
identity since 1938.

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Imagine that you are a newspaper reporter who has been


asked to write a short article about a recent campaign to improve
literacy in our country. Remember to make use of verbs like add, warn,
promise, explain etc.
Notes: literacy must improve standards of education need to be raised
we can improve things this campaign can be a success more money for
schools the literacy rate is unacceptably low the country needs change
a literacy campaign at the present time is essential to.

TEST YOURSELF
1.

Last week our teacher told us that we _______ a test on Reported

Speech at the end of the week on Friday.


a)

can have

b) did have

c) would have

d) had had

2.

Three days ago a friend told me that she was going to visit me ______

but she didnt arrive.


a)

tomorrow b) next day

c) the day before

d) the next day

3.

When I spoke to Belen yesterday, she said that she _______ to a party

the night before.


a)

went b) had gone

c) was going

d) did go

4.

The teacher asked us about our favourite sports and everybody said

that they _______ football.


a)

liked b) are liking

c) were liking

d) had like

5.

I spoke to Obedan on his mobile and asked him where he was. He told

me that he _______ in the airport, waiting for his flight.


a)

sat

b) was sitting

c) had sat

d) has sat

6.

On Tuesday Ronald told the teacher that he had missed the class

______ because he had gone to the embassy in London.


a)

yesterday

b) before day

c) the before day

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d) the day before

7.

Last week David telephoned the school and said that he _______ to

school because he had a headache.


a)

didnt come

b) couldnt come

c) doesnt come

d) wasnt come.
8.

Boris told us that he ______ studying in England but he didnt like

English food.
a)

likes b) liked

c) had liked

d) was liking

9.

When we asked her, Jiang told us that she ______ a ghost.

a)

never saw b) never seen

10.

Maria told us that she was going to visit _____ parents in Italy the next

c) had never seen

d) did never see

week and wouldnt come to class.


a)

my

b) her

c) your

d) their

11.

Carol says she _____ Fred for years.

a)

was known b) has been knowing c) has known

12.

The teacher ordered the students _____.

a)

not to shout

13.

Helen asked if I _____ her my pen.

a)

will lend

14.

Lucy says she ______ well.

a)

hadnt felt b) dont feel

15.

Nick demanded ______ the window.

a)

closing

16.

Claire explained that she _____ to hurt me.

a)

wasnt mean

c) dont shout

b) to not shout

b) could lend

d) knows

d) no shout

c) could have lent

d) should lend

c) is not feeling d) has felt

b) to close

c) to be close

b) hadnt meant

d) no close

c)hasnt meant

d) means
17.

Paul wondered why ______.

a)

Is Tony so upset?

b) Tony is so upset.

d) Tony was so upset.

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c) Tony has been upset.

18.

She blushed and said that he _______ the roses for her.

a)

can buy

c)

b) should buy

shouldnt

have

bought

d) bought
19.

Kates mom warned her that it _____ rain.

a)

might

20.

Mike confessed that they _____ tennis all morning the day before.

a)

played

21.

Mary wondered if I _______.

a)

can stand it b) can stand that

22.

Laura asked if John ______.

a)

wants this soup

b) can

c) had

d) should

b) had been playing

c) has played

c) could stand it

b) wanted that soup

d) are playing

d) could stand that

c) wanted this soup

d) wants that soup


23.

He said that water _____ into ice.

a)

turned

24.

He said that if he ____ me, he would apologize.

a)

were

25.

She told him to put that box down over _____.

a)

here

b) has turned

b) is

b) near

c) turns

c) would

d) was turning

d) would have been

c) me

d) there

FINAL TEST 1
1.

Turn the following sentences into reported speech.

1.

The shop assistant said, The shoe department is downstairs.

2.

The professor said to his assistant, You have made great progress.

3.

The teacher said to us, You must read this text at home.

4.

Paul said, We will have to discuss this text tomorrow.

5.

She asked me, Do you know who has taken my book?

6.

We asked him, What has happened to you? You look so pale!

7.

I may be a little late this evening, she said.

8.

You ought to make a decision soon, Sarah said.

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9.

I cant afford to buy this coat, Joan said.

10.

Im going to a party tonight, Dora said.

2.

Turn the sentences into reported speech using an appropriate

introductory verb.

1.

No, I wont do your homework for you, she said to me.

2.

You lied to me, Dennis told Ann.

3.

I promise I wont tell anyone your secret, Tara said to Diana.

4.

Dont forget to post the letters, Mum said to me.

5.

Im sorry I ruined your shirt, Sarah told Frances.

6.

No, I didnt use Tims computer, George said.

7.

Dont get too close to the fire, Mike said to the children.

8.

Lets have a party, Simon said.

9.

Ill punish you if you behave badly, Mum told the twins.

10.

It was me who broke the vase, she said.

3.

Rewrite the following conversation in reported speech.

Jane : May I come in?


Kate: Is that you, Jane? Come in! It is very good of you to come and see me.
Jane: I came before, but you were too ill to see anybody. Did you get the
flowers?
Kate: Surely, I did. It was very nice of you to send them to me.
Jane: How are you now?
Kate: Oh, I am much better, thank you. The doctor says that I shall be
allowed to go out in a few days.
Jane: Do you miss school?

52

Kate: Very much. I am afraid Ill be lagging behind the group in my lessons
now.
Jane: Dont think about it. Well help you.
Kate: Thank you so much!

4.

Find mistakes in the use of reported speech. Mind the

punctuation!
Horror movies often show superbugs spreading around the world and killing
people. The World Health Organisation (WHO) said this may soon be a
reality. The medicines that we use to keep away diseases no longer work.
Bugs have developed and become stronger. The WHO said this is a major
threat to our health and that nobody is safe. The superbugs can kill people in
rich countries and in poorer nations. The WHO looked at data from 114
countries. It found that some antibiotics that worked 30 years ago do not work
now. They did not work in about half the people who took them.
A WHO health spokesman, Keiji Fukuda, described a scary future. He says
the world was moving towards a "post-antibiotic era". He warned that
"Common infections and minor injuries which have been treatable for
decades can once again kill." This means malaria, tuberculosis, and influenza
will become killer diseases again. Dr Fukuda warned this happening globally.
He said it is not a regional problem and that it is happening in poor,
developing and rich countries. He said: "this is something which is occurring
in all countries in the world."

FINAL TEST 2
1.

Turn the following sentences into reported speech.

1.

Jess said, I am a happy camper today!

53

2.

The student said to the teacher, I have been reading The Old Curiosity

Shop the whole week.


3.

The police officer told Jack, You cant park here.

4.

Peter told Helen, I will see you next week.

5.

The interviewer asked, Do you watch television every day, Bill?

6.

Maria asked the examiner, When will I know the examination results?

7.

The Brian said, The parcel ought to be here next month.

8.

Mother told me, You must consult a lawyer.

9.

My parents asked, What time did you get home last night?

10.

Lora said, I think its going to rain tonight.

2.

Turn the sentences into reported speech using an appropriate

introductory verb.

1.

Could I use your phone, please? David asked me.

2.

Yes, Ill help you with the washing-up, Sandra told me.

3.

Everyone stop talking! Mr Jones told the class.

4.

Please, please, dont tell anyone about this, he said to us.

5.

You should go to the dentists, she told her brother.

6.

Children, sit down! the school bus driver said.

7.

Throw down your weapons! the policemen said to the robbers.

8.

No, you may not stay out late tonight, Dad said to Louise.

9.

You must wash your hands before eating dinner, she told the children.

10.

Thats the most beautiful necklace Ive ever seen! Amanda said.

3.

Rewrite the following conversation in reported speech.

Michael: I say, Bill, can you show me around a bit? I only came here two days
ago and I havent been anywhere as yet.

54

Bill: Of course, I will do it with pleasure. Lets go at once. And lets invite Alice
to come with us. She knows a lot about the places of interest here.
Michael: Thats a good idea.
Bill: Alice, can you come with us? We are going for a walk, and I want to
show Michael some places of interest.
Alice: No, I cant go with you, boys. I am sorry. Mother told me to buy some
bread, and I forgot about it. I will have to do it now. Go without me. I will go
with you some other time.
Bill Its a pity. All right, Michael, lets go.

4.

Find mistakes in the use of reported speech. Mind the

punctuation!

The Japanese automobile manufacturer Nissan has unveiled a prototype of a


self-cleaning paint that means cars may no longer need washing. The new
nanotechnology paint repels water, oil and other dirt the environment can
throw at a car. The paint is called Ultra-Ever Dry and uses a process called
nanopatterning. This coats the surface of something with tiny bumps and
grooves that stop water and oil from sticking to it. Nissan said the paint
"responds well" to many weather conditions, including frost, rain, sleet and
snow. The carmaker added that its engineers will continue testing the paint in
the near future to see how close they can get to a product ready for market.
Nissan's website says "washing a car can be a chore and a costly one at
that." However, it has no immediate plans to use the new paint as standard
on its cars. It may offer it as an option in the future. Company spokeswoman
Geraldine Ingham says the new paint is currently only being tested on the
company's Note family car. She said: "The Nissan Note has been carefully
engineered to take the stress out of customer driving, and Nissan's engineers
are constantly thinking of new ways to make families' lives easier." She

55

added that we are committed to addressing everyday problems our


customers face and will always consider testing exciting, cutting-edge
technology like this incredible coating application.

ADDITIONAL TIPS ON PRACTICING REPORTED SPEECH


What I think and don't think
This activity is a dictation activity. Prepare some sentences that are opinions
on a certain topic that youve covered recently in class. There should be a
mixture of affirmative and negative sentences. Here are some examples on
the topic of ART for an intermediate class (some of these are stronger
opinions you may want to change them to reflect your own opinion).
A lot of modern art isnt very good.
Art galleries are great places for conversation..
There arent many famous painters from my country.
Graffiti isnt art.
Art shouldnt be only for rich people.
Some art is worth far too much money.
Explain that you are going to dictate these sentences, but that the students
must write down a report of each one beginning with The teacher thinks
or The teacher doesnt think (see grammar explanation on negatives in
reporting for when to use which stem). The above sentences would give the
following:
The teacher doesnt think a lot of modern art is very good.
The teacher thinks art galleries are great places for conversation.
Ask students to compare their answers in pairs, and then decide if they agree
or disagree with you. Ask different groups to report back and have a short
open class discussion.

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Reacting to the news


Prepare a series of slips of paper each with a sentence beginning Youve
been asked to or Youve been told to Prepare a mixture of good and bad
things. For example:
2.

Youve been asked to work next Saturday morning.

3.

Youve been told to not drink any more wine.

4.

Youve been asked to present an award at a film festival.

5.

Youve been told to go the principals office.

6.

Youve been asked to participate in a television show.

7.

Youve been told to stay in bed for three weeks.

Pre-teach common social expressions for reacting to good or bad news, for
example:
Thats great!
Congratulations!
Thats good news
Thats too bad.
Oh dear. Oh no.
Thats terrible!
Distribute the slips of paper to the students and ask them to read them
silently. Then tell them to move around the class and 1) tell other students
what theyve been asked or told to do. 2) react to what other students tell
them.
As a follow-up you could ask them to work in groups and transcribe what they
think was probably originally said.

Conspiracy theories
Prepare a small handout with the following 'claims' on it.
Moon hoax? It is said that Neil Armstrong didnt walk on the moon.
Elvis lives? Its claimed that the singer Elvis is still alive today.

57

UFOs and the US government? Its believed that the American government
knows, and is hiding, information about extraterrestrials.
Think of four or five other conspiracy claims that you could add (you can add
local ones too). Include one or two which are more 'believable' than the
others (maybe even true ones). Write them in a similar style (i.e. headline,
then the sentence stem It is claimed/said/believed that). Make one copy of
this handout for every three or four students in the class.

Divide students into groups and give each group a card. They must read the
card and then assign a score (0 to 5) to each theory 0 = we dont believe this
at all to 5 = we believe this is true. Do some feedback at the end, then collect
the handouts. Ask students to try and rewrite from memory what the theories
were, paying attention to the reporting structure.

Drill sergeant
This is another simple drill for reporting orders. Explain that you are going to
be a drill sergeant: you are going to give four different students orders and
then ask someone to report back what was said. Give short simple orders to
different students in a brisk, sergeant-like voice. For example,
Put down your pen!
Listen to me!
Pick up your bag!
Answer your mobile phone!
The students must carry out the orders. Once youve given orders to four
students, ask a fifth: What did I just say? The fifth student must report the
orders (e.g. You told Maria to put down her pen, you told Giovanni to listen to
you). If they can do it correctly, they become the drill sergeant.
Note

58

This is a drill but with a role play element (that of being the sergeant) to
make the role even more effective you could use a prop, like a ruler or some
kind of stick to wave around. You then give the prop to the next drill sergeant.
Make sure nobody gets hit with the prop though!

Things I was asked/told to do


To provide more practice in reporting structures with ask/tell, ask students to
make a list of things they were asked or told to do in different situations. For
example:
when they were a child
when they first started learning English
in their first job
on their first day at school/university
Tell students to compare with each other once they have written their lists.
Then ask different students to report back.

Survivors mingle
This is a group role play, where students imagine that they have survived a
plane accident and are stranded on a desert island. Prepare a series of
cards/slips of paper, each with a different suggestion for the situation. Here
are some examples:
We should just wait for someone to come and find us.
Why dont we explore the island?
Lets get wood for a fire.
We should all stay together. There are dangerous animals around here.
I think you and I should try to escape together.
Lets build a boat.
We should try and fix the plane.

59

(you can make your own. Begin with Why dont we Lets . We should)
Create enough cards so that each student has one. You can repeat the same
sentences on other cards.
Explain that you want the students to role play the situation described above
(to make it more 'real' you could elaborate on the story of how they got there).
Everybody must circulate and talk to each other. They must say what is on
their card and as little else as possible.
After five minutes (or however long it takes for most students to have spoken
to each other) tell everyone to sit down again. Ask people to report back on
what other people told them, using one of the following reporting verbs:
suggest, advise or recommend.

Election pledges
To practise the structures following verbs like promise and offer, you can ask
students to imagine they are speechwriters for a candidate for President or
Prime Minister of their country. They must prepare a very short speech. You
could give them the following outline to help:
I know that
So I promise to. and to
If we are elected, my government pledges* to
My opponent has promised to
But we all know that
Together we can
Students can write this in groups. Then have different students read out their
election speeches. Who is the most convincing?

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