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Voltagedrop

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Voltagedropdescribeshowthesuppliedenergyofavoltagesourceisreducedaselectriccurrentmoves

throughthepassiveelements(elementsthatdonotsupplyvoltage)ofanelectricalcircuit.Voltagedrops

acrossinternalresistancesofthesource,acrossconductors,acrosscontacts,andacrossconnectorsare

undesired;suppliedenergyislost(dissipated).Voltagedropsacrossloadsandacrossotheractivecircuit

elementsaredesired;suppliedenergyperformsusefulwork.

Forexample,anelectricspaceheatermayhavearesistanceoftenohms,andthewireswhichsupplyit

mayhavearesistanceof0.2ohms,about2%ofthetotalcircuitresistance.Thismeansthat

approximately2%ofthesuppliedvoltageislostinthewireitself.Excessivevoltagedropmayresultin

unsatisfactoryoperationof,anddamageto,electricalandelectronicequipment.

Nationalandlocalelectricalcodesmaysetguidelinesforthemaximumvoltagedropallowedin electricalwiring,toensureefficiencyofdistributionandproperoperationofelectricalequipment.The maximumpermittedvoltagedropvariesfromonecountrytoanother. [1] Inelectronicdesignandpower transmission,varioustechniquesareemployedtocompensatefortheeffectofvoltagedroponlong circuitsorwherevoltagelevelsmustbeaccuratelymaintained.Thesimplestwaytoreducevoltagedrop istoincreasethediameteroftheconductorbetweenthesourceandtheload,whichlowerstheoverall resistance.Inpowerdistributionsystems,agivenamountofpowercanbetransmittedwithlessvoltage dropifahighervoltageisused.Moresophisticatedtechniquesuseactiveelementstocompensateforthe undesiredvoltagedrop.

Contents

1Voltagedropindirect­currentcircuits:resistance

2Voltagedropinalternating­currentcircuits:impedance

3Seealso2Voltagedropinalternating­currentcircuits:impedance 4References 5Externallinks

4References2Voltagedropinalternating­currentcircuits:impedance 3Seealso 5Externallinks

5Externallinks1Voltagedropindirect­currentcircuits:resistance 2Voltagedropinalternating­currentcircuits:impedance 3Seealso 4References

Voltagedropindirect­currentcircuits:resistance

Consideradirect­currentcircuitwithanine­voltDCsource;threeresistorsof67ohms,100ohms,and

470ohms;andalightbulb—allconnectedinseries.TheDCsource,theconductors(wires),the

resistors,andthelightbulb(theload)allhaveresistance;alluseanddissipatesuppliedenergytosome

degree.Theirphysicalcharacteristicsdeterminehowmuchenergy.Forexample,theDCresistanceofa

conductordependsupontheconductor'slength,cross­sectionalarea,typeofmaterial,andtemperature.

IfthevoltagebetweentheDCsourceandthefirstresistor(67ohms)ismeasured,thevoltagepotential

atthefirstresistorwillbeslightlylessthanninevolts.Thecurrentpassesthroughtheconductor(wire)

fromtheDCsourcetothefirstresistor;asthisoccurs,someofthesuppliedenergyis"lost"(unavailable

totheload),duetotheresistanceoftheconductor.Voltagedropexistsinboththesupplyandreturn

wiresofacircuit.Ifthevoltageacrosseachresistorismeasured,themeasurementwillbeasignificant

number.Thatrepresentstheenergyusedbytheresistor.Thelargertheresistor,themoreenergyusedby

thatresistor,andthebiggerthevoltagedropacrossthatresistor.

Ohm'sLawcanbeusedtoverifyvoltagedrop.InaDCcircuit,voltageequalscurrentmultipliedby

resistance.

dropsacrosseachcomponentofthecircuitisequaltothesupplyvoltage.

Voltagedropinalternating­currentcircuits:impedance

Voltagedropinalternating­currentcircuits:impedance .Also, Kirchhoff'scircuitlaws

.Also,Kirchhoff'scircuitlawsstatethatinanyDCcircuit,thesumofthevoltage

Inalternating­currentcircuits,oppositiontocurrentflowdoesoccurbecauseofresistance(justasin

direct­currentcircuits).Alternatingcurrentcircuitsalsopresentasecondkindofoppositiontocurrent

flow:reactance.This"total"opposition(resistance"plus"reactance)iscalledimpedance.The

impedanceinanalternating­currentcircuitdependsonthespacinganddimensionsoftheelementsand

conductors,thefrequencyofthealternatingcurrent,andthemagneticpermeabilityoftheelements,the

conductors,andtheirsurroundings.

ThevoltagedropinanACcircuitistheproductofthecurrentandtheimpedance(Z)ofthecircuit.

Electricalimpedance,likeresistance,isexpressedinohms.Electricalimpedanceisthevectorsumof

,and inductivereactance .Itisexpressedbytheformula ,analogousto Ohm'slaw fordirect­currentcircuits.

,analogoustoOhm'slawfordirect­currentcircuits.

Seealso

References

ElectricalPrinciplesfortheElectricalTrades(JimJennesson)5thedition

Externallinks

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