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Module 2 : Hydraulic and Pneumatic Controls

Hydraulic Circuit Design

Design Considerations :
Safety of Operation :

Pressure and Temperature ratings.

Interlocks for sequential operations
Emergency shutdown features.
Power failure locks.
Operation speed.
Environment conditions.

Meet functional requirements :


Meet required performance specification.

Life expectancy same as machine.
Facilitate good maintenance practice.
Compatibility with electrical and mechanical components.
Withstand operational hazards.

Efficiency of Operation :

Keep system Simple, Safe and Functional.

Access to parts need repair or adjustment.
Design to keep min operational cost.
Design to prevent and remove contamination.

Linear Circuits :

Circuit Design Approach :

What are the specifications of the job?
- Force requirement 8 kN
- Length of work stroke 15 cm
- Speed of piston and rod assembly 0.5 sec.
What Size of Cylinder is needed?
- Force known. Cylinder Area & Operating Pressure must be selected. F = PA
- Standard bore and rod size cylinders.
Cylinder Selection Reasoning :
(a) Large Diameter Cylinder :
- Operates at Low Pressure.
- Requires Bigger pump for speed.
(b) Small Diameter Cylinder :
- Operates at High Pressure.
- Smaller pump give speed.
Cylinder selected = 50 mm bore.
Find Pressure and then select suitable pump.
What Capacity Pump is needed?
- Max Cylinder Speed required.
- Flow rate = (Cyl Area)x(Stroke)/(time).
- Pump selection.

What size of Electric Motor needed?

- Calculate power required to run Pump.
- Consider efficiency of pump.
- Shaft size, type and electric source.
What Size reservoir should be used?
- 2.5-3.0 times the pump capacity.
Size of pump inlet?
- Inlet flow velocity = 60-150 cm/sec.
Size of Discharge tubing?
- Outlet flow velocity = 200 450 cm/sec.
Relief valve selection :
- Pressure range.
- Valve port size.
Direction Control valve :
- Based on function.
Control of a Single Acting Hydraulic Cylinder :

Control of a Double Acting Hydraulic Cylinder :

Regenerative Circuit :
Pressurized fluid discharge returned to system.
Speed up extending speed.
Retraction bypass DCV.

Drilling Machine Application :

Spring centered position Rapid spindle advance.
Left envelope Slow feed.
Right envelope Retracts piston.

PUMP Unloading circuit :

Unloading valve unloads the pump at the ends of extending and retracting strokes.
As well as in spring centered position of DCV.

Double Pump Hydraulic System :

Punch Press.
Initial Low Pressure high flow rate req.
When punching operation begins, increased pressure opens unloading valve to unload low
pressure pump.

Counterbalance Valve :
To keep vertically mounted cylinder in upward position while pump is idling.
Counterbalance valve is set to open at slightly above the pressure required to hold the piston

Hydraulic Cylinder Sequence Circuit :

Left Env : Left Cyl extends completely and then Right Cyl extend.
Right Env : Right Cyl retracts fully and then Left Cyl retracts.

Automatic Cylinder Reciprocating System :

Two sequence valve sensing strokes completion by corresponding pressure build up.

Locked Cylinder using Pilot Check Valves :

Lock Cylinder so that piston can not move by external load.